Study Guide for the Ancient Greeks

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1 Study Guide for the Ancient Greeks There is a lot to learn about the Greeks, so start studying EARLY!!

2 Government Type GOVERNMENT TARGETS TARGET: I can compare the source of power in this government to other governments. Note: In chronological order (time order, oldest first), the powers in this area were the Minoans, the Mycenaeans, the Greek city-states, the Persians, and the Macedonians. Rule by Kings: The Minoans were ruled by kings from the city of Knossos on the island of Crete. The Mycenaean leaders became the first Greek kings. Their warriors became nobles who ruled the people they had conquered. They created city-states. Like the Mesopotamian city-states you read about in Chapter 1, those in Greece were made up of a town or city and the surrounding countryside. Each Greek city-state, known as a polis, was like a tiny independent country. Rule by Nobles: During the 600s B.C., many nobles who owned large estates overthrew the Greek kings. Rule by the nobles was short-lived. Small farmers, merchants and artisans wanted to share in governing. The growing unhappiness led to the rise of tyrants. Rule by tyrants: A tyrant is someone who takes power by force and rules with total authority. Today the word describes a harsh, oppressive ruler. Most early Greek tyrants, though, acted wisely and fairly. Tyrants managed to overthrow the nobles because they had the backing of the common people. Key support came from the hoplites in the army, many of whom were also farmers. By 500 B.C., tyrants had fallen out of favor in Greece. Most city-states became either oligarchies or democracies. In an oligarchy, a few people hold power. In a democracy, all citizens share in running the government. The oligarchy of Sparta and the democracy of Athens became two of the most powerful governments of early Greece. The oligarchy of Sparta: The Spartan government was an oligarchy. Two kings headed a council of elders. The council, which included 28 citizens over age 60, presented laws to an assembly. All Spartan men over age 30 belonged to the assembly. They voted on the council s laws and chose five people to be ephors each year. The ephors enforced the laws and managed tax collection. Sparta needed more land as it grew, so they conquered and enslaved their neighbors. The Spartans called their captive workers helots. This name comes from the Greek word for capture." Spartans feared that the helots might someday rebel. As a result, the government firmly controlled the people of Sparta and trained the boys and men for war. To keep anyone from questioning the Spartan system, the government discouraged foreign visitors. It also banned travel abroad for any reason but military ones. It even frowned upon citizens who studied literature or the arts. The democracy of Athens: Early Athens, during the 600s B.C, was an oligarchy, as in Sparta. Around 600 B.C., the Athenians began to rebel against the nobles. Most farmers owed the nobles money, and many sold themselves into slavery to pay their debts. Farmers demanded an end to all debts, along with land for the poor. Solon s reforms: A leading noble named Solon canceled all the farmers' debts and freed those who had become slaves. He also allowed all male citizens to participate in the assembly and law courts. A council of 400 wealthy citizens wrote the laws, but the assembly had to pass them. Solon s reforms were popular among the common people. However, the farmers continued to press Solon to give away the wealthy nobles' land. This he refused to do. A tyrant named Peisistratus seized power in 560 B.C. He won the support of the poor by dividing large estates among landless farmers. He also loaned money to poor people and gave them jobs building temples and other public works. Cleisthenes came to power in 508 B.C. He reorganized the assembly to play the central role in governing. As before, all male citizens could belong to the assembly and vote on laws. However, members had new powers. They could debate matters openly, hear court cases, and appoint army generals. Most importantly, Cleisthenes created a new council of 500 citizens to help the assembly carry out daily business. The council proposed laws, dealt with foreign countries, and oversaw the treasury. Athenians chose the members of the council each year in a lottery. They believed this system was fairer than an election, which might favor the rich. Cleisthenes is credited with making the government of Athens a democracy. Pericles guided Athens for more than 30 years. Pericles included more Athenians than ever before in government. He allowed lower-class male citizens to run for public office, and he also paid officeholders. As a result, even poor citizens could, for the first time, be part of the inner circle running the government. Pericles supported artists, architects, writers, and philosophers. Philosophers are thinkers who ponder questions about life. Pericles helped Athens dominate the Delian League. He treated the other