CHAPTER 5.TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN SINDHUDURG

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1 CHAPTER 5.TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN SINDHUDURG 5.1 INTRODUCTION Tourism is one of the most rapidly developing industries of the economy. According to the estimates of the Maharashtra Tourism Inc., approximately 10% of the state s workforce is employed in tourism. As certain types of tourism (like rural or nature-based tourism) can provide a development alternative for currently under-developed regions, tourism seems to be an effective and efficient tool in creating new jobs and thus decreasing unemployment even in these areas which due to their low level of economic and infrastructural development, are the least attractive targets for other investors. Creation of powerful images of the region is one of the important aspects of regional development (Tarun, 2006). Tourism employment can be categorised as (Mathieson & Wall, 1982) direct employment resulting from visitor expenditure in tourist services. indirect employment in the tourist sector, not resulting directly from visitor expenditure and Induced employment, resulting from the effects of the tourism multiplier. Several important challenges continue to limit Travel & Tourism s full potential for growth in Sindhudurg and these must be addressed to ensure the long-term sustainable development of Travel & Tourism, with maximum benefits for all stakeholders in the district. The reason for not having an exact figure for the number of persons employed in tourism in Sindhudurg is twofold: first, the accuracy of statistical data collection falls behind the expectations and secondly, it is very difficult to define what proportion of the total final demand in the economy is due to tourism i.e. what is the contribution of tourist spending directly and indirectly to employment creation and what is the effect of the tourism 159

2 multiplier. Consequently, there is no a widely accepted categorisation of tourist employment available. So the first step of our research was to complete a tourist job catalogue in Sindhudurg. Tourism is generally known as one of the sectors where the costs of a new job are significantly less than in other industries, though some researchers have come to a contrasting conclusion. Obviously, the characteristics of employment and the effects of tourism development vary according to the type of tourist activity, some types of tourism being more labour-intensive than others. Accommodation facilities and the hospitality sector in general employ a substantial proportion of the tourism labour force, but they also require relatively large capital investments. The financial resources required to generate employment also vary with the size of companies, the types of skills needed, the economic development of the destination area, etc. Due to the lack of a widely accepted categorisation of tourist employment, together with the complexity of factors to be taken into consideration, the main contributing factors to the overall cost of employment creation in tourism are not clearly defined. Thus one of the main purposes of our research is to define the set of factors determining the costs of tourism employment generation and to incorporate them into a model that is able to present their respective role and their interrelationships. Tourism has been identified as an important avenue for employment and income generation and a significant improvement can be made in the income and living standards of the people of Sindhudurg. The objectives of tourism development in Sindhudurg should be further strengthened by socially responsible development and marketing the tourism products of Sindhudurg. Sindhudurg has a major advantage over many of its direct competitors. Its natural and cultural environment is relatively unspoilt and offers huge potential for sustainable tourism development. The beaches of Sindhudurg are one of the best beaches in the 160

3 country and its coast is also known as the gold coast of India. Conveying environmentally and culturally friendly policies, promoting voluntary accreditation schemes for the industry and outlining best practice in tourism development, are all important steps that need to be taken for protecting the region s main resources from over-development and exploitation. At the same time, the Government of Maharashtra and the private sector can influence the development of new tourism infrastructure and products to protect and promote the character of the local environment by developing authentic tourism products that are unique to the country and its culture. 5.2 A PROFILE OF SINDHUDURG Sindhudurg is an administrative district in the state of Maharashtra in India, which was carved out of the previous Ratnagiri district. The district is named after the famous sea fort Sindhudurg (which means "fort in the sea") constructed by Chhatrapati Shivaji, which lies on a rocky island just off the coast of Malvan. The district headquarters is located at Oros. The district occupies an area of 5207 km and has a population of 868,825 of which 9.47% were urban (as of 2001). This is the first district in Maharashtra to be declared as the Tourism District. Famous for its serene and beautiful beaches, temples, historical forts and folk art forms like Dashavtar, Chitrakathi, Pangul, Keertan, Dhangiri dance, Sindhudurg has a great potential for earning foreign exchange as an international tourism destination. It is the second-most backward district in Maharashtra. Location Sindhudurg is bordered on the north by Ratnagiri District, on the south by the state of Goa, on the west by the Arabian Sea and to the east across the crest of the Western Ghats or Sahyadris is Kolhapur District. Sindhudurg is part of Konkan (coastal) region, a narrow coastal plain in western Maharashtra which lies between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea. 161

