Indonesian Ecotourism Network Jl. Jatipadang IA No.8 Jakarta Phone: ( ) INDONESIA

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1 Indonesian Ecotourism Network Jl. Jatipadang IA No.8 Jakarta Phone: ( ) INDONESIA

2 Visitor Impact Management in Bodogol Conservation Education Center, Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park Ary S. Suhandi* and Herda P. Hutabarat** Abstract Monitoring toward the impact caused by development and implementation of ecotourism development in a destination is supposed to be designed in the beginning of planning process. In reality, tourism practitioners have almost always avoided environmental and social monitoring. It is rarely occur a tour operator helps showing a way out on an environmentally degraded tourism area. Instead of taking full responsibility on the environmental degradation caused by their tourism activities, it is common that tour practitioners would likely abandon the area and seek new area, which still consist high selling value. There is still some barrier to conduct environmental monitoring among the larger-scale tourism developer as well. Mt. Gede Pangrango National Park is one of five Biosphere Reserve in Indonesia and also one of most-visited National Park by tourist ( annually). This national park consists of a cornucopia of biodiversity and relatively close to the big cities in Java, such as Jakarta, Bogor, Sukabumi, Cianjur, and Bandung. The park covers a ha, which has important role for providing clean fresh water and air source to the mentioned cities. It is also the home for many endangered and or endemic species such as Javan Gibbon (Hylobates moloch) and Javan Hawk Eagle (Spizaetus bartelsi). It consists of 254 species of birds, which simply means 63% of all bird species in Java island. Three institutions, representing different party, the Mt. Gede Pangrango National Park (TNGGP), Conservation International-Indonesia (CII), and ALAMI (Alam Mitra Indonesia) Foundation, which formed the Bodogol Conservation Education Consortium, manage the area collaboratively. Located at the foot of Pangrango Mt., at ( 800-m high from the sea level, the location is relatively easy to reach from Jakarta and other cities in the area. The monitoring strategy applied to reach the project objective is strongly related to the strategy of the whole program. The main goal of the conservation education project is to develop a model of national park buffer zone utilization through a low-impact ecotourism activity. The management of the area then takes important steps in their planning, by conducting participatory planning, involve their partner within the consortium. Tactics used to achieve the objectives mentioned above are as follows: (1) Access control; (2) entrance fee policy; (3) Creation of interesting and innovative attraction; (4) Creating a reliable education module; (5) Produces qualified interpreter; (6) Form a consumer relation management system Steps toward creating monitoring in BCEC are done through: (1) Biological Surveys identifying fauna and flora for the purpose of base-line data. The data put in to a database system and analyze to find an indicator; (2) Biological survey analysis; (3) Designing environmental impact monitoring, setting the design criteria through participatory process; (4) Conducting test and fine tuning the monitoring design. Around 5400 visitors and 2100 students from more then 50 schools had been visited the center. The monitoring result showed that the impact of visitor to the target animal and its habitat is minimum. After one and half year operations, the gibbon group as main animal target and an indicator species have a new born. Rate a visitors have a change to see the animals target from zero increase to 46,5%. A random survey conducted on 115 visitors in 1999 showed that 88,7% stated their interest to return to BCEC, and the interest for visitation based on the enthusiasm in experiencing the conservation education program is at the highest percentage (37.7% 46.8%). Further on the survey, more than 50% of the visitors stated satisfaction over the ability of BCEC management to maintain the natural beauty of the area, friendly atmosphere services, volunteer knowledge, contents of educational material, and communication capability of the volunteer.

3 MONITORING IS IMPORTANT How to enforce Monitoring systems? and Who s responsible? Monitoring is an expensive? Environmental/Social monitoring is to complicated? How to encourage community initiated Monitoring? How to design method for Community initiative monitoring? How Monitoring related to the product and commercial sustainability?