city-states like subjects, demanding strict loyalty and steady payments from them. He even insisted that they use Athenian coins and measures. The Persian Empire: Cyrus the Great managed to unite the Persians into a powerful kingdom. Under Cyrus, Persia began building an empire in Asia larger than any yet seen in the world. Cyrus s merciful rule helped hold his growing empire together. King Darius divided the empire into 20 states called satrapies. Each was ruled by an official with the title of satrap, meaning protector of the kingdom." The satrap acted as tax collector, judge, chief of police, and head recruiter for the Persian army. However, all the satraps answered to the Persian king. King Darius and his son, King Xerxes, tried to conquer Greece in the Persian Wars. The defeat by the Greeks and growing internal problems (bad leadership, too much taxation, rebellions) made the empire gradually lose its strength. The Macedonians: King Philip II wanted to defeat the mighty Persian Empire. In order to achieve this goal, Philip needed to unite the Greek city-states with his own kingdom. Philip trained a vast army and took over the city-states one by one. Philip controlled all of Greece after defeating the Athenians and their allies at the Battle of Chaeronea. Philip planned to next conquer the Persian Empire, but he was murdered. As a result, the invasion of Asia fell to his son, Alexander. Alexander the Great: Alexander was only 20 when he became king of Macedonia. He conquered the Persian empire in 5 years. Alexander was a great military leader. He was brave and even reckless. He often rode into battle ahead of his men and risked his own life. He inspired his armies to march into unknown lands and risk their lives in difficult situations. He died at age 32. Alexander's conquests marked the beginning of the Hellenistic Era. The word Hellenistic comes from a Greek word meaning "like the Greeks." It refers to a time when the Greek language and Greek ideas spread to the non-greek people of southwest Asia. The Hellenistic Kingdoms: After Alexander died, the empire that he had created fell apart. Four Hellenistic kingdoms took its place: Macedonia, Pergamum, Egypt, and the Seleucid Empire. All government business in the Hellenistic kingdoms was conducted in the Greek language. Only those Asians and Egyptians who spoke Greek could apply for government posts. The kings preferred to give the jobs to Greeks and Macedonians. In this way, Greeks managed to stay in control of the governments.

3 Democratic Principals Rights and Responsibilities compared to US citizens Government Targets Continued TARGET: I can describe how this government used democratic principles (justice, equality, responsibility, freedom). Each Greek city-state was run, at least in part, by its citizens. When we speak of citizens, we mean members of a political community who treat each other as equals and who have rights and responsibilities. This was very different from ancient Mesopotamia or Egypt. There, most people were subjects. They had no rights, no say in government, and no choice but to obey their rulers. However, citizenship in Greek city-states usually EXCLUDED all women, foreign-born men, and slaves. The Athenian government was a direct democracy. In a direct democracy, people gather at mass meetings to decide on government matters. Every citizen can vote firsthand on laws and policies. What made direct democracy workable in ancient Athens was the relatively small number of citizens. The United States is not a direct democracy. The US is a republic a government in which citizens elect representatives to make governmental decisions for them. Some call this type of system a representative democracy. This is a much more practical system when the population is large. TARGET: I can compare the rights and responsibilities of individuals in this culture to the rights and responsibilities of US citizens today. The Greeks were the first people to develop the idea of citizenship. However, in most Greek city-states, only free native-born men who owned land could be citizens. From their point of view, the city-state was made up of their lands, and it was their responsibility to run it. They did not think anyone else should be a citizen. Some city-states, such as Athens, eventually dropped the land-owning requirement. Slaves and foreign-born residents, however, continued to be excluded. As for women and children, they might qualify for citizenship, but they had none of the rights that went with it. In the US, anyone born here or born to US citizen parents can have full citizenship rights and responsibilities. What exactly were the rights of Greek citizens? They could gather in the agora to choose their officials and pass laws. They had the right to vote, hold office, own property, and defend themselves in court. In return, citizens had a responsibility to serve in government, obey the laws, pay taxes, and to fight for their polis as citizen soldiers. These rights and responsibilities are similar to those in many democratic nations today.

