Chapter 12 Manifest Destiny ( ) Section 3 War With Mexico

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1 Assess your agreement with the following statement: The United States government acted morally in its acquisition of the land of the present-day continental United States. A. Strongly agree B. Somewhat agree C. Somewhat disagree D. Strongly disagree A. A B. B C. C D. D

2 Chapter 12 Manifest Destiny ( ) Section 3 War With Mexico

3 How did Mexican lands in the West become part of the United States?

4 The New Mexico Territory Early New Mexico was a vast region between Texas and California territories Including present day states- New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, and Utah Also parts of Colorado and Wyoming The Spanish conquistadores made it a Spanish colony in the late 1500s In 1610 the Spanish founded Santa Fe Missionaries followed soon after

5 o n 3 How did the rancheros treat their Native American workers? A. Like family B. Like well-paid employees C. Almost like slaves D. Rancheros did not have Native Americans working on their ranchos. A. A B. B C. C D. D

6 Santa Fe Mexico inherited New Mexico from Spain after their independence The Spanish tried to keep Americans away from this area fearing they would take it over The Mexicans welcomed American traders hoping to make money William Becknell reached Santa Fe in 1821 with a supply of goods The route from Independence, Missouri to Santa Fe became known as the Santa Fe Trail The Santa Fe Trail was a busy trade route Trade increased and Americans began to settle in this area Many saw New Mexico as part of Manifest Destiny

7 Spanish explorers and missionaries settled California in the late 1700s A chain of missions were built from San Diego to Sonoma The missions were used to convert Native Americans to Christianity Native Americans also farmed the land and worked at weaving and other crafts When Mexico won its independence, Mexican settlers bought mission land and set up huge estates called ranchos Native Americans worked the land for food and shelter The Rancheros treated the Native Americans almost like slaves California

8 How did the rancheros treat their Native American workers? A. Like family B. Like well-paid employees C. Almost like slaves D. Rancheros did not have Native Americans working on their ranchos. A. A B. B C. C D. D

9 Americans Reach California 1840s- More Americans reached California John C. Fremont, an army officer, wrote about the region s mild climate and vast natural resources Americans started talking about adding California to the Union With California we would have a safer border (Pacific Ocean rather than a foreign country) Shippers also hoped to build ports for trade with East Asia

10 Polk Polk saw New Mexico and California as belonging to the US Mexico refused to sell the land Polk plotted war, but wanted to provoke Mexico to strike first so he could justify a war Mexico and the US disagreed on the Texas- Mexico border (Plus Mexico still claimed Texas as its own) The US said the Rio Grande formed the border The Mexicans said the border was 150 miles north along the Nueces River

11 Conflict Begins Polk sent John Slidell to Mexico to propose a deal He could offer $30 million for New Mexico and California and have the Rio Grande as the border The US would take over Mexico s debt owed to American citizens The Mexican government refused and said they were going to reclaim Texas Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor to the disputed border April 24, Mexican soldiers attacked Taylor s force Hostilities may now be considered as commenced May 11- Congress passed a declaration of war against Mexico

12 Had three parts 1. American forces would drive Mexican forces out of the disputed border region of Texas and secure the border 2. The US would seize New Mexico and California 3. American forces would take Mexico City The first part worked Americans then captured New Mexico s capital, so the second part worked Polk s War Plan

13 Which of these was NOT part of President Polk s plan in Mexico? A. To capture Mexico City B. To seize California C. To drive Native Americans into Mexico D. To secure the Texan border A. A B. B C. C D. D

14 The Bear Flag Republic June A small group of Americans captured the town of Sonoma (North of San Francisco) They proclaimed it the independent Republic of California Called the Bear Flag Republic John C. Fremont and mountain man Kit Carson also met in Sonoma Fremont declared that he would conquer California Many Californios (Mexicans living in California) were outraged

15 The Bear Flag Republic Continued July The US Navy under Commodore John Sloat captured the ports of Monterey and San Francisco Sloat declared California was annexed to the US Sloat sailed for San Diego with Fremont and Kit Carson and captured it Then moved north to Los Angelas Some revolted in San Diego, but General Kearny put down the revolt By January 1847, California was fully controlled by the US

16 The Capture of Mexico City Polk told General Winfield Scott to capture Mexico City The army captured Veracruz after three weeks Then marched (and fought) their way 300 miles south to Mexico City September The Americans took Mexico City The Mexican government surrendered Mexico gave up half of its territory

17 The United States Expands The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed in February 1848 Mexico gave up Texas and agreed on the Rio Grande as the border In what was called the Mexican Cession, Mexico ceded California and New Mexico to the US for $15 million The US paid Mexico $10 million for the Gadsden Purchase A strip of land along the southern edge of present-day Arizona and New Mexico The US mainland reached its present size

18 How did Mexican lands in the West become part of the United States? -Most were gained in treaty following war -Final piece gained through Gadsden Purchase

19 Chapter 12 Section 3 Quiz

20 When Mexico lost the war with the United States, it lost half its territory. A. True B. False

21 What was the third part of James K. Polk's war plan? A. to capture Mexico City B. to seize California C. to drive Mexicans out of borderlands D. to seize New Mexico

22 What did the United States insist was the border between the United States and Mexico? A. Rio Grande B. Nueces River C. the Alamo D. Mexico City

23 What town in California was seized by a small group and renamed the Bear Flag Republic? A. San Francisco B. San Diego C. Buena Vista D. Sonoma

24 A. Harrison B. Tyler C. Polk D. Taylor Under whose presidential administration was the United Stated at war with Mexico?

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