STUDIA TROICA Monographien 8

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2 STUDIA TROICA Monographien

3 STUDIA TROICA Monographien 8 Herausgeber Ernst Pernicka Charles Brian Rose Peter Jablonka UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI

4 Ernst Pernicka, Sinan Ünlüsoy and Stephan W. E. Blum (eds.) Early Bronze Age Troy: Chronology, Cultural Development and Interregional Contacts Proceedings of an International Conference held at the University of Tübingen May 8 10, 2009 VERLAG DR. RUDOLF HABELT GMBH BONN

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6 In memoriam Hans Günter Jansen

7 Undertaken with the assistance of the Institute for Aegean Prehistory (INSTAP) Philadelphia, USA Gefördert mit Mitteln der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) 408 Seiten mit 28 Farb- und 189 Schwarzweißabbildungen Herausgeber Ernst Pernicka Sinan Ünlüsoy Stephan W. E. Blum Layout, Satz SCHWEIZER. Grafik Layout Buchdesign, Göppingen Die Deutsche Nationalbibliothek verzeichnet diese Publikation in der Deutschen Nationalbibliografie; detaillierte bibliografische Daten sind im Internet über <http://dnb.d-nb.de> abrufbar by Dr. Rudolf Habelt GmbH, Bonn ISBN: Das Werk einschließlich aller seiner Teile ist urheberrechtlich geschützt. Jede Verwertung außerhalb der engen Grenzen des Urheberrechtsgesetzes ist ohne Zustimmung des Verlages unzulässig und strafbar. Dies gilt insbesondere für Vervielfältigung, Übersetzung, Mikroverfilmung und die Speicherung und Verarbeitung in elektronischen Systemen.

8 Contents Ernst Pernicka Preface 9 Chronology and Stratigraphy Mariana Thater White Painted Pottery in Early Bronze Age Troy 13 Mariya Ivanova Stratigraphy and Architecture of Troy I: the Excavations in»schliemann s Trench«39 Peter Pavúk Dating of the Pinnacle in square E4/5, Dörpfeld Stratigraphy and Formation Processes at Troy 49 Peter Jablonka Beyond the Citadel: A Map of Greater Early Bronze Age Troy 61 Göksel Sazcı and Devrim Çalış Sazcı The Troy III Period in Light of Recent Excavations 75 Stephan W. E. Blum The Final Stages of the Early Bronze Age at Troy: Cultural Development, Chronology, and Interregional Contacts 89 Cultural Development and Interregional Contacts Barbara Horejs Bernhard Weninger Early Troy and its significance for the Early Bronze Age in Western Anatolia 123 Halime Hüryılmaz Yenibademli and Troy: Reflection of Troy I Culture in the Light of Archaeological Findings and Cultural Identity of Yenibademli 147 Hayat Erkanal and Vasıf Şahoğlu Liman Tepe, an Early Bronze Age Trade Center in Western Anatolia: Recent Investigations 157 Vasıf Şahoğlu Early Bronze Age Cemeteries at Bakla Tepe: Changing Patterns 167 Göksel Sazcı The Metal Finds of the 3rd Millennium in Troy and their Counterparts in the Early Bronze Age World 183 Eylem Özdoğan Kanlıgeçit an Anatolian Model of an Urban Center in Eastern Thrace: an Overview 197

9 8 Content Lydia Berger Walter Gauss Early Bronze Age Aegina Kolonna: A View from a Southwest Aegean Centre 209 Martin G. Hristov Dubene and its Probable Contacts with the Aegaeo-Anatolian Region 229 Krassimir P. Leshtakov Troy and Upper Thrace: What Happened in the EBA 3? (Interrelations Based on Pottery Evidence) 239 Emergence of Stratified Societies John Bintliff Early Bronze Age Troy and the Emergence of Complex Societies in the Aegean 259 Özlem Çevik Mehmet Sağır The Rise of the Elites on both Sides of the Aegean Sea 267 Thomas Zimmermann Early Bronze Age Elites: A fresh look at some old and new evidence from West and Central Anatolia 277 Economy and Trade Canan Çakırlar Early Bronze Age Foodways in the Aegean: Social Archaeozoology on the Eastern Side 291 Diane Thumm-Doğrayan Storage Strategies in Early Bronze Age Troy 305 Simone Riehl and Elena Marinova The Interplay of Environmental Change, Socio-political Stress and Human Resilience at Early to Middle Bronze Age Troy 319 Production and Distribution of Raw Materials and Craft Specialization Christoph Bachhuber The Industry and Display of Textiles in Early Bronze Age Western Anatolia 339 Neyir Kolankaya-Bostancı New Interpretations of Early Bronze Age Obsidian Procurement and Distribution in Western Anatolia 365 Ivan Gatsov Petranka Nedelcheva Early Bronze Age Lithic Assemblages from Troia 375 Maria Gurova Troy I V Chipped Stone Assemblages: Functional Connotations 379 Sinan Ünlüsoy Troy and the Aegean During the Third Millenium BC 397