4 Climate Sindhudurg has a semi-tropical climate and remains warm and humid throughout the year. It has three clear seasons: Rainy (June - September), winter (October-January) and summer (February-May). Temperatures vary between Max.32 C and Min. 21 C. South-west monsoon winds bring heavy rains (average rainfall mm). Major crops Rice, Mango, Cashew, Coconut, Vari, Nachani, Groundnut, Jackfruit, Beetle nut and spices. People The dialect of the people of Sindhudurg is Malvani and as it does not have a script Marathi is used in written communication. They also speak Marathi and English. Cities in the district include Sawantwadi, Kudal, Oros, Kankavli, Devgad, Vengurla and Malvan. Smaller towns include Nerur, Katta, Kalse, Banda and the hill resort of Amboli. Cuisine The cuisine of the district is popularly known as Malvani cuisine. Coconut, Rice and fish assume prime significance in the Malvani cuisine. Sea-food containing fish (especially Bangada, Pomphret), prawns, Bombil (shells) and crab are very popular food of the people here. "Kombdi Vade", a chicken savoury, is the most popular dish here. Others include Ukadya Tandulachi Pej - a semi-fluid boiled preparation made of brown-red rice variety) and Sol Kadhi (A preparation made of Aamsul (tamarind paste) and coconut milk). Mango assumes a greater significance in the life of people in Sindhudurg. In fact whole of Konkan varieties of Alphonso Mango from Devgad are especially popular. Other varieties of man used for preparing Mango Pickle) are also popular for their distinct taste. 162

5 Map 5.1 DISTRICT MAP OF SINDHUDURG Source: Govt of Maharashtra Sindhudurg district is placed between latitudes as well as north and longitudes and East. It is bound by the Arabian Sea on the West and Sahyadri hill ranges to the East with an area of 5087 sq.km. With 7 railway stations, a 105 Km stretch of Konkan Railway line passes through this district. It consists of 8 Talukas viz. Devgad, Vaibhavwadi, Dodamarg, Kankavli, Malvan, Kudal, Vengurla and Sawantwadi. 163

6 TABLE5.1 TOURISM RESOURCES IN SINDHUDURG TALUKA MAJOR TOURIST ATTRACTIONS Kudal Laxminarayan mandir, Sai mandir, Ravalnath Temple, Datta Temple, Rangangad, Shrine of raul maharaj, Tapobhumi. Malvan Achara Beach, Rock Garden, Jai Ganesh Mandir, Medha, Devbag Beach, Tarkarli Beach, Anganewadi Mandir, Rameshwar Mandir, Achara Ozar Cave, Sindhudurg Sea Fort, Tondavli beach,dhamapur lake,sarjekot Fort,Bharat Gad, Ramgad,Shivarajeshwar temple,chivala Beach,Kalawal Creek,Bhagwant Gad,Rajkot,Gavpalan,Moryacha Donda,Padmagad. Vengurla Bhogve Beach,Manohar & Mana santosh Gad,Rangana Hill Fort, Khavane Beach, Nivati, Laxmi Narayan temple, Redi Ganapathy temple, Sagareshwar, Mochemad, Vayangani, Velaghar, Shiroda,Fruit research centre, Vetoba temple, Aravali,Sagartirth,Yashwantgad,Dutch Wakar,Kondura beach,ubhadanda. Dodamarg Devgad Mangeli,Tileri Dam,Tileri Rock Garden,Pargad Fort,Wirdi Fall VijayadurgFort,Vimaleshwarmandir, Kunkeshwarmandir, Rameshwar Mandir,Girye Temple,Bhagwati Temple, Tambaldeg Beach, Saitavade Fall,Padavane Beach,Bhramdeo Temple,Deogad Fort,Pural kothar beach,manache Fall,Gajabadevi Temple. Vaibhavwadi Kankavli Sawantwadi Napane falls,umala,karul Ghat,Ainari Cave,Gagan gad. Balchandra Matt,Savadav Fall,Gopuri Ashram,Ozaram Lake. Aronda, Amboli, Motitalav, Rajwada Shilpgram, Narendra Dongar, Kolgaon darwaza,atmeshwar tali, Raghunath market,tourism information centre,,the lester Gate,Narendra Hill, Bail Ghumat,Rede Ghumat,Hanumant Gad,Mauli Temple. 164

