History Quiz. A presentation by Neil Martin to the KEU3A Local History Group on 18 th January 2017 KINGSBRIDGE ESTUARY LOCAL HISTORY

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1 History Quiz A presentation by Neil Martin to the KEU3A Local History Group on 18 th January 2017 KINGSBRIDGE ESTUARY LOCAL HISTORY After the quiz, we will take a few minutes to discuss if any of these topics might be of interest for future Society meetings? 1

2 Question 1 Where would you find a Celtic hilltop fort close to Kingsbridge? Blackdown Rings (or Loddiswell Rings) was built around 400BC by the Celts The reason for the emergence of hill forts in Britain, and their purpose, has been a subject of debate 2

3 The Celts or Keltoi as branded by the Ancient Greeks in about 500 BC built chains of hilltop forts for defence and settlement in Devon and vestiges of these remain around Kingsbridge and Salcombe Keltoi were banded together on the basis of their language The Blackdown Rings are the earthworks of an Iron Age hill fort near the hamlet of Hazelwood in Devon, England. The fort is situated on a hilltop approximately 185 metres above sea level, in a commanding position above the River Avon. For information, there are over 100 recorded Iron Age or older sites within 30 km of the Blackdown Hills: 5.2km E 92 Halwell Camp South West* Hillfort (SX ) 5.4km E 89 Ritson Barrows Barrow Cemetery (SX ) 5.7km NW 298 Ugborough Parish Church Prehistoric Earthwork* Ancient Village or Settlement (SX ) 6.5km E 82 Halwell Camp North East* Hillfort (SX784532) 7.3km SW 238 Bigbury Tumuli Barrow Cemetery (SX667470) 8.2km NW 297 Cantrell* Multiple Stone Rows / Avenue (SX657572) 8.2km SW 244 Marwell St. Mary's Well* Holy Well or Sacred Spring (SX653472) 8.3km W 274 Holy Well, Ermington* Holy Well or Sacred Spring (SX ) 8.6km NW 308 Ugborough Beacon Cairns Cairn (SX667588) 8.6km NW 301 Cuckoo Ball Chambered Tomb* Chambered Tomb (SX659581) 8.9km NW 304 Butterdon Hill Long Cairn* Long Barrow (SX ) 9.3km NW 302 Butterdon Hill Cairns* Cairn (SX655587) 9.4km NW 303 Butterdon Stone Circle* Stone Circle (SX ) 9.4km NW 306 Butterdon East Stone Row / Alignment (SX ) 9.6km NW 312 Scad Brook Ancient Village or Settlement (SX ) 9.6km NW 306 Butterdon Hill Cist* Cist (SX ) 9.7km NW 301 Weatherdon Hill Ring Cairn (SX ) 9.7km NW 305 Butterdon Hill Barrow* Round Barrow(s) (SX657594) 9.7km W 263 Holbury Camp (Devon) Hillfort (SX ) 9.8km N 343 Brent Hill* Hillfort (SX704617) 10.0km NW 307 Spurrells Cross Cairn Circle* Stone Circle (SX658598) 10.0km NW 306 Butterdon Hill Row* Stone Row / Alignment (SX ) 10.0km NW 308 Spurrell's Cross* Ancient Cross (SX659600) 10.1km NW 313 Lower Glasscombe* Cist (SX ) 10.1km NW 308 Spurrells Cross Row* Multiple Stone Rows / Avenue (SX658600) 10.3km NW 301 Butter Brook* Standing Stone (Menhir) (SX ) 10.4km NW 304 Harford S* Multiple Stone Rows / Avenue (SX651598) 10.4km NW 305 Butterbrook* Stone Row / Alignment (SX652599) 10.5km NW 305 Harford Moor N* Stone Row / Alignment (SX651599) 10.5km NW 309 Glasscombe Ball SW* Stone Row / Alignment (SX657604) 10.5km NW 320 Treeland Brake* Stone Row / Alignment (SX673614) 10.5km NW 316 Corringdon Ball South* Multiple Stone Rows / Avenue (SX ) 10.6km NW 318 Ball Gate* Ring Cairn (SX ) 10.6km NW 312 Glasscombe Ball NE* Multiple Stone Rows / Avenue (SX661608) 10.6km NW 312 Glasscombe Corner* Stone Row / Alignment (SX661608) 10.6km NW 316 Corringdon Ball Central* Multiple Stone Rows / Avenue (SX ) 10.6km NW 301 Harford settlement* Ancient Village or Settlement (SX644594) 10.6km NW 308 Hobajons Cross* Standing Stone (Menhir) (SX655604) 10.6km NW 316 Corringdon Ball SE* Stone Circle (SX ) 10.6km NW 319 Corringdon Ball Tomb* Chambered Tomb (SX670614) 10.6km NW 316 Corringdon Ball* Multiple Stone Rows / Avenue (SX ) 10.7km NW 316 Corringdon Ball N.