10 Preface Ernst Pernicka Troy has been of outstanding importance for EBA archaeology ever since the discovery and excavation of the site by Heinrich Schliemann. Partly due to the paucity of archaeological research on EBA Anatolia, Troy has long been considered as the only key site for Western Anatolia and the Northern Aegean. However, as a result of recent excavations at other contemporary sites (e. g., Liman Tepe, Yenibademli, Küllüoba), it has become clear that Troy was not the only significant EBA settlement in this region and that its position as a key site is due for a re-examination. To explore the similarities and diversities of Early Bronze Age cultures across the Northern- Aegean and Western Anatolia, an international conference entitled»early Bronze Age Troy: Chronology, Cultural Development and Interregional Contacts«was held in early May 2009 at the University of Tübingen. Besides the general aspects of chronology and stratigraphy, it addressed themes such as the emergence of stratified societies, concepts of EBA economy and trade, production and distribution of raw materials and craft specialization with special reference to Troy itself. After the untimely death of Manfred Korfmann who directed the new series of excavations until 2005 I was asked by the university to resume the responsibility for the research at Troy. This was not an easy task although I was associated with the project from the beginning in 1988, but rather from the outside and more as an adviser than a true member of the team. I gratefully acknowledge the help of many colleagues to get a grip of this enormous task but Hans Günter Jansen in particular formed a solid rock for me whose advice was always welcome and important on which I could rely on in every aspect. Hans Günter served as director of the Troy Foundation at the University of Tübingen and accompanied our research with deep knowledge and sympathy and, last not least, with outstanding generosity. It is for this reason the editors as members of the excavation team dedicated this volume to his memory. After a successful career as physicist in an international computer company Hans Günter Jansen began a new one in the field of applied physics in archaeology. He took this very serious and indeed began formal studies of prehistoric archaeology at the University of Tübingen in 1984 where he also met Manfred Korfmann. When the new excavation project as one of the major goals of the research was the Lower City of Troy, whose existence was suspected since Heinrich Schliemann but was never really confirmed in the field. It was Jansen who suggested a large-scale geophysical prospection of the area south of the citadel of Troy and immediately began himself with this enormous task in view of the instrumentation then available. In the years between 1988 and 2001 an area of around 50 hectares was surveyed by Jansen himself and other specialist in physical prospection. As a result it was possible to outline the»city plan«with an orthogonal street system with insulae of the Hellenistic and Roman periods (Troy VIII and IX) together with the western Hellenistic city wall over a length of 400 m. But the most important discovery was the outline of the Late Bronze Age (Troy VI and VIIa) Lower City, which is represented not by a wall as originally assumed but by a ditch of 4 m width that extends over a length of more than one kilometer as has later been shown by excavations. Besides his scientific achievements in archaeology,notonlyintroy,hansgünterjansenwasanindispensablememberofthetroyteaminatimewhen computersbegantobeappliedataregularandlarge scalealsoinarchaeology.herehecouldcombinethe knowledge of his two professional careers by creatingahomepageoftheprojectfortheinternetand improving its public visibility in every respect. Finally, as managing director of the Troy Foundation he used his wide-ranging contacts to find supporters and donators and actually made considerably donations himself. He continued to participate in the excavation campaigns every summer and

11 10 Preface was highly respected as archaeologist and geophysicist. He was awarded the honors medal of the University of Tübingen and in 2002 also the Bundesverdienstkreuz, an order of the Federal Republic of Germany. He remained interested in the progress of research at Troy until the last field campaign in He died on 25 February, We will remember him as a warm-hearted friend and knowledgeable colleague. Finally, we want to express our gratitude to the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) for longterm support of the Troy project and the Institute for Aegean Prehistory (INSTAP) for financial support for the publication of this volume. Tübingen, March 2016