7 FIGURE 5.1 KINDS OF TOURISM IN SINDHUDURG Kinds of Kudal Malvan Vengurl Doda Devgad Vaibhav Kankavli Sawan tourism a marg wadi t Wadi Eco tourism Beach Adventure Cultural Heritage Village Leisure Corporate Health Religious Forest Responsible Sustainable 165

8 5.3 PATTERN OF TOURISM EMPLOYMENT IN SINDHUDURG The second main aim of the research is to analyse the pattern of tourism employment in Sindhudurg. It is assumed that these characteristics vary in the different sectors of tourism industry. The main fields to be investigated during this research are the following: Demographic profile, Position of people working in tourism industry, Tourism services, Number of years employed in tourism, The differences in the number and type (full-time vs. part-time, seasonal vs. annual) of jobs created, Relocation for employment, Average wages and salaries, Education and training in Tourism, Employee satisfaction, Reasons for choosing tourism sector, Recruitment sources and procedures, Qualification and skills requirements for employees, Employment criteria, Social status of jobs in tourism, Main difficulties in human resource management. Problems of tourism development The first task was to complete a list of locals working in tourism in Sindhudurg. The list involves both directly and indirectly influenced subsectors (e.g. hospitality, accommodation, tour operators, travel agents, transportation, non-profit tourist offices, etc.). 166

9 5.4 TOURISM SERVICES IN SINDHUDURG Box 5.1 TOURISM SERVICES TOURISM SERVICES ACCOMMODATION- Hotels, Motels, Home stays, Lodges, camps, tents, Campgrounds, Resorts FOOD AND BEVERAGE-Restaurants, Dining rooms, Cafes, Fast food, Catering, Road side cafes ADVENTURE TOURISM-Camps, Fishing, Hiking, Canoeing and surfing TRANSPORTATION- Drivers, Car rental agents, Taxi drivers, auto drivers, Horse carriages & boating. ATTRACTIONS - Forts, Beaches, Temples, Art galleries, Palaces, Hills, sanctuaries. TRAVEL AND TRADE-Travel agents, Tour Operators, package tours. EVENTS AND CONFERENCES- Special events, Concerts, Festivals, Conferences, Tradeshows, Exhibitions. OTHER SERVICES- Researchers, Visitor Information Councellors, Trainers, Teachers, Marketing specialists, Service providers. The participants of sample in the survey can be categorised as institutions (cultural attractions, educational institutes, government offices, nature protection agencies, professional organisations, etc.) and as businesses (accommodation facilities, tour operators and travel agencies, restaurants and other Food and Beverage services, retailers, transportation, personal services, tourist, guides, financial services, sports facilities, etc.).figure 5.2 explains the kinds of services that have been considered during the study. 167

10 FIGURE5.2 KINDS OF TOURISM EMPLOYMENT Job opportunities in different areas of tourism Front line jobs Supervisory jobs Management jobs Executive jobs Owner operators Desk clerk House Keeping attendant Kitchen helper Server Bouncer Park attendant Baker Cook Food and beverage Supervisor Guide Sales representa tive Executive housekeeper Head cook Sales manager Operations manager PR manager HR manager General Manager CEO Park supervisor Hotel Manager Lodge owner Restaurant owner Tour company owner Tour package wholesaler Service agent Ticket Travel counselor Interprete Park warden Museum Curator Travel consultant Trade The different varieties of job opportunities for employment in the tourism industry considered during the study and described in figure 5.2 above are frontline jobs, supervisory jobs, management jobs, executive jobs and owners and operators. More upto-date, systematic statistics and general descriptions of patterns of employment in tourism industries can help strengthen the analysis about the social impact of tourism. This can help to improve the image of career opportunities in the tourism industry. Based on such understanding and analysis, it would then be possible to decide whether protective, corrective or inclusionary policies and regulations might be needed. 168