* Stone Row / Alignment (SX666612) 10.7km NW 302 Harford Moor Stone Circle (SX645596) 10.7km NW 316 Corringdon Ball NW* Stone Circle (SX ) 10.7km NW 317 Brent Fore Hill* Multiple Stone Rows / Avenue (SX667613) 10.8km NW 315 Upper Glazebrook* Ancient Village or Settlement (SX ) 10.9km SW 233 Burgh Island fort Promontory Fort / Cliff Castle (SX647439) 10.9km SW 233 Burgh Island fort Promontory Fort / Cliff Castle (SX647439) 10.9km NW 309 The Longstone (Piles Hill)* Standing Stone (Menhir) (SX654607) 11.1km NW 304 Lower Piles* Stone Circle (SX645602) 11.1km NW 309 Piles Hill Cairns* Cairn (SX653609) 11.1km NW 310 Piles Hill NE* Stone Row / Alignment (SX654610) 11.3km NW 322 Hickley Ridge Central* Cist (SX ) 11.3km NW 323 Hickley Ridge East* Cist (SX ) 11.4km NW 318 Hickley Ridge West Cist (SX ) 11.4km NW 304 Lower Piles Enclosed Settlement Ancient Village or Settlement (SX ) 11.4km N 345 Tynacombe Ring Cairn (SX ) 11.4km NE 5 Leech Wells* Holy Well or Sacred Spring (SX799603) 11.4km NW 308 Piles Hill W* Multiple Stone Rows / Avenue (SX649610) 11.6km NW 301 Burford Down (Tritis Rock) Cairn (SX ) 11.6km NW 301 Burford Down Stone Circle (SX637601) 11.6km NW 301 Burford Down* Stone Row / Alignment (SX637601) 11.7km SE 118 Slapton Castle Hillfort (SX808443) 11.8km NE 56 Totnes Museum* Museum (SX ) 12.1km NW 311 Shap Tor North East Stone Row / Alignment (SX ) 12.2km NW 328 Black Tor SW Multiple Stone Rows / Avenue (SX677634) 12.2km NW 304 Stalldown South East Stone Row / Alignment (SX ) 12.4km NW 304 Stalldown Ancient Village or Settlement (SX ) 12.5km NW 314 Three Barrows (Ugborough Moor)* Cairn (SX ) 12.7km NW 331 Brent Moor House Cist (SX ) 13.0km NW 310 Three Barrows West prehistoric settlement* Ancient Village or Settlement (SX ) 13.0km NW 330 Riders Rings* Ancient Village or Settlement (SX ) 13.1km N 346 Skerraton Down Round Cairn (SX703650) 13.2km N 339 Harbourne Head Stone Circle (SX691649) 13.2km NW 307 Hillson's House* Cairn (SX ) 13.3km SW 211 Bolt Tail Hillfort (SX670397) 13.3km N 343 Harbourne Head Standing Stone* Standing Stone (Menhir) (SX697651) 13.3km N 339 Harbourne Head cairns* Barrow Cemetery (SX691650) 13.3km NW 306 Stalldown Ring Cairn Ring Cairn (SX ) 13.4km NW 333 Gripper's Hill Ancient Village or Settlement (SX ) 13.5km NW 305 Stalldon Row* Stone Row / Alignment (SX632623) 13.6km NW 306 Stall Moor SW Stone Circle (SX ) 13.6km NW 320 Knatta Barrow Ring Cairn (SX ) 13.8km NW 304 Stalldown West* Cist (SX ) 13.9km NW 337 Gripper's Hill Cairn Circle* Ring Cairn (SX ) 14.1km NW 332 Dean Moor Enclosed Settlement* Ancient Village or Settlement (SX ) 14.1km NW 311 Dry Lake North Settlement* Ancient Village or Settlement (SX639636) 14.2km NW 308 Stalldown North* Cairn (SX ) 14.2km NW 332 Brockhill Ford* Cairn (SX678656) 14.2km NW 325 Eastern White Barrow Cairn Cairn (SX ) 14.3km NW 304 Harrowthorn* Cairn (SX ) 14.3km NW 298 Rook Tor Stone Circle (SX612614) 14.4km NW 332 Brockhill Settlement* Ancient Village or Settlement (SX677657) 14.5km W 292 Delamore House dolmen* Modern Stone Circle / Monolith (SX ) 14.5km NW 310 Blatchford Brook Foot Settlement* Ancient Village or Settlement (SX635638) 14.7km W 274 Wasteberry Camp Hillfort (SX ) 14.9km NW 307 Ranny Brookhead Cist* Cist (SX ) 15.0km NW 321 Western White Barrow* Cairn (SX ) 15.0km NW 302 Dendles Waste Cairn (SX ) 15.0km NW 306 Ranny Brook Enclosure Ancient Village or Settlement (SX ) 15.0km NW 312 Stall Moor circle* Stone Circle (SX ) 15.1km NW 312 Upper Erme Row* Stone Row / Alignment 3