12 Stratigraphy and Architecture of Troy I: the Excavations in»schliemann s Trench«Mariya Ivanova Abstract Architectural remains of the earliest settlement at Troy were first discovered by Heinrich Schliemann in 1879 at the bottom of the»north-south Trench«in the heart of the citadel hill. In the course of his reassessment during the 1930s, Carl W. Blegen uncovered further structures of the same period in an adjacent area. While the preservation of important architectural monuments precluded large-scale investigations of this period in other parts of the settlement mound, limited excavations in the old trenches of Schliemann and Blegen in by an international team under the direction of Manfred O. Kor f- mann of the University of Tübingen brought forward new insights into the earliest history of the site. This paper presents results of the latest work carried out in the»schliemann s Trench«. Contrary to the conclusions drawn by Blegen, free standing»megaron«houses did not determine the visual pattern of the earliest settlement at Troy. Instead, the local building tradition can be described as an Anatolian»row house«style. The Troy I settlement demonstrates the flat-roofed row-house arrangement that appeared repeatedly in coastal and inland Western Anatolia during the earliest centuries of the 3 rd mill. BCE and was unfamiliar in this form to the neighboring regions. Excavations in Schliemann s Trench In 1872 H. Schliemann began to excavate of a huge cut through the mound of Hisarlık, the North-South Trench, expecting to uncover»the city of Priamos«at the very bottom of the citadel hill. In this campaign, however, he did not reach the bedrock but only the top of a massive stratum of burned debris at a depth of about 10 m below the original surface. In the following years Schliemann focused his attention on the»burned layer«, seeing in it a promising candidate for Homeric Troy (Dörpfeld 1902: 42; Easton 2002). Much later, in 1879, 1882 and 1890, excavations in the North-South trench were carried out to bedrock in a limited area from D3 to D5, and a sequence of parallel stone walls of the earliest settlement was exposed (Dörpfeld 1902: 11, 42 49) (fig. 1). 1 The excavations at Troy were resumed in 1932 by a team of the University of Cincinnati under the direction of C. W. Blegen. Blegen s major concern was to elucidate the synchronization of the Trojan and the Aegean chronologies and Troy s external cultural relations. Deposits of the earliest period of habitation were investigated at the northernmost periphery of Schliemann s old North-South trench in Squares CD2 3 between 1935 and 1937 (Blegen et al. 1950). Fifty years later, in 1987 a team of the University of Tübingen undertook a re-investigation of the excavation areas in Schliemann s Trench. 2 Along with the excavation of limited undisturbed deposits on the edges of the old trenches, they completed the architectural documentation and conservation of all ruins in Schliemann s Trench. This paper presents results of the post-excavation analysis of the site documentation for areas CD2 5 in General stratigraphy and chronology The longest succession of layers in Schliemann s Trench was uncovered by Blegen in Square D3 (Blegen et al. 1950: Fig. 422). The stratigraphic sequence from this area was chosen as a basis for the relative chronology of the Troy I period. A second cross section some 2 m further eastwards was subsequently excavated by the University of Cincinnati team but

13 40 Mariya Ivanova Fig. 1:»Schliemann s Trench«, from South (DF327). remained unpublished. It was cleaned and documented during the re-investigation in (fig. 2). The Troy I deposit in this area is about 4.5 m thick and attests to continuous habitation and rebuilding. The strata are not horizontal but slope toward the north, and the stone walls lean markedly in the same direction.4 In the latest phase the difference in level is emphasized by a massive terrace wall dividing the settlement space into a lower and an upper area, thus adding considerable difficulty to the correlation of the separate excavation areas. The earliest cultural deposit lies on a sterile bed of brown earth (natural soil) which was observed in all excavation areas. The last layer, a stratum of burned house debris, originates from a strong conflagration on the Upper Terrace and was spread over the northernmost area of the settlement in a single leveling operation (Blegen et al. 1950: 82). Blegen divided the stratigraphic sequence of ten strata (Ia-k) into three major»subperiods«early, middle and late (Blegen et al. 1950: 36). Imports of Early Helladic and Early Cycladic pottery and comparisons with the ceramic material from Thermi on Lesbos support in his opinion the synchronization of Troy I with the beginning of the EBA in the Aegean (Blegen et al. 1950: 41). The radiocarbon dates on samples from the new excavations suggest an absolute age roughly between 2900 and 2600 cal. BC (Korfmann et al. 1993; Kromer et al. 2003). The Early Subperiod Stratigraphy Deposits of the Early Subperiod were investigated in the whole area of Schliemann s Trench from D2 to D5. The stratification was recorded by Blegen in a cross section in D3 4 (west section) and in D3 (east section) (Blegen et al. 1950: 108, Fig. 422, 431). The recent excavations added two further sections in D5 (east section) and D4 (west section). At the bottom of the sequence lies a sterile bed of sandy brown earth covering the bedrock. The so-called Pre-Troy (or Troy 0) stratum encountered in the southern part of Schliemann s Trench comprises a sterile