11 5.5 STATE INITIATIVES IN TOURISM DEVELOPMENT The government of Maharashtra has declared entire Sindhudurg district as a Tourism district and a tourism development plan had been prepared and submitted to the government. The concept of tourism district has also been endorsed by the Central government, Department of Tourism and it advised State govt. to prepare a phased programme for implementation of the project with external assistance. Tata Consultancy services have prepared an integrated tourism development plan for the entire district. SPECIAL PACKAGE FOR SINDHUDURG DISTRICT The Govt. of Maharashtra has declared additional incentives for promoting tourism in the rural and backward areas of the state. The areas that would be developed by MTDC would be known as 'Tourism Areas'. The package scheme of incentives and benefits will be available for a period of 10 years. Additional incentives as shown below shall also be provided for promoting tourism in Sindhudurg District and other tourism areas for a period of 10 years. 1) No increase in water and electricity tariff for a period of 10 years. However any actual increase in the cost of operation of these services shall be recovered from the user as per the guidelines issued by the concerned Departments. 2) The capital subsidy which is given to the small scale industry in Sindhudurg shall be extended to approve projects in tourism sector. 3) Entry tax on vehicles shall be fully exempted for 10 years. 4) All tourism units will be provided electricity at the industrial rate. Electricity duty shall be levied as per the policy. Proposed plan for tourism development 1. Heritage town development plan 2. Pilgrimage Accommodation 169

12 3. Integrated tourism development as per the study done by TCS. 4. Deccan Odyssey to be scheduled for 2 days in a week. 5.6 STAKEHOLDERS PARTICIPATION FIGURE 5.3 POTENTIAL STAKEHOLDERS OF SINDHUDURG Locals in Sindhudurg Organisations in Sindhudurg Tourism monitoring firm SINDHUDURG NGOS State and Central Govt Eco tourism Experts Gram Panchayat Tourism Organisations Interest groups The local residents were perceived as the most valuable stakeholders as they would be the most impacted by tourism in their district. The organisations in Sindhudurg have to generate an understanding with the people and their interests. Municipalities, gram panchayats, local interest groups and organizations working here have to help in promoting tourism. Governmental organizations, MTDC, interest groups and NGOs (both local and international) need to take initiatives for monitoring and providing the practical information for developing tourism. Figure 5.3 illustrates the stakeholders with potential influence to develop responsible tourism development in Sindhudurg. There is a need to integrate non financial and financial performance measures with a process approach giving greater importance to 170

13 forward looking measures such as customer satisfaction, volunteer s satisfaction and local satisfaction. Applying the balance scorecard to event evaluation (SEE) based on a stakeholders driven approach, we can figure out for each stakeholder, different areas and representatives for main impacts typologies (Economic, Socio-cultural, Environmental, Service/Holistic) and many items for evaluating the impact. The SEE methodology can be used before or after the event in order to develop a real knowledge event management, which can assist the decision maker in his evaluations process. 5.7 SWOT OF TOURISM SECTOR IN SINDHUDURG TABLE 5.2 SWOT ANALYSIS OF TOURISM IN SINDHUDURG STRENGTHS Rich culture and heritage Variety of landscapes lifestyles and cuisines Rich tradition in handicrafts Colourful fairs and festivals Pristine beaches OPPORTUNITIES Global trend towards exotic destinations Tourism potential unexploited Generation of employment Migration can be reduced Develop training and education WEAKNESSES Poor accessibility to many tourist destinations due to basic Infrastructure bottlenecks Lack of tourist infrastructure facilities and basic amenities at many tourist destinations Lack of information about various tourist destinations Unfavourable brand image as a tourist Friendly destination. THREATS Aggressive marketing and promotion by competing destinations Exploiting natural landscape Disproportionate use of land Losses may be severe due to overdependence on tourism Low rate of return on investment compared to other industries Increase in crime and antisocial activities 171

14 5.8 OPPORTUNITIES FOR TOURISM INDUSTRY Although Maharashtra enjoys pre-eminence in attracting industrial and foreign direct investments, it lags behind Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Rajasthan in the fast growing tourism sector due to inadequate attention by the successive state governments. The then state chief minister Vilasrao Deshmukh, however, claimed that the state has enormous opportunities and all the desired potentials to be promoted as the preferred tourist destination for investors. Shri Deshmukh took note of the research document prepared by the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) which clearly states that Maharashtra, with a coastline of 720 km dotted with virgin beaches, 350 ancient forts, 30 wildlife sanctuaries, five national parks and numerous pilgrimage centres and is ranked 5th as far as tourism in the country is concerned, with a share of only 3.6%. Deshmukh (2007) 5.9 Sustainable rural tourism development in Sindhudurg Banking on the rich traditions of art, craft and culture in villages of Sindhudurg we can aim at the sustainable tourism development, based on their core competency in handicrafts, handlooms and culture, close to existing destinations and circuits. The objective is to identify tourism sector as an important avenue for employment and income generation at local levels in Sindhudurg. Villages have their own experience. There is a diversity of culture, language, food, and craft in Sindhudurg. Tourists can actually live with rural people and experience the harmony of nature. Rural tourism might be an emerging concept, promoting this segment of tourism will inculcate a sense of pride among the local population, with the benefits of extra income and employment. Rural tourism can be widely seen as an economic and social benefit, through the income and infrastructural developments it brings to marginal and less economically developed regions. Considerable attention can be given to Sindhudurg, to the support and enhancement of rural tourism initiatives. 172