4 Question 2 After the Norman invasion of 1066 who became the major land owners of the lands around Kyngysbrygge, or as it is better known, Kingsbridge? Any clues now? After the Norman invasion of 1066 lands around Kingsbridge passed to the Abbots of Buckfast Abbey (Church of St Mary) Question 3 Henry VI issued a charter in the mid-15th century to allow Kingsbridge to hold some event weekly and annually, what was it? Henry VI granted a charter conferring the right for an annual fair and a weekly market to be held in the town 4

5 King of England twice 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471, and disputed King of France from 1422 to 1453 Henry VI, aged nine months, is shown being placed in the care of the Earl of Warwick Mid-15th century depiction of Henry being crowned King of France 5

6 Question 4 To the nearest 10, how many houses were reported in Kingsbridge in the mid 1600 s? By the 17th century Kingsbridge had 100 houses 6

7 In 1586 a map shows a wellorganised main street with the market and pillory in front of the church and long back gardens extending down to the streams on either side. First town plan of Kingsbridge Question 5 What was the previous name for the Crabshell area? The estuary was not as we see it today.. Early photo of the Crabshell 8:00am 7

8 In Kingsbridge and Salcombe, formal shipyards were constructed. In Kingsbridge these occupied the foreshores known as Bond s Quay, now the Crabshell. the area became a bustling port with a large transhipment of goods together with many shipbuilding yards along its banks Early photo of Bond s Quay, Kingsbridge 8

9 Bond s Quay with paddle steamer Question 6 What is a Turnpike Trust? A turnpike is literally a defensive frame of pikes that can be turned to allow passage of horses, but in this context it refers to a gate set across the road to stop carts until a toll was paid 9

10 The poor state of the roads had always made travel inland slow and difficult and it wasn t until the advent of the Turnpike Trusts in the first quarter of the 19th century that coach travel had become a viable alternative to journeys by sea Creating a network of well-maintained roads was one of the major achievements of 18th century England 12th April, 1824 the Kingsbridge Salcombe Trust was set up Only 50 odd years after most other parts of the country many of the Roads in the South Part of the County of Devon are narrow and inconvenient, circuitous and hilly making and maintaining Turnpike roads from or near the Town of Kingsbridge, Aveton Gifford, and from thence to unite with the Turnpike Road from Modbury to Plymouth Typical milestone erected by the trust in a design referred to as Modbury Triangle. This one is located half a mile east of Modbury. Question 7 Why did the shipyards in Kingsbridge Close and, for an extra point, when did they close? Up to the early 19th century, roads around Kingsbridge were narrow, miry and dangerous and the hinterland so hilly that the town looked to the sea and coastal shipping as the best means of carrying goods and passengers to the outside world 10