14 Stratigraphy and Architecture of Troy I: the Excavations in»schliemann s Trench«41 Fig. 2: Troy East cross section of Square D3. chalky layer and a small area of burned soil and carbonized plant material. This stratum yielded a few small fragments of pottery and animal bones. The subsequent deposit developed during three major building events and several episodes of rebuilding. Deposits of phase Ia (fig. 2, stratum 171) were encountered only in the northern part of the Trench in CD3. Phase Ib started with the erection of an extensive complex of buildings covering the whole excavation area from D2 to D5 (fig. 4). In phase Ic an identical building complex with walls in slightly different lines, though destroyed by Schliemann, is visible in Blegen s section in D4 (Blegen et al. 1950: Fig. 431 Stratum 3, walls 153, 155) and in the east cross-section documented during the recent excavations in D5. Architecture and layout Blegen s phase Ia includes a house (House 103) and a habitationlayerrestingonasterilestratumofbrown earth (the natural soil covering the bedrock). In the vicinity of the house the layer was rich in pottery and house debris but it thinned and disappeared toward the south (fig. 2, stratum 171) (Blegen et al. 1950: 82). This situation most probably represents an early episode of occupation on the lower ledges near the rim of the plateau facing the seashore that was followed by a substantial later enlargement of the settlement over the higher terraces toward the interior. Before a new building was erected over the ruins of House 103 in D3, the area was filled with a 0.20 m thick leveling layer of sterile clay (Blegen et al. 1950: 89). This filling reduced the difference in level and createdarelativelyflatareafortheconstructionofalarge complex of houses (fig. 4). 5 The complex was rebuilt at least once, as demonstrated by the new excavations forthestonefoundationsofdörpfeldswallsd,f,k and l (fig. 3). In the west cross section of D3 4 the stone walls stand over 2 m high. This cross section illustrates clearly that the superstructure was razed and thestonefoundationsraisedononeormoreoccasions (Blegen et al. 1950: 109, Fig. 431). Traces of rebuilding were observed in the western part of House 102, too (Blegen et al. 1950: 91, Fig. 431). Contrary to Blegen s interpretation, House 102 was not an independently standing structure. 6 In the

15 42 Mariya Ivanova first place, it has the same orientation as the walls in D4 5 uncovered by H. Schliemann (Korfmann 1991: 7, Fig. 8). Blegen would have been able to recognize the link between House 102 and the rest of the architectural complex in Schliemann s Trench, had he not incorporated a measurement error in his plans of CD3.7 Moreover, Blegen exposed conclusive evidence for a house between Wall l and House 102 in the west cross section of CD3 without commenting on its implications (Blegen et al. 1950: 108 ff., Fig. 169, Fig. 431). As parts of the old west cross section of CD3 were cleaned in 1988, the remains of a mud brick superstructure wall cut by the cross section became visible. The well preserved mudbrick wall lay over a house floor deposit and obviously fell down from a north-south oriented stone foundation (fig. 5). This situation is identical to the stratigraphic sequence west of Wall f in D4 and D5 (fig. 3) and represents the first building phase of the house complex. In the same west cross section of D3, house floors cover the fallen mud brick wall, indicating that, similar to D5, a second habitation phase of the house followed after rebuilding.8 The exact recon- struction of the building between Wall l and House 102 is very difficult as its northern half must have been destroyed by Schliemann. Another similar row of houses stood further eastward. The new excavations in D3 uncovered the western wall of the house to the east of House 102 (fig. 2, 161) and a narrow alley separating the two buildings. The walls excavated by Blegen in E5 lie in a similar stratigraphic position and might belong to the southern part of the same long-house complex (Blegen et al. 1950: 119 ff., Fig. 448).The settlement was enclosed on its land side with a free-standing mud brick wall on low vertical foundations of several courses of stones (fig. 4). The Middle Subperiod Stratigraphy The stratigraphic sequence of the Middle Subperiod was recorded by Blegen in his base cross section in D3 (east cross section) and by the University of Fig. 3: Troy Square D5, stone foundation of Wall f showing two phases of construction, in the north cross-section the collapsed mud brick superstructure of the first phase (DiaTR 10085).

