Hawis Madduppa. Department of Marine Science and Technology Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science Bogor Agricultural University INDONESIA

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1 Coral rehabilitation and restoration project in Indonesia: A case study for biodiversity protection and reef conservation combined with higher education Hawis Madduppa Department of Marine Science and Technology Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science Bogor Agricultural University INDONESIA IOC/WESTPAC Workshop on Coral Reef Restoration Techniques in the Western Pacific Region Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand September 2012

2 Indonesia

3 Taxa World Indonesia % Sponge Stony coral Holothurians 350 Copepods Anguillan Fish Shark Stomatopod Anguila Stomatopoda Shark Sponge Holothuria

4 Indonesian reef 39,538 km 2 16% of the world 25% inside the MPA

5 Year Hard coral coverage (%) Source: COREMAP

6 INDONESIA Almost 60 milions people are associated with the coral reef

7 COREMAP (Coral Reef Rehabilitation and Management Program) is a long-term program initiated by the Indonesia Government in purpose to protect, rehabilitate, and manage the sustainable use of coral reefs and the ecosystems in Indonesia, which in turn will support the welfare of coastal communities. Phase I: Initiation Phase ( ): set the foundation for a framework of national coral reef systems; Phase II: Acceleration Phase ( ): to establish a system of reliable coral reef management in priority areas; Phase III: Institutionalization Phase ( ): to establish a system of coral reef management and reliable operation, with decentralized execution, and has been institutionalized.

8 Coral rehabilitation and restoration location in Indonesia CORAL TRANSPLANTATION ARTIFICIAL REEF BIOROCK REEFBALL ECOREEF

9 Coral transplantation

10 Ecoreef

11 Beton (Artificial reef)

12 Reefball

13 Biorock Applying a low voltage direct electrical current through electrodes causing mineral crystals naturally found in seawater, mainly calcium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide, to grow on the structure Pemuteran, Bali (1990s by Tom Goreau) Gili Trawangan, Lombok

14 IPB s coral rehabilitation and restoration activities

15 Exploration Dissemination present Application Research conducted by IPB, LIPI and AKKI using several of ornamental corals in Pari Island, Kepulauan Seribu, Jakarta

16 Exploration Dissemination present Application 1. Acropora tenuis, 2. Acropora mestene, 3. Acropora formosa, 4. Acropora hyancinthus, 5. Acropora difaricata, 6. Acropora nasuta, 7. Acropora yongei, 8. Acropora digitifera, 9. Acropora glauca 10. Cynarina sp. 11. Plerogyra sp. 12. Euphylia sp. 13. Fungia sp. 14. Trachyphylia geofforoyi 15. Welsophylliia radiate 16. Porites nigrescenc 17. Montipora digitata 18. Hydnopora rigida 19. Heliopora courella 20. Montipora foliosa 21. Pocilopora damicornis 22. Seraitopora hystrix 23. Tubipora musica 24. Sarcophyton sp. 25. Lobophytum sp. 26. Sinularia sp.

17 Exploration Dissemination present Application

18 Exploration Dissemination present Application Rehabilitation Thousand islands of Animal Husbandry and Fisheries Office of Jakarta, Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries (DKP) and the Thousand Islands National Park Marine Ornamental Trade AKKI and ornamental coral fisherman Marine Natural Product

19

20 Ornamental Coral Hatchery in Kepulauan Seribu

21 Coral Garden at Pari Island, Kepulauan Seribu, Jakarta: application of coral transplantation Site 1 Site 2 1 2

22 Sticks: 60 (site 1), 75 (site 2) No. Of coral species transplanted: 17 species Madduppa et al. (in prep.) Coral transplantation at Pari Island, Indonesia: A case study for biodiversity protection and reef conservation combined with higher education

23 No. Date Season Site 1 Activities Site Transition to northwest monsoon Fixation, Monitoring Fixation, Monitoring Northwest monsoon Fixation, Monitoring, Maintenance Fixation, Monitoring, Maintenance Transition to northeast monsoon Monitoring Maintenance Monitoring Maintenance Northeast monsoon - Monitoring Maintenance Northwest monsoon - Monitoring Maintenance Northeast monsoon Monitoring Maintenance Fixation, Monitoring Maintenance Northeast monsoon Monitoring Fixation, Monitoring Maintenance Northeast monsoon Monitoring Fixation, Monitoring Maintenance

24 Reef fish development during experiment periods ( ) Mortality rate: 3.9% per month (site1) 2.9% per month (site 2) Madduppa et al. (in prep.) Coral transplantation at Pari Island, Indonesia: A case study for biodiversity protection and reef conservation combined with higher education

25 The total costs of the project and number of students involved Sampling Date Costs (IDR) Undergraduate Student Accumulate Student no. No. of MST students 1 October December March May January May July June

26 Biorock at the Kepulauan Seribu, Jakarta

27 1st research on Biorock: Reef fish development ( ) With electricity Without electric as control (ACB) (ACT) (ACB) (ACT) Acropora Branching (ACB) Acropora Tabulate (ACB)

28 Cathode Anode

29 Reef fish development ACB ACB-control periode sampling periode sampling ACT ACT-control periode sampling periode sampling Ind Sp Fam Madduppa et al. (2007) Prospect of Biorock Artificial Reef to Develop Fish Resources in Kepulauan Seribu. National Meeting for Coral Reefs,COREMAP II DKP, Jakarta

30

31 Deployment: 2007

32 Zamani et al. (in prep.) Electrical current stimulates coral branching and growth in Jakarta Bay

33 Zamani et al. (in prep.) Electrical current stimulates coral branching and growth in Jakarta Bay April-November 2009

34 Num ber of Research Year Research by IPB s students until present: Coral transplantation = 23 (undergraduate) Biorock = 6 (undergraduate) 1 (master) Artificial reefs = 3 (undergraduate) 1 (master)

35 The children tomorrow have the right to experience the beauty and wonder of coral reef ecosystems. I call on all of us nations, societies, and individuals to act now to reduce the threats to these remarkable ecosystems. We must ensure that this report marks the beginning of a powerful new age of coral reef protection, not the sad ending to their very existence. - Al Gore - Thanks for your attention

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