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7 Contents Acknowledgements List of Abbreviations Introduction 1 Party Building and Party Collapse: a Framework for Analysis 2Party Formation viii x Building an Organisation 76 4 Party Crisis The Party Divides Party Collapse 189 Conclusions Notes Bibliography Index vii

8 Acknowledgements This book is a revised version of my PhD thesis, and as such has had a lengthy gestation, in the course of which numerous debts of gratitude (as well as numerous debts) have been acquired. My supervisor at the European University Institute in Florence, Jean Blondel, first alerted me to the fascinating questions posed by the UCD's collapse, and has provided constant encouragement and guidance in the course of the project. My supervisor in Madrid, Jose  RamoÂn Montero, somehow found time in his overloaded schedule to give detailed and penetrating comments on drafts of the thesis, and still managed to smile when I presented him with heaps of paper to read at short notice. Richard Gunther has given advice and encouragement way beyond the call of duty, allowing my research to benefit from the insights he gained from his extensive fieldwork on Spanish parties in the transition period. He has generously allowed me to use transcripts of his in-depth interviews with UCD leaders, which are cited in this book. Alvaro Soto Carmona gave invaluable advice on historical sources on the Spanish transition, as well as showing me the interiors of several interesting restaurants. Thanks are also due to a large number of people who have helped me in various ways, from providing research ideas to reading drafts of the PhD: Jose  Amodia, Eva Anduiza, Jose Babiano, Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo IbaÄez-MartõÂn, Maurizio Cotta, Johan De Deken, Ana FernaÂndez, Pilar Gangas, Maurice Glasman, Paul Heywood, Santos JuliaÂ, Juan Linz, Lourdes LoÂpez Nieto, MoÂnica MeÂndez, MarõÂa Luz Mora Ân, Leopoldo Moscoso, Xose Manoel NuÄez Ân Seixas, Caterina Paolucci, Jose  Manuel Rivera Otero, David Ruiz, Pablo Sa Ânchez LeoÂn, Dan Wincott. I would also like to thank all the staff and researchers at the Centro de Estudios Avanzados of the Instituto Juan March, which supported my work in Madrid, and the Vicente CanÄada Blanch Foundation which awarded me a Junior Fellowship in the academic year 1993±94. I am grateful to those politicians who gave in-depth interviews cited in this book: Oscar Alzaga, Rafael Arias Salgado, viii

9 Acknowledgements ix Leopoldo Calvo Sotelo, InÄigo Cavero, Landelino Lavilla, Rodolfo MartõÂn Villa, Jose Luis MeilaÂn Gil, Alberto Oliart and Javier RupeÂrez. I also gained insights from conversations with Xose Luis Barreiro, Leoncio GonzaÂlez, the late Manuel Justel and Victorino NuÄez. Ân Finally, thanks to friends who provided moral support whilst the PhD and then the book were being written: Margarita Araoz, Guillermo de la Calzada, Valerio Cocchi, Laurence Cole, Angela Evangelisti, Luis GoÂmez, Gillian Hopkin, Miguel JimeÂnez, Claire Kilpatrick, Sylvaine Laulom, Tutvinder Mann, Javier Rambaud, Jean Richardson, Corinna Rinaldi, Andre Âs RodrõÂguez Pose, Angeles SaÂnchez, Katy Wakelin. I would like to thank my family for their unfailing support and for knowing not to ask `whether I'd finished yet'. At least, not very often. I dedicate this book to Silvia Evangelisti. Without her insightful comments on property rights in Early Modern Italian convents it could never have been written. Jonathan Hopkin Birmingham

10 List of Abbreviations ACNP AsociacioÂn CatoÂlica Nacional de Propagandistas ANE Acuerdo Nacional de Empleo AP Alianza Popular APD AsociacioÂn para el Progreso de la DireccioÂn AREX AccioÂn Regional ExtremenÄa CD Centro DemocraÂtico CDS Centro DemocraÂtico y Social CEDA ConfederacioÂn EspanÄola de Derechas AutoÂnomas CEOE ConfederacioÂn EspanÄola de Organizaciones Empresariales CEPYME ConfederacioÂn EspanÄola de PequenÄas y Medianas Empresas CESID Centro Superior de InformacioÂn de la Defensa CIS Centro de Investigaciones SocioloÂgicas CiU ConvergeÁncia i Unio CP CoalicioÂn Popular EDC Equipo de la Democracia Cristiana ETA Euzkadi ta Askatasuna FDC FederacioÂn DemoÂcrata-Cristiana FPDL FederacioÂn de Partidos DemoÂcratas y Liberales FPSD FederacioÂn de Partidos Social DemoÂcratas FSD FederacioÂn Social-DemoÂcrata FSI FederacioÂn Social Independiente ID Izquierda DemocraÂtica IDC Izquierda DemoÂcrata-Cristiana LOAPA Ley Orga Ânica de ArmonizacioÂn del Proceso AutonoÂmico PAD Partido de AccioÂn Democra Âtica PAR Partido AragoneÂs Regional PCE Partido Comunista de EspanÄa PD Partido DemoÂcrata PDC Partido DemoÂcrata-Cristiano PDP Partido DemoÂcrata Popular PGI Partido Gallego Independiente PL Partido Liberal PNV Partido Nacionalista Vasco x

11 List of Abbreviations xi PP Partido Popular PPDC Partido Popular DemoÂcrata-Cristiano PSA Partido Socialista Andaluz PSD Partido Social DemoÂcrata PSI Partido Socialista Italiano PSLA Partido Social Liberal Andaluz PSOE Partido Socialista Obrero EspanÄol RTVE Radio TelevisioÂn EspanÄola SEU Sindicato EspanÄol Universitario TVE TelevisioÂn EspanÄola UCD UnioÂn de Centro DemocraÂtico UDE UnioÂn Democra Âtica EspanÄola UDPE UnioÂn del Pueblo EspanÄol UGT UnioÂn General de Trabajadores UL UnioÂn Liberal UPN UnioÂn del Pueblo Navarro

12 So that was a good summer, the summer of the fires: there was a common problem which everyone had at heart to resolve, and each put it above every other personal interest, and all were repaid by the pleasure of finding themselves in agreement and mutual esteem with so many others. Later Cosimo came to realise that when a problem in common no longer exists, associations are not as good as they were before, and it is better then to be a man alone and not a leader. Italo Calvino, The Baron in the Trees