16 Stratigraphy and Architecture of Troy I: the Excavations in»schliemann s Trench«43 Fig. 4: Squares CD2 5, architectural remains of the Troy I period.

17 44 Mariya Ivanova Fig. 5: Troy West cross section of Square D3, stratified deposit north of Wall l with remains of a mudbrick wall (DiaTR 1346). Tübingen in D3, D5 (east sections) and D4 (west section). Phase Id comprises the east-west oriented House 115 and an accumulation of dark habitation debris (fig. 2, stratum 174). House 115 perished in a conflagration (Blegen et al. 1950: 135). A period of readjustment in parts of the northern area possibly followed, as indicated by pavements and small stone structures. At the end of the Middle Subperiod a thick layer of yellow clay (fig. 2, stratum 5) was laid down during a major leveling operation. Architecture and layout During the Middle Subperiod, the inhabitants of Troy I constructed a massive stone retaining wall on the southern periphery of the settlement (Wall IW). This structure was first revealed by Schliemann on the southern periphery of D5 (fig. 4). Blegen invested a lot of time and effort to follow it by means of test pits, trenches and tunnels along the settlement circumference (Blegen et al. 1950: ). Significantly, Wall IW was not a free-standing stone fortification wall but a»glacis«, a stone revetment of the mound slope. The contemporary settlement was situated on the level of its upper surface and was enclosed by a vertical free standing mud brick wall. The architectural evidence for the interior arrangement of the site is very limited. Its houses re- tain an orientation and appearance similar to those of the Early Subperiod (Blegen et al. 1950: Fig. 429, 430) (fig. 4). Recent excavations in D3 uncovered a section of the eastern wall and the interior of House 115 with a hearth and a house pit (bothros). The Late Subperiod Stratigraphy The Late Subperiod was documented in the base cross section in D3 (east section) by the University of Cincinnati expedition and in a north section in the same square during the re-investigation in Phase Ig-h includes a row of north-south oriented houses and dark layers of habitation debris (fig. 2, stratum 176 and 177). After their demolition, the structures of Phase Ih were filled with stones and covered with a layer of thick yellow clay, probably in an attempt to reinforce and level the terrace immediately behind the northern slope of the mound (phase Ii) (fig. 2, stratum 100). Possibly during the same construction works the slope itself was consolidated by a massive embankment of stones embedded in clay (Blegen et al. 1950: ).9 A new building with at least two phases of construction (House 129) and its dark habitation deposit (Ij) followed. Ik, the last stratum of the Troy I sequence in

18 Stratigraphy and Architecture of Troy I: the Excavations in»schliemann s Trench«45 Schliemann s Trench, consisted of burned mud brick from a catastrophic conflagration on the higher part of the mound, which was dumped and spread toward the north (Blegen et al. 1950: 169). Architecture and layout. At the beginning of the Late Subperiod a monumental stone retaining wall backed by a huge stone fill was built in front of a slope in the interior of the settlement facing north (fig. 2, Wall m). Wall m effectively divided the small town of Troy I into an Upper and Lower Terrace. It was first uncovered and partly destroyed by Schliemann and interpreted by Dörpfeld as the northern fortification wall of Troy I. The construction of Wall m and the continuing erosion of the northern slope of the mound considerably limited the building area in the northernmost part of the settlement. This probably forced the inhabitants of the area to build their house units with a north-south orientation instead of the traditional east-west alignment (fig. 4). During the centuries to follow, the Lower Terrace was slowly filled with debris and its level eventually reached the top of Wall m at the end of the Late Subperiod (fig. 2, Wall BB). House remains of this period were investigated only in the northernmost part of the Trench in D2. Blegen uncovered here a building of the latest Troy I phase (House 129). Excavations of the deeper strata bytheteamofm.korfmannrevealedthenorthsouthorientedwallsofaprecedinghouserowof the familiar type (fig. 4 and 6). Whether House 129 wasafree-standingstructureora»rowhouse«like itspredecessorsremainsunclearastheareatothe westofitwasseverelydamagedatthetimeofh. Schliemann. in the western part of Anatolia and the nearby islands. Among the numerous exmples are Beşiktepe, Bakla Tepe and Liman Tepe VI on the Anatolian coast, Emporio V IV, Thermi I III, Yeni Bademli and Heraion (phase»earlier than Heraion I«) on the east Aegean islands, and Demircihüyük and Beycesultan in the interior of western Anatolia (Korfmann 1988; Erkanal 2008; Kouka 2009: Fig. 3; Hood 1981, 1982; Lamb 1936; Hüryılmaz 1998, 2003; Kyrieleis and Weißhaar 1985; Korfmann 1983; Lloyd and Mellaart 1962). A crucial aspect of the architectural tradition at Troy I is the arrangement of the dwellings. The rows of long houses sharing side walls and facing a narrow street, familiar from Troy I, appear to have been the rule in Western Anatolia at the beginning of the 3 rd mill. (especially in the littoral, e. g., at Beşiktepe, Liman Tepe VI, Thermi I III, Yeni Bademli, and Troy I, but also in the interior, e.g. at Beycesultan 19 14). This arrangement developed locally at the very Fig. 6: Troy Squares D2 3, architectural remains of Troy I, from south (DiaTR 10067). The»row house village«the architecture of Troy I is characterized by the absence of formal internal divisions, complex multiroom units, incremental growth and free-standing structures. The typical house was a large elongated room with proportions reaching 1:3 and an entrance on the short wall. During the early centuries of the 3 rd mill. BC, long-room houses were very common

