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1 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK TOURISM - It is a productive activity assumed as a phenomenon that has been acquiring a growing presence in the international economic dynamics. - It is one of the fundamental activities generating income, employment, foreign exchange income, investments, infrastructure renovation, etc. It has a dynamic effect on the development of national and regional economies. It stimulates entrepreneurial activity and needs the joint work of all sectors, both private, state, as well as the population for its development -It is a multispectral activity that requires the concurrence of various productive areas: agriculture, construction, manufacturing and the public and private sectors to provide the goods and services used by tourists. The current tourism market has as its main premises competitiveness and sustainability. A longterm vision for a highly competitive and diversified sustainable tourism. It is necessary to understand the totality of the tourist activity and its relations with the environment, in order to achieve a harmonious coexistence between tourism and territory. The territorial elements constituting tourism are: climate, relief, environment, urban nuclei and architectural typologies, articulation system, landscape, heritage, etc. They represent the main resources for the formation of tourism products. RURAL TOURISM The opportunity to link agriculture with tourism has been seen as one of the mechanisms that can contribute to the promotion of rural development, strengthening and articulating competitive businesses with environmental sustainability and economic viability, while enhancing traditional and cultural knowledge. The growth of tourism in general and, in particular, interest in the nature and culture of the countryside are growing trends. Rural tourism is an opportunity for the agricultural sector and for local communities to generate direct and indirect employment, which contributes to preventing rural exodus; an alternative to diversify and expand income, thus reducing socio-economic inequalities; and a way of disseminating and revaluing local cultures, traditions, practices and knowledge. It is common for rural tourism to foster rapprochement between urban dwellers and peasant communities. While tourists enjoy the natural environment, and learn about the work of the countryside, the receiving communities benefit by receiving the income generated by tourism. 1

2 Characterization and modalities of commercialization of rural tourism. In Argentina, rural tourism takes different forms: agro tourism, health tourism (for example, the offer of alternative therapies such as equine therapy, thermal pools, etc.), adventure tourism (climbing hills, climbing or horseback riding of different degrees of difficulty, etc.), cultural tourism (in communities of native peoples to know and share their customs, combining with rural activities carried out by the community visited), and other modalities that vary according to the rural spaces where they are developed, the social sectors which offer them and the results that are expected to be achieved, both from the socioeconomic and territorial aspects. Urban populations are the main source of demand for rural tourism. It is practiced both by those who stay in an agricultural estate with the interest of knowing, enjoying and practicing some agricultural activity (agrotourists) such as hunters, fishermen, scientists, students on egress trips, passing tourists, participating entrepreneurs of an event or retreat, etc. As a result of several interviews carried out within the framework of this work, it can be seen that, in most cases, rural tourism is related to rural tourism, although there is a strong presence of other modalities. SUSTAINABLE TOURISM Sustainable tourism is on the rise: demand from consumers is growing, tourism service providers are developing green programs and governments are establishing new policies to encourage sustainable practices in tourism The Global Sustainable Tourism Criteria are an effort to reach a common understanding of sustainable tourism and represent the minimum sustainability principles that a tourism company should aspire to. As of 2007, a coalition of 32 organizations - the Global Alliance for Sustainable Tourism Criteria - joined to develop the criteria. Global Sustainable Tourism Criteria A. Demonstrate effective sustainable management Promotional materials are truthful and complete, and do not promise more than the company can offer. A.6. The design and construction of buildings and infrastructures: A.6.1. They comply with the local ordinances of urban planning and the norms applicable to protected spaces or of the patrimony. A.6.2. They respect the natural or cultural heritage environments in the following aspects: siting, design, impact assessment, and rights and land acquisition. A.6.3 They use, in accordance with the local context, the principles of sustainable construction. A.6.4 Allow access to persons with special needs. 2

