Ancient Greece BCE

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1 Ancient Greece BCE

2 Ancient Greece MYCENAEAN CIVILIZATION BCE

3 Who were the Greeks Shared language Settled the Greek Peninsula 2000 BCE From Balkan region north of present day Greece From Europe around 5000 BCE Hellenes Hellas Name still used Greece named by the Romans Only in Western European languages

4

5 Cities of Dark Age of Greece Geography defines Greece Valleys and hills Forced Greece to build independent cities Kings as rulers Each one independent of the others. Largest of the cities Mycenae BCE Mycenaean Age Not much is known except for the Linear B tablets From these palace and bureaucracy Grave goods attesting to a wealthy society

6 Zenith of Mycenae Atreus Father of Agamemnon Treasury Beehive construction Period is known for funeral goods Burial suits of gold foil wrapped over face of dead Death mask Complete wrapping of children Trojan War BCE Height of power and prosperity Imposing monuments (see Lion Gate)

7 Troy continued Troy of Homer Record of Mycenae but was a poet creating story Decline Not historian Excavation of Troy proves that Troy was destroyed around 1250BCE During Homer time frame BCE Marauders : Sea peoples Trade in Mycenaean pottery comes to an end due to danger from pirates Attacks on land also BCE Mycenae was over run Best guess: From the Doric dialect peoples Sparta Corinth

8 Pictures: Treasury of Atreus

9 Beehive Roof Interior of Atreus Treasury, not seen on previous slide. See the intricate masonry of the room stones to seal the crypt and hold the roof in place for over 2500 years.

10 Mycenaean Tomb Generic tomb but was discovered very much apart from large grave yard. May have been a leader s grave site

11 Lion s Gate (Arch) This was the entrance to the ancient city of Mycenae. The lions here are huge, nearly 20 tall. Built in the wall to be as imposing as possible for visitors

12 Agamemnon s Death Mask Thought to be King Agamemnon s death mask due to the fact of the intricacy of detail and placement in the burial site. Now archaeologists and historian s are not sure. Could have just been a wealthy merchant or leader.

13 Reconstruction of Mycenae in the Glory Days

14

15

16 Ancient Greece BCE THE DARK AGES OF GREECE BCE GREEK RENAISSANCE

17 Dark Ages?? Historically Decline in culture Pottery not elegant Simple Burials No Massive Buildings Linear B vanished

18 Dark Ages and Renaissance Greek Religion Why??? Guess: Death of the learned class Economy faltered No records from the period Decline was NOT a collapse!! Beginning of a new cultural life Represented in the Religion

19 Religion PANTHEON OF GREEK GODS

20 Pantheon of Gods Polytheistic 2000 BC Zeus Indo-European god Dyaus India Jupiter Rome Tiu Norse mythology

21 Greek Gods and their Parentage

22 Pantheon continued Apollo Sun god From Asia Minor Aphrodite Goddess of love Cyprus Athena Artemis Goddess of wisdom Hunter goddess Both from Crete

23 Pantheon continued Later Egyptian gods Isis Black Athena Borrowed from all over known world Personal gods Not remote Like Mesopotamia

24 Relationship to the Gods They intervened in everyday life Gods had favorites Assisted their favorites Anthropomorphic Human like With frailties And limitations of humans Though perfect and immortal Mt Olympus Actual mountain in Greece

25 Relationship to the Gods No religious code of behavior Some acts were wrong - taboo Patricide Relatives unburied While others were accepted behavior Betraying friend or family Nemesis Avenging force for good This was always there

26 Religion continued Over all no moral concept of Good/Evil Worst was Hades Keeper of the underworld Named for him For the most part, Gods were benevolent Had to be appeased Temples Offerings Ceremonies

27 Religion continued Priests for temples but No priestly class No intervention with politics No church/mosque All other societies Had a priestly caste Leaders in their own right Heavily involved with politics

28 Religion continued Greeks themselves determined the immortality of the gods Religion and civic life was closely intertwined with society and culture Temples indicate governing value of religion Gods common through all of Greece Pan-Hellenic culture

29 Religion continued Each city-state polis chose a god as a patron But worshipped all the gods Exceptions: Zeus only worshipped at Olympia Apollo at Delphi Oracle of Delphi Significant to all of Greece

30

31

32 The Greek Game PAN-HELLENIC OLYMPIC

33 Pan-Hellenic Games Founded 776 BC Begins Historic period of Greece Writing began with the games Dedicated to Zeus Religious by very nature Celebration of human perfection Heroism Broad support from all of Greece

34

35

36 Pan-Hellenic Games continued First events: Foot races Wrestling Later included Horse Chariot Boxing Javelin throwing Other events

37 Pan-Hellenic Games continued Winner Received prize Olive wreath City rewards for winner Rich rewards Lifelong glory Amateur athlete Unknown to Greece Other games imitation to the originals Cities founded But only one Pan-Hellenic Games Olympic Games

38

39 Colonization Alphabet Literature CA BCE

40 Foreign Colonization Spread throughout the Mediterranean Settled only on edge of sea Never inland Colonies Wholly independent poleis Byzantium Istanbul Naples Marseilles Syracuse

41

42 Foreign Colonization continued Reasons: Trade Demand for specific food products Specifically Grains Greek cities became extremely wealthy from colonies Spread Greek society throughout the Mediterranean

43 Alphabet DEVELOPMENT OF THE SYMBOLIC

44 Alphabet Transition from Linear B Phoenicians 750 BCE Semitic script First to use a symbolic alphabet 30 characters Mostly phonetic Precise Flexible Versatile

45 Alphabet continued Adopted by Greeks Changed many characters A few to vowels None in the Semitic alphabet 2 early versions of alphabet developed Western version Cumae Italian colony Then to the Etruscans Passed to the Romans Developed Western alphabet

46 Alphabet continued Eastern version Standard of Greece Eventually changed into modern Cyrillic script Russia Slavic languages All developed from the same source with Phoenician derivitives

47 Alphabet continued Public use: Application of alphabet Literacy First used in public proclamations Laws Ordinary people would/could read Evident that it was necessary 500 BCE Athens Publications of all kinds of public decisions Records displayed on stone Documents enabling understanding Criticism Control of the government itself

48 Development of Written Language over time

49 Greek Literature

50 Literature Homer Epic Poems Glorious heroes Battles for Troy The Iliad portrait Warrior greatness in combat Honor Virtue Hero:

51 Literature continued Achilles Withdraws from siege of Troy when his concubine is taken from him Friend and Relative (cousin) Patroclus Wore Achilles armor Killed by Trojan hero Hector

52 Literature continued Avenges Patroclus by killing Hector Vicious Cruel Gods take sides Story about men and women The Odyssey Celebrates cleverness

53 Literature continued Odysseus: Hero Trials to get home from war Tests Human character Behavior Finally reaches home Proves his love to his wife Penelope

54 Literature continued Homeric Question Oral tradition Recitation at feasts By bards Then at festivals Study in schools

55 Literature continued Don t know who wrote the epics Did Homer exist? Dates significance: 1250 BCE Trojan War 750 BCE date of the poems Inspiration for Greek poetry Hesiod First post-homeric poet Works and Days

56 Literature continued 700 BCE Farmer Farmer s almanac Theology Sappho Rise of power of Zeus Cronus Uranus From Lesbos 600 BCE

57 One complete poem Wrote about association of young woman Widow Teacher of Poetry, dance, music and dress Love poetry: Simple and elegant The moon has set, so have the Pleiades; it is midnight. The hour goes past, but I lie alone.

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