19 46 Mariya Ivanova endofthe4 th mill. Among the earliest examples are some architectural fragments at Late Chalcolithic Beycesultan (Schachner 1999: Pl. 38) and possibly thehousesatküllüoba»westmound«datingtothe transition between Chalcolithic and EB1, or c BC (Efe 2003: Abb. 2, 5, Efe 2005: Abb. 3). Outside Western Anatolia, compounds of longroom houses were unfamiliar in the early 3 rd mill. BC. Typical in the west Aegean were free standing compounds of several small and closely set rooms arranged around an inner court, like those investigated in Attica, Boeotia and the North Peloponnese at the EHI-EHII sites of Zagani, Lithares, and Zygouries (Georgopoulos et al. 1999; Tzavella-Evjen 1985; Blegen 1928; Harrison 1995; Maran 1998). 10 The architecture in Aegean Thrace is dominated by free-standing structures (e.g., the well preserved»burnt house«at Sitagroi Va, Renfrew 1970). Furthermore, the native architecture of Thrace was clearly set apart from the east Aegean building tradition by the use of different materials and roofing systems (Séfériadès 1985: , 145). Sites on the Central plateau and intheeasternpartofanatoliashowyetanotheradistinctiveformofhousingwithirregularplans agglomerated structures of numerous but small square rooms as at Alişar, Norşuntepe 34 33, or Arslantepe VIB (Schachner 1999: Pl. 26, 33, ). M. Korfmann (1983: 222 f.) named the specific house arrangement of western Anatolia described above the»anatolian settlement plan«. In his description,»im Grunde genommen handelt es sich bei den Siedlungen um ein Hofhaus von riesigen Ausmaßen, bei dem die Räume an der Hofgrenze angelehnt sind.«however, with evidence accumulated since Korfmann s excavations at Demircihüyük, it seems now that a full circle (»courtyard house«) was only a rare variety, and it might be misleading to view Demircihüyük as the template for the Anatolian Early Bronze Age village. The basic pattern we can now discern consists of straight or, more rarely, curved rows of long houses facing a street such as these at Beşiktepe, Liman Tepe VI, Thermi I III, Yeni Bademli, and Troy I.»Bronze Age row housing«would be a suggestive though overtly anachronistic image for this building pattern. The form and arrangement of the»row houses«at Troy I and other contemporary sites gives some insights into the social life of its inhabitants. The community at Troy I with its uniform housing appears»egalitarian«. The residential units possibly had similar requirements, were equal in their position, and therefore produced dwellings with nearly identical form, size and internal arrangements. Notes 1 Dörpfeld named these walls with letters (a-l) on his plan Dörpfeld 1902: Fig In the following, the name»schliemann s Trench«is used for the northern section of the»great North- South Trench«from D5 to CD3 and the adjacent area of D2 (which is part of the»north Trench«sensu stricto). 3 Short excavation reports appeared in the first three volumes of Studia Troica (Korfmann 1991, 1992, 1993). A final publication is currently in preparation by the author (stratigraphy and architecture) and Mariana Thater (pottery and ceramic small finds), to appear in Pernicka, E. et al. (eds.), Troia. Ausgrabungen der Universität Tübingen Band II. 4 The bedrock below the mound descends in shelves toward the north and there is a considerable difference in level between the areas in the south and north of the Trench. 5 The»doorways«on the side walls of the houses published in Korfmann 1991: Fig. 8 are most probably an old drainage ditch in front of the east scarp of Schliemann s Trench. 6 It might not have been a»megaron«blegen reconstructs its western end as a portico but is cautious to mention that this reconstruction is by no means certain (Blegen et al. 1950: 92). 7 A comparison of the walls of House 102 as illustrated in Blegen et al. 1950: Fig. 426 and in Korfmannn 1991: Fig. 8 (after a new survey and documentation of the whole area) demonstrates clearly that the plan of Blegen is not oriented correctly. This applies to all structures in CD The cross-walls between Wall l and House 102 illustrated in Studia Troica 3, Fig. 10, however, are»phantoms«they could not be verified in the site documentation. The two pivot stones are not in situ. Apparently, the area was partially uncovered in the course of H. Schliemann s excavations.