3 A.7. Information is provided to clients for the knowledge and interpretation of natural environments, local culture and cultural heritage and explains the appropriate behaviors in visits to natural areas, living cultures and cultural heritage sites. B. Maximize social and economic benefits for the local community and minimize negative impacts. B.1. The company actively supports initiatives for the social development of the community and the creation of infrastructures in areas such as education, health and sanitation, among others. B.2. Local residents are employed, also in management positions. Training is provided where appropriate. -The company offers small local entrepreneurs the means to create and sell sustainable products based on the nature, history and culture of the area (such as food and beverages, handicrafts, performing arts, agricultural products, etc.). -The activities of the company do not jeopardize the supply of basic services (water, energy, sanitation, etc.) of the surrounding communities. C. Maximize the benefits for cultural heritage and minimize negative impacts. -The company contributes to the protection of important local archaeological, cultural and spiritual sites and assets and does not prevent local residents from accessing them. -The company uses elements of local art, architecture or cultural heritage in its activities, design, decoration, food or commerce respecting the intellectual property rights of local communities. D. Maximize the benefits to the environment and minimize negative impacts. -Keep resources. -Reduce pollution. - Conserving biodiversity, ecosystems and landscapes. Sustainable Tourism Policies Wellness of the tourist destination Maximize tourism's economic income for the host location; that there is a ratio between what the tourist spends and what is left in the visit destination. As: - That tourism is well integrated into the local economy. - That there is no over-dependence on tourism. - Use of local labor. Social Equity. - Take into account traditional or indigenous communities; which can benefit not only financially, but also in the possibility of exchange and meetings with people from outside. - You can use part of the income of the tourist activity for social programs. Tourist satisfaction. - Access to the disabled. - Take care of the tourists as guests. - Monitor and pay attention to visitors' comments. Local control. - That the host community is in control of the tourist activities in its territory, in the planning and development of the same, together with the other actors. This allows the local population to have the responsibility and control of their own development. -Consider in a special way the position of groups as indigenous or traditional communities; respect their authorities and how to make decisions. Wellness of the host community. 3

4 - Maintain and strengthen the standard of living of the local community; including access to resources. - Provide the use of infrastructure in an equal way between tourists and locals. - Guide tourists to respect the place and the local population. Cultural enrichment. - Respect and strengthen the historical heritage, the authenticity of the culture, the traditions and the particularities of the local community. - To promote respect and knowledge of the local culture; preserve historical and environmental heritage; work together for presentation and cultural promotion in the respect of the community. Integrity of the place. - Maintain and strengthen the quality of the landscape, whether urban or rural and visual degradation of the environment. - Any new tourist development must conform to local environmental conditions. - The impact of tourism activities and infrastructures should be minimized. Biodiversity. - Maintain conservation of natural areas, ecosystems, wildlife and minimize damage that can be caused. - These areas are at the same time one of the main attractions for the tourism, that can have a destructive impact and at the same time be the engine of conversation and resources for the same. - National parks and protected areas must participate in the entire process of planning, development and monitoring of tourism activities; the miso with parks and private reserves. - Awareness about biodiversity. - A particular care to adventure tourism that can be sustainable or not. No environmental pollution. - Minimize the use of water: sinks; golf courses; parks and gardens; awareness about the responsible use of water. - Minimize pollution of air, water and territory by the waste of tourism companies and tourists. - Ecological transport. - Ecological management of waste. - Construction of new tourist enterprises in an ecological and sustainable way. ALTERNATIVE TOURISM Definition It is a tourism respectful of nature, based on the attitude, the behavior, the commitment that must assume the humanity in the conservation. It is based on regaining the importance of those who daily pass unnoticed. It is a combination of natural tourism, adventure, ethnological, mystic, etc. The purpose of alternative tourism is to put the tourist in contact with the different activities that are carried out in local communities of exotic countries and customs very different from their own, in rural tasks, tasting products of different lands, in their religion, fauna and landscapes, etc. Characteristics Emphasizes the importance of integrating environmental education into cultural tourism programs to promote awareness of conservation and enjoyment. It is a new modality governed by a set of conditions that surpass the practice of conventional mass tourism. This is not to say that you do not have support such as accommodation, transportation, food and beverage establishment, roads and other complementary services, on the contrary you need them, but they require planning to carry out your activities. 4