4 Elements of Culture CULTURE TARGETS TARGET: I can explain how cultural elements in this society helped define this group and give them unique perspectives. Beliefs The Greeks believed gods and goddesses influenced their lives. They believed that each person had a fate or destiny-that certain events were going to happen no matter what they did. They also believed in prophecy. A prophecy is a prediction about the future. They believed that the gods gave prophecies to people to warn them about the future in time to change it. To find out about the future, many Greeks visited an oracle - a sacred shrine where a priest or priestess spoke for a god or goddess. The most famous was the oracle at the Temple of Apollo at Delphi. The ancient Greeks believed that their gods had the power to cure them of illnesses and injuries. Greek temples were places of healing as well as places of worship. In temples, priests treated patients with herbs, prayed, and made sacrifices to the gods as part of the healing process. The Greeks also believed in an afterlife. When people died, the Greeks believed their spirits went to a gloomy world beneath the earth ruled by a god named Hades. Customs/traditions The main gathering place in the polis was usually a hill. A fortified area, called an acropolis, stood at the top of the hill. It provided a safe refuge in case of attacks. Sometimes the acropolis also served as a religious center. Temples and altars were built there to honor the many Greek gods and goddesses. Below the acropolis was an open area called an agora. The agora was both a market and a place where people could meet and debate issues. Because Greeks sought their gods' favor, they followed many rituals and held festivals. A ritual is a set of actions carried out in a fixed way. As part of their rituals, the Greeks prayed to their gods and also gave them gifts. In return, they hoped that the gods would grant good fortune to them. Many Greek festivals honored the gods and goddesses. Festivals dedicated to Zeus were held at Olympia. Language Greek. The Greek alphabet had 24 letters that stood for different sounds. Literature Histories: The Greek historian Herodotus wrote History of the Persian Wars. This is thought to be the first real history in Western civilization. Herodotus described the conflict between the Greeks and Persians as one between freedom and dictatorship. He is considered by many to be the Father of History. Many historians consider Thucydides the greatest historian of the ancient world. He wrote the History of the Peloponnesian War. Fables and Epics: The Greeks wrote long poems, called epics, and short tales, called fables, to pass on Greek values. About 550 B.C., a Greek slave named Aesop made up his now famous fables. A fable is a short tale that teaches a lesson. In most of Aesop's fables, animals talk and act like people. These often funny stories point out human flaws as well as strengths. Each fable ends with a message, or moral. The earliest Greek stories were epics. These long poems told about heroic deeds. The first great epics of early Greece were the Iliad and the Odyssey. The poet Homer wrote these epics based on stories of a war between Greece and the city of Troy, which once existed in what is today northwestern Turkey. Greeks believed the Iliad and the Odyssey were more than stories. They looked on the epics as real history. These poems gave the Greeks an ideal past with a cast of heroes. Generations of Greeks read Homer's works. Homer's stories taught courage, honor, and loyalty. Homer's heroes became role models for Greek boys. Myths: Myths are traditional stories about gods and heroes. Greek mythology expressed the Greek people's religious beliefs. Arts Drama is a story told by actors who pretend to be characters in the story. Today's movies, plays, and television shows are all examples of drama. The Greeks developed two kinds of dramas comedies and tragedies. In a tragedy, a person struggles to overcome difficulties but fails, and the story has an unhappy ending. Early Greek tragedies presented people in a struggle against their fate. Later Greek tragedies showed how a person's character flaws caused him or her to fail. In a comedy, the story ends happily. Today we use the word comedy to mean a story filled with humor. The word actually means any drama that has a happy ending. The Greeks performed plays in outdoor theaters as part of their religious festivals. Greek art forms, such as painting, architecture, and sculpture, expressed Greek ideas of beauty, harmony, and moderation. They hoped their art would inspire people to base their lives on these same ideas. We know that the Greeks painted murals, but none of them have survived. However, we can still see examples of Greek painting on Greek pottery. The pictures on most Greek pottery are either red on a black background or black on a red background. Large vases often had scenes from Greek myths. Small drinking cups showed scenes from everyday life. Many Greek temples were decorated with sculpture. The favorite subject of Greek artists was the human body. Greek sculptors did not copy their subjects exactly, flaws and all. Instead, they tried to show their ideal version of perfection and beauty. Architecture The Greeks were skilled architects. Architecture is the art of designing and building structures. In Greece, the most important architecture was the temple dedicated to a god or goddess. The best-known example is the Parthenon in Athens. Temples, such as the Parthenon, had a walled room in their centers. Statues of gods and goddesses and the gifts offered to them were kept in these central rooms. The lighthouse of Alexandria was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. A fire in its tall tower guided ships into harbor. The Hellenistic kingdoms were lands of opportunity for Greek architects. New cities were being founded, and old ones were being rebuilt. The Hellenistic kings wanted to make these cities like the cultural centers of Greece. They paid handsome fees to line the streets with baths, theaters, and temples.