20 Stratigraphy and Architecture of Troy I: the Excavations in»schliemann s Trench«47 9 Korfmann suggested that the back walls of the house row standing on the rim of the Lower Terrace functioned as a fortification toward the north (Korfmann 1992: 12). 10 Long rooms became widespread in the Aegean during the middle and later part of the 3 rd mill., see Alram-Stern 2004 with references for EHII III examples at Lerna, Aegina, Poliochni, Pevkakia 5 7, Skarkos, and Asomatos. References Alram-Stern, E Die Ägäische Frühzeit: 2. Serie, Forschungsbericht Wien: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Blegen, C. W Zygouries, A Prehistoric Settlement in the Valley of Cleonae. Cambridge, Mass.: University Press. Blegen, C. W The roof of the Mycenaean Megaron. American Journal of Archaeology 49: Blegen, C. W., J. L. Caskey, and M. Rawson Troy: Excavations Conducted by the University of Cincinnati, Princeton: Princeton University Press. Dörpfeld, W Troja und Ilion. Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen in den vorhistorischen und historischen Schichten von Ilion Athens: Beck & Barth. Easton, D. F Schliemann s Excavations at Troia Studia Troica Monographien 2. Mainz am Rhein: Philipp von Zabern. Efe, T Pottery distribution within the Early Bronze Age of Western Anatolia and its implications upon cultural, political (and ethnic?) entities. In: M. Özbaşaran et al. (eds.). Archaeological Essays in Honour of homo amatus: Güven Arsebük: Istanbul: Ege Yayınları. Efe, T Küllüoba 2003 yılı kazı çalışmaları. 26. Kazı Sonuçları Toplantısı: Erkanal, H Die neuen Forschungen in Bakla Tepe bei İzmir. In: H. Erkanal, H. Hauptmann, V. Şahoğlu, and R. Tuncel (eds.). Proceedings of the International Symposium The Aegean in the Neolithic, Chalcolithic and the Early Bronze Age, October 13th 19th 1997, Urla İzmir (Turkey): Ankara: Ankara University Press. Georgopoulos, A., G. E. Karras, and G. N. Makris The photogrammetric survey of a prehistoric site undergoing removal. Photogrammetric Record 16: Harrison, S Domestic architecture in Early Helladic II: some observations on the form of non-monumental houses. The Annual of the British School at Athens 90: Hood, S Excavations at Chios I. Prehistoric Emporio and Agio Gala. London: Thames and Hudson. Hood, S Excavations at Chios II. Prehistoric Emporio and Agio Gala. London: Thames and Hudson. Hüryılmaz, H Gökçeada Yenibademli Höyük 1996 yılı kutarma kazısı. 19. Kazı Sonuçları Toplantısı: Hüryılmaz, H Gökçeada arkeolojisi. In: Gökçeada. Yeşil ve mavinin özgür dünyası: Korfmann, M Demircihüyük. Die Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen : Architektur, Stratigraphie und Befunde. Mainz am Rhein: Philipp von Zabern.

