Community-based Adaptation, Experiences in Bolivia

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1 Community-based Adaptation, Experiences in Bolivia Clea Paz, Conservation International-Bolivia Stephan Halloy, The Nature Conservancy Ninón Ríos and James Aparicio, Naturaleza y Comunidad-PNCC Oscar Saavedra,, Oxfam International Karina Yager,, Yale University April 2009

2 Contents General characteristics Community-based adaptation in Sajama National Park (CI, IE, PNCC) The Chipaya in Salar de Coipasa (Rios and Aparicio) Raised fields in the Beni region (Oscar Saavedra) Conclusions

3 BOLIVIA Area: Km 2 Population: 9.4 million inhabitants More than 50% self-identified as indigenous (largest in Latin America), more than 30 indigenous groups Poverty: Ranks 115 of 177 based on UNDP s HDI

4 BOLIVIA, cont. Bolivians, in particular rural inhabitants, highly dependent on natural resources Population highly vulnerable to climate change s s negative effects Andean ecosystems particularly vulnerable to climate change Lowlands face challenges: flooding and changes in precipitation cycles in particular Traditional knowledge plays an important role UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) ratified as national law Integrating traditional knowledge and community-based approaches into adaptation planning is necessary

5 Community-based adaptation in Sajama National Park Sajama NP, located in the highlands of Bolivia (southwestern part of Oruro Department), Puna and Alto Andino regions, msnm Communities of Sajama, Caripe, Lagunas, Manasaya and Papelpampa (cantones of Sajama, Caripe, Lagunas), around 170 families. Camelid (llamas, alpacas) herding main activity Highly vulnerable to climate change: Glacier melting, dry ecosystems, limited resources Already experiencing climate change effects: glacier melting, human health, wetlands drying, crop pests, wildlife diminishing.

6 Sajama 2 Scientists, Policy Makers, NGOs Adaptation Preliminary Plan Communities

7 Sajama 3, Results Perceptions on changes in winds, precipitation, snow levels, fauna and flora, wetlands gathered Timeline identifying major climatic events Mapping and clay modeling of changes in snow in the Sajama Presentation by scientists on glacier melting, pasture changes and a management options, biodiversity, and diseases in appropriate formats Rich exchange and discussion between communities and scientists Participatory development of preliminary adaptation measures

8 Sajama 3 Results presented in technical report and booklet

9 Vulnerability and adaptation in the Chipaya indigenous territory, Oruro - Bolivia The Chipayas Ancient culture, 2,500 BC Two communities in Bolivia: 1,850 hab. High levels of poverty: 96.64% Main activities: agriculture, herding, hunting, and fishing

10 Climate change effects Probable change Temperature increase Loss of humidity Increase in wind intensity Droughts and flooding Associated impacts Increase disease and death among elders Disease among cattle and wildlife Pests on quinoa and cañahua crops Lower harvests of quinua y cañahua Lower quantity and quality of water for humans, crops and cattle Soil erosion Water salinity increases (from salt lake) Pests in crops Increased cattle diseases Vegetation loss Loss of agricultural and cattle production Direct threat to vulnerable people s lives Soil salinity increases Infrastructure damage

11 PROGRAMS SUBPROGRAMS ENVIRONMENTAL DEVELOPMENT Management and conservation of natural resources and environment Adaptation Plan ECONOMIC PRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Culture and tourism Agro-ecological production Infrastructure for production Health and basic services Infrastructure and education INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT Municipal strengthening

12 Participants COORDINACION Jehan Ninon Rios CARACTERIZACION DE LOS RECURSOS DE BIODIVERSIDAD James Aparicio E. CARACTERIZACION DE LOS RECURSOS AGROPECUARIOS Bernardino Cachaca Juan Carlos Soria CARACTERIZACION SOCIOECONOMICA Y CULTURAL Heriberto Gutiérrez Cuellar Miguel Canaza VULNERABILIDAD Y CAPACIDAD DE ADAPTACION Jehan Ninon Rios James Aparicio E. PROGRAMA NACIONAL DE CAMBIOS CLIMATICOS

13 Raised fields in the Llanos de Moxos Recovering pre- Columbian indigenous techniques for flood management Oxfam, Oscar Saavedra

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