5 Social Institutions influence on behavior CULTURE TARGETS, continued TARGET: I can investigate how social institutions in this society responded to human needs, structured society, and influenced behavior. Family Girls in Sparta were trained in sports running, wrestling, and throwing the javelin. They kept fit to become healthy mothers. Wives lived at home while their husbands lived in the barracks. As a result, Spartan women were freer than other Greek women. They could own property and go where they wanted. Athenian men usually worked in the morning and then exercised or attended meetings of the assembly. In the evenings, upper-class men enjoyed all-male gatherings where they drank, dined, and discussed politics and philosophy. For Athenian women, life revolved around home and family. Girls married early at 14 or 15 and were expected to have children and take care of household duties. Poor women might also work with their husbands in the fields or sell goods in the agora. Respectable upper-class women, however, stayed at home. They supervised the household servants and worked wool into cloth spinning, dyeing, and weaving it. They rarely went out, except to funerals or festivals. Even then, they could leave the house only if a male relative went with them. Although Athenian women could not attend school, many learned to read and to play music. Still, even educated women were not considered the equals of men. They had no political rights and could not own property. Fathers took charge of unmarried daughters. Husbands looked after their wives. Sons or other male relatives looked after widows. A few women did move more freely in public life. Aspasia is perhaps the most famous example. Aspasia was not a native Athenian. This gave her special status. She was well- educated and taught public speaking to many Athenians. Her writings have not survived, but Plato, the famous Greek philosopher, said her work helped shape his ideas. Pericles often consulted Aspasia, as did many other Athenian leaders. In this way, she became influential in politics even though she was not allowed to vote or hold office. Religion The Greeks believed that the gods and goddesses controlled nature. The 12 most important gods and goddesses lived on Mount Olympus, the highest mountain in Greece. Among the 12 were Zeus, who was the chief god; Athena, the goddess of wisdom and crafts; Apollo, the god of the sun and poetry; Ares, the god of war; Aphrodite, the goddess of love; and Poseidon, the god of the seas and earthquakes. But Greek gods and goddesses were not thought to be all-powerful. According to Greek myths, even though gods had special powers, they looked like human beings and acted like them. They married, had children, quarreled, played tricks on each other, and fought wars. The Persian religion was called Zoroastrianism (ZOHR uh WAS tree uh NIH zuhm). Its founder, Zoroaster, began preaching after seeing visions as a young man. Like the Jews, Zoroaster believed in one god. He viewed this supreme being as the creator of all things and a force of goodness. However, Zoroaster recognized evil in the world, too. He taught that humans had the freedom to choose between right and wrong, and that goodness would triumph in the end. The Persians practiced Zoroastrianism for centuries, and it still has a small number of followers today. Education Athens: In Athenian schools, boys learned to read, write, do arithmetic, play sports, sing, and to play a stringed instrument called the lyre. This kind of education created well-rounded Athenians with good minds and bodies. At age 18, boys finished school and became citizens. Military Mycenaeans: Although trade made the Mycenaeans wealthy, they were prouder of their deeds in battle. Their most famous victory is probably the Trojan War. According to legend, the Mycenaean king Agamemnon used trickery (the Trojan Horse) to win that war. City States: In early Greece, wars were waged by nobles riding horses and chariots. Later, city states depended on armies of ordinary citizens called hoplites. Unable to afford horses, the hoplites fought on foot and went into battle heavily armed. Each carried a round shield, a short sword, and a 9-foot spear. Hoplites made good soldiers because, as citizens, they took pride in fighting for their city-state. Sparta: At age 7, boys left their family to live in barracks. They were harshly treated to make them tough. At age 20, Spartan men entered the regular army. The men remained in military barracks for 10 more years. Spartans returned home at age 30 but stayed in the army until age 60. They continued to train for combat. They expected to either win on the battlefield or die, but never to surrender. Their soldiers were especially strong and swift. However, by focusing on military training, the Spartans fell behind other Greeks in trade. They also knew less about science and other subjects. Persia: The king s power depended upon his troops. By the time of Darius, Persia had a large army of professional soldiers. Unlike the Greek city-states, where the citizens took up arms in times of war, in Persia the government paid people to be full-time soldiers. Among them were 10,000 specially trained soldiers who guarded the king. They were called the Immortals because when a member died, he was immediately replaced.

