Early Andean Civilizations. Origins and Foundations

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1 Early Andean Civilizations Origins and Foundations

2 Environmental Context Basic divisions: east/west, north/south Mountains, deserts, and rivers Vertical archipelago : adapting to climate diversity based on altitude Off-shore upwelling currents: extremely rich marine ecosystems of Pacific coast El Niño destabilization of climate patterns Textbook map of Andean region

3 Timeline Periods vs. Horizons : episodes with higher regional diversity, less integration, vs. episodes dominated by expanding cultural or political group, with less diversity, more integration Varies somewhat between coastal and highland zones Textbook timeline for region

4 Preceramic Period ( BP) Coast Foragers in this area since at least 10,000BP Preceramic period begins when these foragers move into sedentism, begin to establish large settlements supported by fishing, low-level horticulture Maize arrives ca. 2800BP, with simultaneous expansion in populations Highlands Preceramic begins a little later here, ca BP Associated with the development of ceremonial centers like Kotosh, La Galgada Camelid (alpaca and llama) domestication occurs during this period Domestication of a range of indigenous tubers, esp. potato, and indigenous grain, quinoa, occurs during this period Maize arrives ca BP

5 Key Elements of Early Andean States Full agricultural production, initial diversification of crop species by altitude zones Domestication of cotton, use of camelid fiber, elaboration of textile technology Rich ceremonial complex development, complete with monumental architecture Complex trade and interaction between highland and coastal zones

6 The Maritime Foundations Hypothesis Critical question: how did coastal states develop, and from what economic and social base? Moseley argued that the maritime resources would have been sufficient to sustain large populations The Bigger Picture: comparative data available for maritime-specialized complex foragers like Pacific Northwest, European Mesolithic, and possibly early Oceanian settlers, the Lapita

7 The Initial Period ( BP) Period of transition from forager-focused to intensive agriculture, development of extensive irrigation systems Marked increase in population, and in population densities, emergence of larger centers as series of small, independent kingdoms (valley to valley) Development of ceramic technology, early metallurgy Clear signs of inter-settlement coordination of ritual activity, but no parallel signs of social ranking, differentiation in burials All these processes most marked, most accelerated on the coast

8 Early Horizon in the Highlands ( BP) Rise of Chavin de Huantar ( BP) Cultural influence expands out of the highlands, to coast, and to some extent north and south of Chavin itself Originally thought to be mother culture of Andean civilization, now understood to have coexisted with other early emerging states to north and south Shifted to urban status based on position along a coast/highland trade route, reinforced by development of ritual significance as a pilgrimage site Iconography (images and ideas) of Chavin does seem to persist, get borrowed by a number of later states

9 Early Horizon at Lake Titicaca (southern highlands) Chiripa and Pukara were the key centers, ( BP) Both rose to early urban size and status, and remained relatively autonomous from both Chavin and from each other Motifs developed at Chiripa in particular seemed to have carried on into later ritual and ideological use in the area

10 Early Horizon on the Coast Rise of the Paracas culture on the southern Andean coast, ca BP Influenced technologically from the Lake Titicaca basin: ceramics, textiles, and irrigation agriculture However maintained cultural autonomy: different and distinctive art and architectural styles Smaller populations over all in this more marginal ecosystem Unclear evidence on amount, degree of social hierarchy, central authority

11 Existing environmental factors El Niño/La Niña events Tectonic plate uplift Flooding Drought Cold fluctuations (highlands) Warm fluctuations (highlands)

12 Human/Environmental interactions Irrigation Terracing Canalization (river to river) Population density increases Soil degradation/e rosion

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