2 Brazil After Columbus discovered the Americas in 1492, Spain feared its powerful rival, Portugal would try to start a far-too-bloody fight over the new land. Treaty of Tordesillas to split the Americas: west of the line= Spain, east ofit = Portugal. It was uneven, unfair - all that laid east of the line was Brazil. (Reason why Portuguese is the only country in S America that still speaks Portuguese instead of Spanish.)
3 Brazil At first the Portuguese had little interest in Brazil - they were more interested in sailing east around Africa to trade with Asia. There were peaceful interactions with indigenous Brazilians at first. Indigenous people grew cassava, corn, sweet potatoes, beans, and peanuts. They hunted fish and other water animals with arrows and harpoons from large canoes (little hunting was done on land.) 2-6 million Brazilians from various groups lived there. Slash and burn agriculture was a prominent technique. Brazilwood provided the red dye that increased Portuguese interest in colonizing it more heavily. Soon sugar and gold mining were major industries. The Portuguese enslaved, killed, and infected indigenous peoples with European diseases. When indigenous people could not supply enough labor for plantations, African slaves introduced. 1.1 million slaves (⅓ of total population.)
4 Brazil Jesuit missionaries spread Christianity - if one converted, one avoided being enslaved Missionaries spread relgion into the interior, bringing cattlemen, industry, and plantation farming with them. War in Europe caused the Portuguese king to flee from Lisbon, Portugal to Sao Paulo, Brazil. Set up new capiial there. In 1821, after France (Napoleon) was defeated, the Portuguese king returned to Lisbon. His son stayed in Brazil to rule the colonies, boy king, eventually ruled as Emperor Pedro II.)
5 Progress in Brazil Under Pedro II Ruled for 50 years Expanded industries: coffee, cotton, railroads Brazil stopped importing enslaved people from Africa. 1860s, a new movement began to emancipate, or free, the enslaved. Pedro II opposed slavery, but he thought it should be ended gradually. An 1871 law granted freedom to all children born to people in slavery. An 1885 law freed enslaved people who were over age 60. Finally, in 1888, all remaining enslaved people were freed.
6 The Monarchy Ends in Brazil Brazil s powerful plantation owners =angered by the loss of their enslaved workers supported Brazil s army in overthrowing Pedro II. New government was established Constitution of the United States. Brazil became a republic. But the right to vote was limited to wealthy property owners out of a population of 22 million, only 627,000 people could vote. Governors were elected by their state s wealthy voters. State governors controlled the election of Brazil s president, who usually came from the highly populated, coffee-rich states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais (General Mines).
7 A People s Revolution Getúlio Vargas overthrows the coffee president in For 15 years, was a hero amongst Brazilians. Yet for much of his rule, Vargas governed as a dictator. Dissolved the legislature and banned political parties military leaders forced Vargas to resign. Vargas was elected president again in 1950, but again was forced from office by the military in For over 30 years, government in Brazil alternated between dictators and elected leaders. Manufacturing thrived throughout this period. Foreign investments brought rapid growth in the steel, auto, and chemical industries.
8 Progress! For many years, the military ruled in the wake of industrial growth and unrest. The military gave up power in 1985 and allowed the election of a civilian president. Today, voting in Brazil is compulsory (required as a duty by all citizens.) Progress has continued - first female president in 2010! (Dilma Rousseff) *Impeached and removed in 2016.
9 The Tropical North Reflect back on colonization and the Encomienda System. How did Spain s colonies become independent countries? By the late 1700s, many Spanish colonists who were born in the Americas wanted independence from their Spanish rulers. Their chance came in 1808, when the French ruler Napoleon invaded and conquered Spain. Spain found it difficult to fight the French in Europe and to rule its colonies. Some of the colonists in the Americas took this opportunity to fight for independence from Spain. Ecuadorians rose up against Spanish rule in Colombians and Venezuelans soon followed.