6 Impact of Cultural Differences CULTURE TARGETS CONTINUED TARGET: I can explain how interactions between this society and others led to conflict, compromise, and cooperation. Conflict - The Persian War As the Greeks set up colonies in the Mediterranean area, they often clashed with the Persians. The Persians conquered the Greek cities in Asia Minor. When the Athenian army helped the Greeks in Asia Minor try to rebel against their Persian rulers, King Darius decided the mainland Greeks had to be stopped from interfering in the Persian Empire. Darius attacked the Greek mainland on the plain of Marathon. The Greeks won Battle of Marathon. Xerxes vowed revenge against the Athenians after his father Darius died. He launched a new invasion of Greece. To defend themselves, the Greeks joined forces. Sparta sent the most soldiers, and their king, Leonidas, served as commander. He and his troops fought to the death at the battle of Thermopylae, stalling the Persian army and giving Athens enough time to assemble 200 ships. The Greek fleet attacked the Persian fleet in the strait of Salamis, not far from Athens. A strait is a narrow strip of water between two pieces of land. The Greeks won the sea battle because Greek ships were smaller, faster, and easier to steer than the big Persian ships. The Persian army marched on to Athens, but the Greeks had already fled. The Persians burned the city. This only stiffened the resolve of the Greek city-states. They came together to form the largest Greek army ever assembled and crushed the Persian army at the Battle of Plataea. The battle put an end to the Persians' invasion of Greece. Cooperation- The Delian League By working together, the Greek city-states had saved their homeland from invasion. Although the Persians retreated, they still remained a threat. Athens joined with other city-states but not Sparta to form the Delian League. The Delian League promised to defend its members against the Persians and work to drive Persia out of Greek territories in Asia Minor. Eventually, the league freed almost all of the Greek cities under Persia s control. At its start, the Delian League had headquarters on the island of Delos. However, its chief officials the treasurers in charge of its money and the commanders in charge of its fleet were from Athens, as were most of the troops. Little by little, Athens gained control over the other citystates in the alliance. Soon the league was no longer a partnership to fight Persia but an Athenian empire. Conflict The Peloponnesian War As the Athenian empire became rich and powerful, other city-states grew suspicious of its aims. Led by Sparta, they joined forces against Athens. Finally, war broke out and shattered any possibility of future cooperation among the Greeks. The Spartans and their allies surrounded Athens. The Athenians stayed put their city s walls and had the navy deliver supplies from their colonies and allies. Because Sparta did not have a navy, it could not attack the Athenian ships. Despite a plague that killed 1/3 of the people in the overcrowded city, the Athenians held firm. The standoff continued for more than 25 years. Finally, desperate to win, the Spartans made a deal with the Persian Empire. In exchange for enough money to build a navy, they gave the Persians some Greek territory in Asia Minor. Sparta s new navy destroyed the Athenian fleet. The next year, after losing more battles on land, Athens surrendered. The Spartans and their allies then tore down the city walls and broke up the Athenian empire. The war was over at last. The Peloponnesian War weakened all of the major Greek city-states, both the winners and the losers. Many people died in the fighting, and many farms were destroyed. Thousands of people were left without jobs. The war also made it impossible for the Greeks to unite and work together again. After defeating Athens, Sparta tried to rule all of Greece. Within 30 years, however, the city-states rebelled, and a new war began. While they were fighting amongst themselves, the Greeks failed to notice that to their north, the kingdom of Macedonia was growing in power. This would eventually cost them their freedom.

7 Scarcity: decisions about use of natural resources, human resources, & capital goods Supply & Demand How are goods & services exchanged ECONOMICS TARGETS TARGET: I can explain how scarcity required this civilization to make decisions about how to use productive resources. The Dark Age: The fall of the Mycenaean civilization made life harder for the remaining Greeks. Farmers grew only enough food to meet their own family's needs. People also stopped teaching others how to write or do craftwork. Before long, the Greeks had forgotten their written language and how to make many things. As a result, historians call this time the Dark Age. Greek Colonies: As Greece recovered from its Dark Age, its population rose quickly. By 700 B.C., farmers could no longer grow enough grain to feed everyone. As a result, cities began sending people outside Greece to start farming colonies. A colony is a settlement in a new territory that keeps close ties to its homeland. Small Farmers in Greece: These farmers often needed money to live on until they could harvest and sell their crops. Many borrowed money from the nobles, promising to give up their fields if they could not repay the loans. Time and time again, farmers lost their land. Then they had to work for the nobles or become laborers in the city. In desperate cases, they sold themselves into slavery. Slavery: Slavery was common in the ancient world. There was at least one enslaved person in most