4 Lesson Learned from Located at Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park Biosfer Reserve Total area of NP: Hectars Visited by : tourists/years 254 species of birds ( 68% of birds in Java) Endemic and endangered species (javan gibbon and javan leaf monkey) Close to Jakarta, Bogor, Bandung and Sukabumi. Managed by Consortium: Conservation International Indonesia (International NGO s) Alam Mitra Indonesia Foundation (ALAMI)- National NGO Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park (Government) Partners of Consortium: INDECON Eagle Volunteer

5 To create a model of buffer zone management of National park; To introduce, promote and develop low impact ecotourism concept using qualified conservation education programs within the park; To increase the community awareness on the importance of conservation education; To establish a model of partnership among NGO s, Government and Private sectors.

6 Objective: Model of Low Impact Tourism Approach: Symbiotic mutualism approach; Low volume high value Tactics/ Strategies: Control the access: Reservation systems Maintained the development of access to the site Price policy (NP: 2500 rupiahs; BCEC: rps rps) Create an innovative attraction (Canopy walkway) Create an innovative education module, which the traditional knowledge and local values are adopted and highly appreciated. Established a professional Management body Established a high quality of interpreter (eagle volunteer) Create Consumer Relations management systems

7 Step on Environmental and Visitor Impact Monitoring BASELINE DATA (scientific data collection, identified indicators) ANALISYS as barometer DESIGN THE MONITORING APPROACH & METHODE Participatory (Biology expert, Management, Volunteers/Community) (Choice the indicator, define clear objectives) : Gibbon and leaf monkey Test the monitoring systems ---- feedback from implementers Improvement the monitoring systems IMPLEMENTATION (Data collection by visitors, biologist, data based) EVALUATION (Analysis the data)

8 JAVAN GIBBON JAVAN LEAF MONKEY BLACK LEAF MONKEY LONGTAILED MACACAQUE

9 Criteria Monitoring by Volunteers/Visitors: Easy system to conduct (simple, easy to fill in) Required the minimum data for impact analysis Can be used as part of education module; Monitoring Voucher Systems Interpreter: Group: Number of Visitors: Period : Track : Time : No. Species Num. of sp. Activity Location Animal response Visitor response to visitors to animals

10 Result of Monitoring: Biologist: regular monitoring on animals & phenology JAVAN GIBBON JAVAN LEAF MONKEY BLACK LEAF MONKEY LONGTAILED MACACAQUE

11 Input for Management: Rate of visitors can have a chance to see the animals target ( % ) Marketing tools After 1 year operation : Gibbon group at Canopy-walk area have a new born: 1. Less impact from visitors; 2. Help management body to create temporary regulation on that particularly area

12 Man And the Biosphere Program-Indonesia award 2000 Number of Visitors visit 5400 Number of Students visit 2100 From 155 visitors survey: 88.7% visitors interest to return to BCEC 46.8% interest for visitation based on enthusiasm in experiencing the conservation education program. 53.2% interest for visitation based on satisfaction over the ability of BCEC management to maintain the natural of the area, friendly atmosphere service, volunteer knowledge, contents of educational material, and communication capability of the volunteer.

13 Biograpichal note Ary S. Suhandi is the executive director of INDECON, Indonesian Ecotourism Network. He has work on nature tourism since 1987, and as one of founders of INDECON in He has worked on ecotourism development project throughout Indonesia for both the public, and private sector.he has served as a consultant to the Asian Development Bank, Government of Indonesia and many private-sectors firms, as well as assisted many of community based ecotourism projects done by NGO s. He worked with the indigenous community in several places in Indonesia, such as Mentawai community in West Sumatra, Bajau and local community in Togean islands, Komoro tribe in Papua and many others. Because of his effort, when he work as conservation enterprise for CI Indonesia, The Togean Ecotourism Network, which consist of the community group, won the British Airways Tourism for Tomorrow Award for highly commanded place in Asia Pacific. He also succeed bring the Bodogol Conservation Education Center in Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park as a model of low impact tourism in conservation area.

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