5 Actions Environmental benefits -Promote the use of biotic resource in an alternative way. -Favor to the ecological culture. - They represent a financing option for the conservation of natural resources. Social benefits -Promote the participation and social organization of communities. -Elevate the quality of community life, promote territorial roots. -Spread local and national values. -Promote traditions. -Denote community projects. -Create sources of work in communities. - They are profitable activities. Classification Alternative tourism can be classified into: -Natural: can be given in natural places, be treated about nature and / or for the preservation of nature. -The cultural: (tourism that involves contact and learning of one or more cultures) includes archeological, rural, religious and ethnic tourism. -Events: (tourism interested in experiencing events characteristic of an area or important annual events). It includes sports, carnivals and festivals, for example. -Other: volunteer tourism, educational, etc. TOURISM IN TUCUMAN Within the extension of the Argentine Republic, several foci of tourist attraction stand out. One of them is the NOA that includes the provinces of Tucumán, Salta, Jujuy, Catamarca and Santiago del Estero. TUCUMAN - Account with an area of km2 and its population is of inhabitants (according to data of INDEC, census 2010), is one of the smallest provinces and the most densely populated of the country. -Landscape. The province is characterized by the presence of three large structural morph units that make up its landscape: - The plain, agricultural area and human settlement. - The areas of the mountains whose maximum heights reach m. in the Northeast region. - The mountainous area oriented from North to South and in which two great mountain ranges stand out: the Nevados of the Aconquija whose maximum height is of m. and the Calchaquíes Summits with its highest height of m. The variation that it presents in its landscape gives him an attracting and very singular physiognomy. TOURIST CIRCUITS -Circuit Valley of Choromoro: San Pedro de Colalao, Church of Trancas, etc (apartment Trancas). - Circuit of Yungas: The Cadillal, Raco, the Siambón (department of Old Tafí); Cerro San Javier- Anta dead (department of Yerba Buena); Villa Nougués, Church of San Jose del Monte de Lules. (department of Lules). 5

6 - Circuit to Valleys: Tafi de Valle, El Mollar, Amaicha del Valle, Ruins of Quilmes, Colalao del Valle, El Pichao (department of Tafí del Valle). - Circuit Sur and Eastern Plain: The city of Concepción (department of Chicligasta); The Fair of Simoca (department of Simoca); The Ditch Escaba (department of Juan B. Alberdi); Chapel of San Ignacio de la Cocha (department of La Cocha); Chapel of Chicligasta (department of Simoca). - Mountain Circuits of Burruyacú: Villa Padre Mon- Rio Nio- Chorrillos; The Ramada (department of Burruyacú). CIRCUIT: Calchaquíes Valleys Projects of the Direction of Tourism In the framework of the Bicentennial, the Province Tourism Department proposes the following projects that form the "Valles Calchaquíes" circuit: Atahualpa Yupanqui Museum in Acheral. Interpretation Center Yungas in RP 307, road to Tafí del Valle. El Indio Handcrafted Parador. Menhires Museum "Piedras Largas" in the Mollar. 6

7 Viewpoints of the Valley There are 17 viewpoints that form a network and are located in strategic points within the area of greater tourist movement of the province. It includes one linked to the astronomical observatory of Ampimpa and another to the one of Potrerillo. The viewpoints will take the character of small bases of tourist operations, they will have a thematic character according to the punctual offer available in the area of direct influence of each viewpoint (types of crafts, gastronomy, history, local traditions, points of interest for excursions, etc.). This initiative is expected to generate a circuit that favors the stay and overnight of tourists and that facilitates the "interpretation" and articulation of the tourist space of the valleys, supplying the current lack of information and activities available to visitors during their stay, in the framework of respect for the environment. Route of the Valleys. Provincial Route 307, through which the Tafí Valley is accessed, is born in Acheral department of Monteros) where it connects with national route 38. It ends in Amaicha del Valle (department of Tafí del Valle) where it connects with the National Route 40, which runs the entire country from North to South. It has km of extension and is paved in its entirety. It runs in Southeast (Acheral) - northwest (Amaicha). Route 307 is a winding road that crosses a great diversity of landscapes and hills. In the Acheral section (400msnm), Tafí del Valle (2000msnm) crosses 7 phyto vegetative layers, from the subtropical yunga to the steppe. 7

8 Of the five provinces that make up the NOA, Catamarca, Salta and Tucumán maintain an important relationship with Provincial Route 307, since this is the best and almost the only reasonable southern access to the extensive area of the Calchaquíes Valleys. Los Sosa Creek Parador El Indio The Angostura Dam - The Mollar. The STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE of route 307 lies in: -That allows to connect, by a paved road and in no more than two hours of travel, the valleys mentioned with the Tucuman plain especially its central zone that includes the Great San Miguel de Tucumán. -Already in the middle of the Calchaquí Valley in the west of Tucuman, it makes possible the connection with the National Route Nº40, and through this one towards the south with the city of Santa Maria and other localities, as well as the Mine La Alumbrera, in Catamarca. - To the North, in the province of Salta, through the RN Nº 40 connects with Cafayate, San Carlos, Molinos, Cachi, La Poma and other localities. - The tourist attractions it presents. - The agroindustrial activity (seed potato, grape cultivation for an exclusive wine production, stone and pome fruit, artisanal production of cheeses of cow and goat and the production of paprika, among others) Tafí del Valle Creek Ampimpa Amaicha of the valley 8