Athenian homes, and wealthy Athenian households often had many. Some worked as household servants cooks, maids, or tutors. Others toiled in the fields, in industry, and in artisans' shops. Without their labor, Athens could not have supported its bustling economy. TARGET: I can explain how supply and demand functioned in this civilization. The Minoans of Crete: The Minoans made their wealth from trade. They built ships from oak and cedar trees and sailed as far as Egypt and Syria. There they traded pottery and stone vases for ivory and metals. By 2000 B.C., Minoan ships controlled the eastern Mediterranean Sea. They carried goods to foreign ports and kept the sea free of pirates. The palace at Knossos had private quarters for the royal family and storerooms packed with oil, wine, and grain. Other spaces were workshops for making jewelry, vases, and small ivory statues. The palace even had bathrooms. The Mycenaeans: Government officials kept track of the wealth of every person in the kingdom. Then they collected wheat, livestock, and honey as taxes and stored them in the palace. Mycenaean palaces hummed with activity. Artisans tanned leather, sewed clothes, and made jars for wine and olive oil. Other workers made bronze swords and ox-hide shields. Greece after the Dark Age: Gradually, people began to farm again and to produce surplus food. As a result, trade revived. One benefit of the increased trade was a new way of writing. The Greeks picked up the idea of an alphabet from the Phoenicians, one of their trading partners who lived on the coast of the eastern Mediterranean. The growth of trade led to the growth of industry. As the demand for goods grew, producers had to keep pace. People in different areas began specializing in making certain products. For example, pottery making became popular in places with large amounts of clay. Athens: Many Athenians depended on farming for a living. Herders raised sheep and goats for wool, milk, and cheese. Some farmers grew grains, vegetables, and fruit for local use. Others grew grapes and olives to make wine and olive oil to sell abroad. Athens did not have enough farmland to grow crops for its entire population. As a result, the city had to import grain from other places. During the 400s B.C., Athens became the trading center of the Greek world. Merchants and artisans grew wealthy by making and selling pottery, jewelry, leather goods, and other products. TARGET: I can describe how goods and services were exchanged by this civilization. The Minoans, and later, the Mycenaeans, were major trading powers on the Mediterranean. They traded widely, sailing to Egypt and southern Italy. Greek city states were usually close to a sea port and did much trading by sea. Greek colonies traded regularly with their " parent" cities, shipping them grains, metals, fish, timber, and enslaved people. In return, the colonists received pottery, wine, and olive oil from the mainland. Overseas trade got an extra boost during the 600s B.C., when the Greeks began to mint coins. Merchants were soon exchanging goods for money rather than for more goods. Everyday trade in the city-states took place in the agora, or marketplace.

8 Productivity increases from new knowledge, tools, & specialization Economics Targets Continued TARGET: I can give examples of ways this civilization was able to increase productivity through inventions and innovations. The Minoans and Mycenaeans: The Mycenaeans increased productivity through contact with the Minoans. Soon after the Mycenaeans set up their kingdoms, Minoan traders began to visit from Crete. As a result, Mycenaeans learned much about Minoan culture. They copied the ways Minoans worked with bronze and built ships. They learned how the Minoans used the sun and stars to find their way at sea. The Mycenaeans even started worshiping the Earth Mother, the Minoans' chief goddess. Iron weapons and tools: During the dark ages, a people known as the Dorians settled in Greece. The Dorians brought iron weapons with them, giving Greece more advanced technology. Iron weapons and farm tools were stronger and cheaper than those made of bronze. Greece during the Hellenistic Era: Scientists, especially mathematicians and astronomers, made major contributions during the Hellenistic Era. Astronomers study stars, planets, and other heavenly bodies. Aristarchus, an astronomer from Samos, claimed that the sun was at the center of the universe and that Earth circled the sun. At the time, other astronomers rejected Aristarchus's ideas. They thought that Earth was the center of the universe. Another astronomer, Eratosthenes, was in charge of the library at Alexandria. Eratosthenes concluded that Earth is round. He then used his knowledge of geometry and astronomy to measure Earth's circumference the distance around Earth. He also measured the distance to the sun and the moon. Euclid is probably the most famous Greek mathematician. His best-known book Elements describes plane geometry. Plane geometry is the branch of mathematics that shows how points, lines, angles, and surfaces relate to one another. Archimedes of Syracuse was the most famous scientist of the Hellenistic Era. He worked on solid geometry the study of ball-like shapes called spheres and tube-like shapes called cylinders. He also figured out the value of pi. This number is used to measure the area of circles and is usually represented by a symbol. Archimedes explained the mechanical principle of the lever. He invented catapults to hurl arrows, spears, and rocks. He invented the Archimedean screw to lift water and invented a compound pulley to lift great weights.