15 FIGURE 5.4 SUSTAINABLE RURAL TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN SINDHUDURG Third Parties not directly servicing tourists SINDHUDURG DISTRICT Providers to tourists and locals Farmers, hosts, Tour operators. Government or regional programs to support Rural tourism Distribution Net works Diversified rural activities Hospitality Services Farms Agricultural products Arts and craft products Trails outdoor activities home stays Farm Holidays Rural Landscapes Rural Cultures DESTINATIONS VILLAGES Figure 5.4 gives an idea of the stages of improving rural tourism; firstly attention should be given to development of villages, secondly destinations with the help of rural tourism network at district level with the help of the state government. 173

16 5.10 Summary According to the Socio Economic Survey of Sindhudurg the main livelihood of the people in Sindhudurg is agriculture. Agricultural income does not last for a year, majority of the people are dependent on the money orders sent by their relatives working outside for their livelihood. Development in Tourism will act as a catalyst in the development of the economically backward regions. The benefits accruing from tourism development are disseminated to the local residents in the tourist destinations (Chakravarthy, 2004). A destination s tourism resource base is the essence of that location s appeal. Tourism resources are all those features which draw people into a destination. They form the core of visitor attractions and also include other services and facilities which cater to accommodate and entertain tourist while in destination area. The tourism resources can be classified into Natural, Cultural, Events, Activities and Service resources. The region like Tarkarli already has a thriving tourism industry and a potential new destination can be developed in Devbag sangam. Goa is a nearby destination attracting international tourists. Sawantwadi can build its tourism business by tapping into the existing market at Goa.Villages in Sindhudurg can be developed as Farm tourism, farm stays can be developed and new rural tourism destinations can be developed. 174

17 REFERENCES AME, (1995) Tourism for Local Community Development, a Report on Case Studies in Kinnaur District. H. P. and the Badrinath Tourist Zone, Academy for Mountain Environs Dehradun. Bagchee, A, (1997) Blue White and Green, A perspective of tourism Development in Sindhudurg, Department of Tourism, Government of Maharashtra1-8 Mumbai. Chakravarthy, I (2004) Tourism as a development strategy: A case study of the Malvan Taluka, Sindhudurg district Maharashtra PhD. Thesis IIT Bombay. Financial Express,(2007) Maharashtra not yet the most favoured tourist destination January 11 th George P.O. (2003). Management of tourism Industry in Kerala, PhD Thesis, Mahatma Gandhi University. Kerala. IE, (1999) Sindhudurg Tourism Plan shrouded by Skeptism.Local fear private players will gorge on Tourism pie, Indian Express16th April, 8, Mumbai. J. Krishnaswamy, (1982) The Economic impact of Tourism: A case study of Maharashtra India. in Studies in Tourism wildlife parks and conservation (edited by T. Singh, and J. Kaur) ,Metropolitan Publishing house New Delhi. Maharashtra Economic Development Council-Forty years of Maharashtra. Maharashtra Economic Development Council (2008) Sindhudurg Jilla paryatan Vikas A report of the conference of tourism and hospitality committee in October. Maharashtra Economic Development Council (2008) Adarsh paryatan gram workshop at Vengurla. Mathieson, A. and Wall, G. (1982) Tourism: Economic, Physical and Social Impacts. Essex, Longman Scientific and Technical. 175

18 Sindhudurg Jilla Paryatan Seva Sanstha (2008). Report of the Annual Meeting Socio Economic Survey of Sindhudurg ( ).Directorate of Economics and Statistics Maharashtra. Tarun N. (2006) Tourism Planning In 21 st Century. Alfa Publications New Delhi. 176

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