21 48 Mariya Ivanova Korfmann, M Beşik-Tepe. Vorbericht über die Ergebnisse der Grabungen von 1985 und Archäologischer Anzeiger 1988: Korfmann, M Zu Troias ältester»verteidigungsmauer«. Istanbuler Mitteilungen 39: Korfmann, M Troia Reinigungs- und Dokumentationsarbeiten 1987, Ausgrabungen 1988 und Studia Troica 1: Korfmann, M Troia Ausgrabungen 1990 und Studia Troica 2: Korfmann, M Troia Ausgrabungen Studia Troica 3: Korfmann, M., and B. Kromer, B Demircihüyük, Beşiktepe, Troia eine Zwischenbilanz zur Chronologie dreier Orte in Westanatolien. Studia Troica 3: Kouka, O Third millennium BC Aegean chronology: old and new data from the perspective of the Third Millennium AD. In: S. W. Manning and M. J. Bruce (eds.). Tree-Rings, Kings, and Old World Archaeology and Environment: Papers Presented in Honor of Peter Ian Kuniholm: Oxford: Oxbow Books. Kromer, B., M. Korfmann, and P. Jablonka Heidelberg radiocarbon dates for Troia I to VIII and Kumtepe. In: G.A. Wagner, E. Pernicka, and H.-P. Uerpmann (eds.). Troia and the Troad. Scientific Approaches: Berlin: Springer. Kyrieleis, H., and H.-J. Weißhaar Ausgrabungen im Heraion von Samos 1980/81. Archäologischer Anzeiger: Lamb, W Excavations at Thermi in Lesbos. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Lloyd, S. and J. Mellaart Beycesultan I. The Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age Levels. Occasional Publications of the British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara 6. London: The British School of Archaeology at Ankara. Maran, J Kulturwandel auf dem griechischen Festland und den Kykladen im späten 3. Jahrtausend v. Chr. Universitätsforschungen zur Prähistorischen Archäologie Bd. 53. Bonn: Dr. Rudolf Habelt Verlag. Müller, V Development of the megaron in prehistoric Greece. American Journal of Archaeology 48: Renfrew, C The burnt house at Sitagroi. Antiquity 174: Schachner, A Von der Rundhütte zum Kaufmannshaus: Kulturhistorische Untersuchungen zur Entwicklung prähistorischer Wohnhäuser in Zentral-, Ost-, und Südostanatolien BAR International Series 807. Oxford: BAR. Schliemann, H Tiryns. The Prehistoric Palace of the Kings of Tiryns. New York: Arno Press. Séfériadès, M Troie I. Matériaux pour l étude des sociétés du Nord-Est égéen au début du bronze ancien. Paris: Editions Recherche sur les civilisations. Smith, E. B The megaron and its roof. American Journal of Archaeology 46: Tzavella-Evjen, H Lithares. An Early Bronze Age Settlement in Boeotia. Occasional paper, Institute of Archaeology, University of California, Los Angeles. Los Angeles: Cotsen Institute of Archaeology.

22 Studia Troica Monographien Maureen A. Basedow Beşik-Tepe. Das spätbronzezeitliche Gräberfeld. Studia Troica Monographien 1 (Mainz am Rhein 2000). Donald F. Easton Schliemann s Excavation at Troia Studia Troica Monographien 2 (Mainz am Rhein 2002). Peter Pavúk Troia VI Früh und Mitte. Keramik, Stratigraphie, Chronologie. Studia Troica Monographien 3 (Bonn 2014) Stephan W. E. Blum Die ausgehende frühe und die beginnende mittlere Bronzezeit in Troia: Archäologische Untersuchungen zu ausgewählten Fundkomplexen der Perioden Troia IV und Troia V. Studia Troica Monographien 4 (Darmstadt 2012). Ernst Pernicka/C. Brian Rose/Peter Jablonka (eds.) Troia : Grabungen und Forschungen I. Forschungsgeschichte, Methoden und Landschaft. Studia Troica Monographien 5 (Bonn 2014). Ernst Pernicka/Stephan W. E. Blum/Mariana Thater (eds.) Troia : Grabungen und Forschungen II. Troia I bis Troia V. Studia Troica Monographien 6 (in preparation). ErnstPernicka/PeterJablonka/PeterPavúk/MagdaPieniążek-Sikora/DianeThumm-Doğrayan(Hrsg.) Troia : Grabungen und Forschungen III. Troia VI bis Troia VII. Studia Troica Monographien 7 (in preparation). Ernst Pernicka/Sinan Ünlüsoy/Stephan W. E. Blum (eds.) Early Bronze Age Troy: Chronology, Cultural Development, and Interregional Contacts. Proceedings of an International Conference held at the University of Tübingen, May 8 10, Studia Troica Monographien 8 (Bonn 2016). P. A. Mountjoy Troy VI Middle, VI Late and VII. The Mycenean Pottery. Studia Troica Monographien 9 (Bonn 2016).

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