9 Relative Location Physical Region Type Human Environment Interactions GEOGRAPHY TARGETS TARGET: I can recognize where on the Earth this civilization was located. Greece is located on the southeastern side of the continent of Europe. Mainland Greece is a peninsula a body of land with water on three sides To the west is the Ionian Sea, to the south is the Mediterranean Sea, and to the east is the Aegean Sea. Hundreds of islands lie offshore, stretching across to Asia like stepping stones. TARGET: I can describe characteristics of this region. The peninsula of ancient Greece had a Mediterranean climate. Its summers were hot and dry. The Mediterranean waters and a northwesterly breeze kept temperatures at a comfortable level. Winters were mild and wet. In the winter, temperatures again were influenced by the surrounding water. In the mountains, snow was typical during the wet winter months. Greece typically experienced a large amount of sunny days during the year. The geography of ancient Greece was divided into three regions: the coast, the lowlands, and the mountains. The rocky and uneven soil on the peninsula of Greece allowed for less than 20 percent of the land to be farmed, so the Greeks relied heavily on imports of grains and other foods from other regions around the Mediterranean. With no rivers that could be used for boats (because rivers would dry up in the hot summer and be overflowing during the winter), transportation on the sea was very important to the Greeks. The mountainous terrain made land travel difficult and contributed to the formation of independent city-states throughout the region. TARGET: I can describe how this society s human/environment interactions impacted human activities and the environment. Migration The Minoans were not Greeks, but their civilization was the first to arise in the region that later became Greece. They lived on the island of Crete that lies southeast of the Greek mainland. About 1450 B.C., the Minoan civilization suddenly collapsed. Some historians think undersea earthquakes caused giant waves that washed away the Minoans' cities. The Mycenaeans were originally from central Asia. They invaded the Greek mainland and conquered the people living there. The Mycenaean leaders became the first Greek kings. By 1100 B.C., Mycenaean civilization had collapsed due to earthquakes and fighting among the kingdoms. During the Dark Age there was a huge population shift. Thousands of Greeks left the mainland and settled on islands in the Aegean Sea. Other Greeks moved to the western shores of Asia Minor, to what is now the country of Turkey. This wave of movement expanded the reach of Greek culture. Trade Alexander the Great built the city of Alexandria in Egypt as a center of business and trade. The city became one of the most important cities in the ancient world. Development Ancient Greeks felt deep ties to the land, but the mountains and seas divided them from one another. As a result, early Greek communities grew up fiercely independent. Activities limited or promoted by environment Greece had no great river valleys. Many ancient Greeks made a living from the sea. They became fishers, sailors, and traders. Others settled in farming communities. Greece's mountains and rocky soil were not ideal for growing crops. However, the climate was mild, and in some places people could grow wheat, barley, olives, and grapes. They also raised sheep and goats. Human modifications of environment Mycenaean kingdoms built fortified palaces on hills. The ruler lived there, surrounded by giant stone walls. Beyond the palace walls lay large farms, or estates, that belonged to the nobles. Slaves and farmers lived on the estates and took shelter inside the fortress in times of danger. Likewise, in the Greek city-states, the main gathering place in the polis was usually a hill. A fortified area, called an acropolis, stood at the top of the hill. It provided a safe refuge in case of attacks. Persians: To connect their vast holdings, the Persians built miles of roads. The Royal Road stretched from Asia Minor to Susa, the Persian capital. Along the way, the Persians set up roadside stations to supply food, shelter, and fresh horses to the king s messengers. Farmers in the mountainous areas of Greece often used terraced farming in order to grow crops on the steep hills and mountain sides.

