The Peloponnesian War

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1 The Peloponnesian War

2 Hope and Fear The truest explanation the growth of Athens to greatness and Spartan fear (Thuc. i.23.5) The majority of the Hellenes were angry with the Athenians, some wishing to be delivered from their control, others fearful of falling under it (Thuc. ii. 8.4)

3 432 BC

4 Corcyra: Epidamnus Colony of Corinth Seeks colony status from Corcyra Corinth threatens war Corcyra appeals to Athens Adds naval strength to Athens Strategic position Athens agrees and sends 30 ships

5 Corcyra:

6 Potidaea Athenian tribute state Corinthian Colony Athens: Feared that Corinth would use Potidaea to retaliate. Feared the involvement of Perdiccas of Macedon Ordered Potidaea to expel the Corinthians Potidaea rises in revolt, September 433.

7 Potidaea

8 The Megarian Decree Megara, a member of the Peloponnesian League since 445 BC Megarian Decree (before 435?) Megarians may not use Athenian harbors or markets. Pericles issued the decree to incite war (Diod. xii 40.6; Aristophanes Peace )

9 Megarian Decree

10 Corinth Main instigator in the Peloponnesian League Athenian interference a breach of the treaty Corinth demands that the League respond Athenian treatment of subject states Megarian Decree Corcyra Potidaea

11 Cause, Pretext and First Event Cause Athenian Power Athenian alliance with Corcyra Pretext Harsh treatment of subject states Megarian Decree First Event Theban attack on Plataea

12 Diplomacy Spartan embassies, 432: First Embassy: Expel the Cylonian Pollution (Pericles) Second: Raise the siege of Potidaea Give Aegina independence Rescind the Megarian Decree

13 An offer you can t accept: Third Embassy: Leave the Hellenes independent Pericles response (Thuc ) The Spartans are dropping the tone of protest and adopting that of command We will dissolve our empire when you dissolve yours We will not start the fight but we will respond to any who do.

14 Plataea And the war began when the Athenians and Peloponnesians broke the Thirty Years Truce... (Thuc. i.23.4) March 5/6 th 431 BC Thebes attempts to take Plataea by force. the treaty had been broken by an overt act (Thuc. ii. 7.1)

15 Archidamus Strategy for Sparta: they will take the field against us when they see us destroying their property (Thuc. ii 11.6) to provoke rather than to ruin the Athenians Hanson, 2006: Olive trees and barley crops: Hanson 1998: : Spartans in Attica less than 150 days (Hanson, 2006: 57)

16 Pericles Strategy for Athens Withdraw inside the walls Do not engage in hoplite battle When Archidamus sees he cannot win, he will stop Pericles never really had any clear strategy for how to mount an offensive (Hanson, 2006: 20). Is Hanson correct?

17 Strategy? Thucydides seldom makes tactical or strategic connections between nearly simultaneous operations. It is not because he is ignorant of the main plot of the war but, rather, because there often was none (Hanson, 2006: 31).

18

19 Trireme

20 Olympias

21 Trireme Design

22 The Fog of War The plague at Athens, 430 BC Above all else, plan to change plans the Spartans would have admitted defeat after that first year (Plut. Per. 34). 1/3 of the population died.

23 Potidaea Falls to Athens Winter of 430 BC

24 Plataea May 429 Sparta attacks Plataea

25 Pericles Both of his sons by his first wife died of the plague. Pericles married Aspasia of Miletus Their two sons could not be citizens by his own law! September of 429, Pericles died of the plague His successors: fell the victims of their own intestine disorders (Thuc. ii.64)

26 The New Leadership Nicias Leader of the Oligarchic Faction Shy, nervous, easily intimidated, so cautious it might have been cowardice Cleon Leader of the Demos Bold to the point of foolishness First real demagogue

27 Mytilene Summer of 428 Lesbos rises in revolt We became allies, not to the Athenians for the enslavement of the Hellenes, but to the Hellenes for their emancipation from the Persians. (Thuc. iii )

28

29 Cleon Leader of the Demos All male citizens of Mytilene put to death (Thuc. iii ) Diodotus: Surrender under terms in no hurry on so horrible a business (Thuc. iii. 49.4)

30 Politics in Sparta Agiads Eurypontids Leonidas (490 80) Cleombrotus (480-79) Leutychides (491-68) Pausanias (479 66) Zeuxidamus Pleistoanax (458-08) Lampido = Archidamus (468-26) Pausanias ( ) Agis ( )

31 Pylos 425: 80 Athenian ships/ 40 Spartan ships heading for Sicily Demosthenes lands at Pylos Spartans take Sphacteria 420 hoplites

32 Pylos and Sphacteria

33 Pylos and Sphacteria

34 Spartan Response Any Helot who could prove leadership and service to his country could come forward and be given his freedom did so They were marched off and executed (Thuc. iv.80; Plut. Lycurgus 28.3)

35 Nicias 1 st Blunder Cleon: Critical of the generals at Pylos Boasted he could win in 20 days Nicias Resigned his office Cleon Humiliated Sparta and Nicias

36 Cythera 424: Nicias captures Cythera Chilon: Cythera the bane of Sparta (Hdt. vii.234) Helot Revolt? 700 leading Helots sent north with Brasidas. Winter 424: Battle of Delium

37 Cythera

38 Amphipolis 424: Brasidas takes Amphipolis Thucydides failure 422: Cleon and Brasidas killed at Amphipolis 421: The Peace of Nicias

39 421 BC

40 Peace of Nicias, 421: Athens: Loss at Amphipolis Loss at Delium Plataea Fear of revolt Sparta: End of truce with Argos Athenians at Naupactus, Pylos and Cythera Corcyra allied with Athens Helot revolt

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