10 The Struggle Continues A long war began, at first mainly between groups who remained loyal to Spain and those who favored independence. After the Spanish expelled the French from Spain in 1814, Spain s king sent troops to South America to try to restore Spanish control. In the south, resistance to the Spanish was led by Argentine general José de San Martín. In the north, Venezuela s Simón Bolívar led the revolt. Spanish forces were not finally defeated until In 1819, however, Bolívar united Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, and Ecuador to form an independent republic called Gran Colombia. He became its first president. Gran Colombia broke apart after Bolívar s death in Ecuador and Venezuela formed independent countries. Colombia and Panama remained united as one country. In the early 1900s, Panama separated from Colombia and became independent.
11 Civil Wars Independence and self-government did not bring democracy and peace. Wealthy landholders competed with wealthy city businesspeople for control of the government. Conflict over the Catholic Church s role in society added to the unrest. The tensions resulted in civil wars in Colombia and Venezuela. Throughout the history of Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela, military or civilian leaders often ruled as dictators.
12 Labor and Immigration While Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela struggled with self-government, British, Dutch, and French Guiana remained colonies. The British abolished slavery in their colony in The French and the Dutch followed in To replace the once-enslaved workers, British and Dutch plantation owners recruited laborers from India and China. The Dutch also imported workers from their colony in Indonesia. The immigrants had to work on their colony s sugar, rice, coffee, or cacao plantations for a required length of time. At the end of their contract, they were free. Many stayed in the colony and, like the formerly enslaved people they replaced, founded towns along the coast.
13 Problems and Challenges 1852, France began sending convicted criminals to its colony. More than 70,000 convict laborers arrived between 1852 and The worst convicts were imprisoned off the coast on notorious Devil s Island. What challenges do the countries of the Tropical North face? The political and social problems that plagued Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela after independence continued through most of the twentieth century. Venezuela, for example, did not achieve a peaceful transfer of power between opposing groups until Meanwhile, the region s other countries, which gained independence in the twentieth century, experienced similar issues and challenges.
14 Gaining Independence Independence came slowly for Guyana and Suriname. The British granted their colony limited self-government in In 1953 all colonists were given the right to vote and allowed to elect a legislature. Guyana finally gained independence in Colonists in Dutch Guiana obtained the right to vote in 1948 and self-government in The colony became the independent country of Suriname in The people of French Guiana became French citizens and gained the right to vote in In 1946 French Guiana s status changed from a colony to an overseas department, or district, of the country of France. French Guiana remains part of France and has representatives in France s national legislature.
15 Revolutions and Borders The Tropical North s lack of strong, stable governments has resulted in major unrest in its countries, as well as conflicts between them. In Colombia, assassinations and other violence between feuding political groups took as many as 200,000 lives between 1946 and In the 1960s and 1970s, small rebel groups began making attacks throughout the country in hopes of overthrowing the government. Ecuador s government has not maintained control over its remote region, which lies in the Amazon Basin, to the east of the Andes. In the 1940s, Peru seized some of this land. The two countries often clashed, until a settlement was finally reached in In 2008 tensions between Ecuador and Colombia were strained after Colombian forces attacked a Colombian rebel camp in Ecuador s territory. In 2010 Colombia accused Venezuela of allowing Colombian rebels to live in its territory. War was narrowly avoided.
16 Revolutions and Borders (cont) Guyana s independence renewed an old border dispute with Venezuela that arose when Guyana was a British colony. The dispute was not settled until Another dispute arose on Guyana s eastern border after Suriname gained independence in Several clashes took place before that boundary was settled in Guyana also experienced years of social and political unrest as its African and South Asian populations competed for power. Like Guyana, Suriname has faced internal unrest since independence. The military removed civilian leaders in 1980 and again in Meanwhile, rebel groups of Maroons, the descendants of escaped slaves, disrupted the country s bauxite mining in an effort to overthrow the government. The army responded by killing thousands of Maroon civilians. Thousands more fled to safety in French Guiana. Identifying Which of the region s nations have experienced serious internal unrest since gaining independence?