10 Biggest Impacts on the future & today s cultures HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE TARGETS TARGET: I can analyze how this civilization influenced or had lasting impacts on modern societies. The Olympics: In ancient Greece, only men could participate in and view the Olympic games, which were held in Olympia in honor of Zeus. Athletes competed by themselves, not as part of a team. Contests included running, jumping, wrestling, and boxing. Each winning athlete won a crown of olive leaves and brought glory to his city. In today s Olympic games, both men and women compete. These athletes come from all over the world. They may compete in either individual or team sporting events. Olympic athletes strive to win gold, silver, or bronze medals. Marathon races: According to legend, after winning the Battle of Marathon against Persians, the Athenians sent a messenger named Pheidippides home with the news. The runner raced nearly 25 miles (40.2 km) from Marathon to Athens. He collapsed from exhaustion and, with his last breath, announced, Victory." Then he died. Modern marathon races are named for this famous run and are just over 26 miles long. Greek poems and stories are the oldest in the Western world. For hundreds of years, Europeans and Americans have used these early works as models for their own poems and stories. Shakespeare, for example, borrowed many Greek plots and settings. About 550 B.C., a Greek slave named Aesop made up his now famous fables. These often funny stories point out human flaws as well as strengths. Each fable ends with a message, or moral. Some of the phrases we hear today came from Aesop's fables. "Sour grapes," "a wolf in sheep's clothing," and "appearances often are deceiving" are examples. For about 200 years, Aesop's fables were a part of Greece's oral tradition. This means they were passed from person to person by word of mouth long before they were ever written down. Since then, countless writers have retold the stories in many different languages. The Greeks created the ideas of tragedy and comedy that are still used in drama today. The plays included music and dance. Greek actors wore costumes and held large masks. The masks told the audience who the actor was supposed to be a king, a soldier, or a god. All the actors were men, even those playing female parts. Actors today include both men and women and even children and animals. Special effects and makeup have replaced handheld masks. Music in modern theater is sometimes just as important as the actors' words. The Greeks also introduced costumes, props, and stage decorations all ideas we still use today. Large columns supported many Greek buildings. The first Greek columns were carved from wood. Then, in 500 B.C., the Greeks began to use marble. Today, marble columns are common features of churches and government buildings. Some of the bestknown buildings in our nation's capital, such as the White House and the Capitol, have columns similar to Greek columns. A legacy is what a person leaves behind when he or she dies. Alexander the Great and his armies spread Greek art, ideas, language, and architecture wherever they went in southwest Asia and northern Africa. Greeks, in turn, brought new ideas back from Asia and Africa. Alexander's conquests marked the beginning of the Hellenistic Era. The word Hellenistic comes from a Greek word meaning "like the Greeks." It refers to a time when the Greek language and Greek ideas spread to the non- Greek people of southwest Asia. That was Alexander s legacy. In the 400s B.C., the practice of medicine began to change. Hippocrates, a doctor and pioneer of medical science, began to separate medicine from religion. He stressed that it was important to examine the body and look at a patient's symptoms to find out why someone was ill. He also taught that it was important to have a healthy diet. Hippocrates is well known for the oath, or pledge, that he asked his medical students to recite. His students had to promise never to harm and always to care for their patients. New doctors still take a version of the Hippocratic Oath when they graduate from medical school.

11 Historical Perspective Continued The word philosophy comes from the Greek word for "love of wisdom." Greek philosophy led to the study of history, political science, science, and mathematics. Greek thinkers who believed the human mind could understand everything were called philosophers. Famous Greek philosopher/teachers: Pythagoras taught his pupils that the universe followed the same laws that governed music and numbers. He believed that all relationships in the world could be expressed in numbers. As a result, he developed many new ideas about mathematics. Most people know his name because of the Pythagorean theorem that is still used in geometry. It is a way to determine the length of the sides of a triangle. Socrates believed that an absolute truth existed and that all real knowledge was within each person. He invented the Socratic method of teaching still used today. He asked pointed questions to force his pupils to use their reason and to see things for themselves. He was accused of teaching young Athenians to rebel against the state and sentenced to death. Plato was one of Socrates' students. One work Plato wrote is called the Republic. It explains his ideas about government. Based on life in Athens, Plato decided that democracy was not a good system of government. Plato also believed that men and women should have the same education and an equal chance to have the same jobs. Plato established a school in Athens called the Academy. Aristotle was Plato s best student. Aristotle wrote more than 200 books on topics ranging from government to the planets and stars. In 335 B.C. Aristotle opened his own school called the Lyceum. Aristotle also helped to advance science by making observations and grouping them according to their similarities and differences. Then he made generalizations based on the groups of facts. Like Plato, Aristotle wrote about government. In his book Politics, Aristotle divided the governments into three types: Government by one person, such as a monarch (king or queen) or a tyrant Government by a few people, which might be an aristocracy or an oligarchy Government by many people, as in a democracy Aristotle noticed that governments run by a few people were usually run by the rich. He noticed that most democracies were run by the poor. He thought the best government was a mixture of the two. Aristotle's ideas shaped the way Europeans and Americans thought about government. The founders of the United States Constitution tried to create a mixed government that balanced the different types Aristotle had identified. Epicurus founded a philosophy we now know as Epicureanism. He taught his students that happiness was the goal of life. He believed that the way to be happy was to seek out pleasure. Today the word epicurean means the love of physical pleasure, such as good food or comfortable surroundings. However, to Epicurus, pleasure meant spending time with friends and learning not to worry about things. Epicureans avoided worry by staying out of politics and public service. Zeno developed Stoicism. For Stoics, happiness came from following reason, not emotions, and doing your duty. Today the word stoic is used to describe someone who is not affected by joy or grief. Unlike Epicureans, Stoics thought people had a duty to serve their city.

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