17 The Andes and Multi-latitude Countries: The Overthrow of Spanish Rule By the early 1800s, most of South America had been under Spanish control for nearly 300 years. History was about to change once again. The reasons for this shift were local as well as international. Early 1800s - revolution and liberation movements were occurring around the world. The American Revolution, the French replaced the monarchy with a republic. struggles for independence also occurred in Mexico and the Caribbean. People in South America encouraged by these events. It was exactly the right time for two South American revolutionary leaders to lead the fight against Spanish rule. These two leaders were Simón Bolívar and José de San Martín.
18 Power and Governance By the mid-1800s, many South American countries had gained independence. After the Spanish left South America, several different countries formed. Borders mostly followed the divisions set in place by the Spanish colonizers But despite gaining independence, political and economic hardships continued on the continent. In contrast to the United States, there was no strong momentum for unity in South America. In fact, the rulers of many of the newly independent states were wealthy aristocrats, powerful landowners, or military dictators. Their mindset was more European than South American. In addition, communication between countries was difficult because of the mountainous terrain. The new countries lacked a tradition of self-government. The British colonies in North America had elected representatives in their colonial legislatures. The new states of South America, however, did not have a structure in place for a government to function. The newly independent countries drafted constitutions.
19 Unfair!! The enormously uneven distribution of wealth between rich and poor, however, resulted in social and economic instability. Several countries engaged in bloody conflicts over boundary disputes and mineral rights. These conflicts led to much loss of life and weakened economies. Describing Why are Simo n Bolı var and Jose de San Martı n important in the history of the region?
20 History of the Region in the Modern Era: Econ Challenges The Andean and mid-latitude countries continued to face challenges during the late 1800s and 1900s. With military backing, dictators seized power, and they ignored democratic constitutions. Economies were still dependent on outside powers. Challenges were: developing and controlling resources, building roads and railroads, and establishing trade links. Before independence, the countries of the region depended economically on Spain and Brazil. After independence, the economies of the region remained tied to countries outside South America. Rapidly industrializing countries in Europe exploited the region for its raw materials. Wealthy landowners, cattle grazers, and mining operators refused to surrender their ties to European investors. Beginning in the early 1900s, large U.S. and European multinational firms companies that do business in several countries started mining and smelting operations in the region. As the economies expanded, profits grew for wealthy landowners and multinational companies. But many workers and farmers and their families remained mired in poverty.
21 Political Instability Economic problems led to calls for reform. Political leaders promised changes for the better. 1946, Argentinians elected General Juan Perón as the nation s president. Perón and his wife, Eva, were popular with the people. The new government enacted economic reforms to benefit the working people. However, the Perón government limited free speech, censored the press, and added to the country s debt. After Perón was overthrown in 1955, the military government ruled Argentina. Evita's Broadcast The new government moved to put an end to unrest. The rulers imprisoned thousands of people without trial. Some were tortured or killed. Others simply disappeared. Argentina was also troubled by conflict over the Falkland Islands. Argentina and Great Britain both claimed the Falklands. After a brief war in 1982, Argentina was defeated, and the Falklands remain a British territory
22 Chile Significant changes were also taking place in the country of Chile. In the presidential election of 1970, Chileans elected a socialist candidate named Salvador Allende. Allende took action to redistribute wealth and land. The government took over Chile s copper industry and banking system. Allende s economic reforms were popular with workers but angered the upper classes. In 1973 Chilean military officers staged a coup, an illegal seizure of power, and killed Allende. A military dictatorship, headed by General Augusto Pinochet, ruled Chile for the next 16 years.
23 Movements for Change In recent years, democracies have replaced dictatorships. Yet the countries in the region are still struggling to end corruption in government, shrink the gap between rich and poor, provide jobs, and protect human rights. Voters also have elected new leaders. In 2005 Bolivians elected Evo Morales, the country s first indigenous president. Morales introduced a new constitution and land reforms, brought industries under government ownership, and moved to limit U.S. corporate involvement in the country s politics. In 2006 Chileans elected the country s first female president, Michelle Bachelet. A year later, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner became Argentina s first elected female president. Both female leaders started efforts to improve human rights and equal opportunity. Determining Central Ideas After independence, why did the countries in this region continue to experience economic hardship?
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