11 Although a rough lane wound around the muddy creeks - foot and pack animals were widely used, the easiest and most direct route was by water Late 19th century - Improvements in the land communications network combined with a lack of cheap, locally sourced building materials for the ship building finally brought an end to the shipyards Railway arrived in Kingsbridge in 1893 Kingsbridge Station forecourt in c note the coach meeting the train to take tourists on to Salcombe Kingsbridge Station Cars arrived 1898 Kingsbridge, Fore Street 1918 and for that extra point The last shipyard closed in

12 Question 8 What was the effect of the blizzard of 1891 in South Hams? Kingsbridge Fore Street 12

13 DAY 1 Monday March 9th 1891 The Great Blizzard started midday after a wet and windy morning and the storm increased in severity that afternoon and night. Gale and hurricane-force winds piled the snow into huge drifts which blocked the roads Telegraph lines were blown down, railway lines were clogged Many travellers were stranded and forced to seek shelter where they could Loss of four ships between Torcross and Start Point resulting in the deaths of 52 seamen The steamship Marana Schooners Lunesdale and Lizzie Ellen Barque Dryad all foundered along this stretch of coast during Monday night and the desperate attempts to render aid in the midst of the blizzard and the harrowing accounts of the survivors make compelling reading. DAY 2 Tuesday March 10th 1891 Wind had died down a little although snow continued to fall heavily The storm was enlivened by thunder and lightning during the day and snow fell until midnight 13

14 DAY 3 Wednesday March 11th 1891 Wednesday dawned bright and clear and the extent of the damage began to be assessed Large loss of livestock Orchards, trees and gardens ruined Many roofs collapsed Stable attached to the King of Prussia Inn at Dodbrooke All roads in the area blocked with drifts up to 16 feet deep It took three weeks for the South Hams to dig itself out Day 6 14th March Strong winds had abated and a thaw began, British reports of the time spoke of: The deep ravine of Tavy Cleave - Dartmoor filled with driven snow to depths of 300 feet Over 200 people and thousands of farm animals dead People trapped for days in the snow Up to ten trains vanished under the drifts, trapping passengers for days The sinking of dozens of ships in the English Channel. It was not until June that the last of the snow disappeared from parts of Dartmoor Question 9 Here is one especially for those avid gardeners. What was grown for the first time in the UK on the terrace of the former Cliff House at Salcombe built in 1842? The old Cliff House, Salcombe, viewed from the estuary in

15 In 1774 the first aloe ever to flower in Great Britain was grown on this terrace This attracted significant interest In mid-june 1774, a horizontal flower stem shot out, then slanted upwards Within a fortnight it was growing vertically at a rate of nine inches (23cm) a day By August it was 25 feet (7.6m) high A handbill was printed and circulated. Now to be seen at Salcombe, near Kingsbridge, in full blow, a remarkable Aloe, supposed to be the largest that ever was seen in this Kingdom; and altho continually exposed to the Weather, it hath grown to the following dimensions: in height 20 feet (6.1m), length of leaf 9 feet (2.7m), thickness of ditto 6 inches (15cm). As the Proprietor hath been at great Expenditure to keep it for the Curious, the Terms of Admittance are, for Ladies and Gentlemen 2s.6d* each; all others at One Shilling* each Person, to be paid at the Door. Aloe continued to be grown after 1774 and once the Old Cliff House was built 15

16 Aloe that flowered on the terrace garden Aloe flowering on the terrace garden of of the old Cliff House, Salcombe, 1824 the old Cliff House, Salcombe, post 1842 Question 10 Which famous US (and worldwide) religious leaders ancestors were tenant farmers of Stancombe manor? Ancestors of Brigham Young (leader of the Mormon church) were tenant farmers of Stancombe Manor (Sherford, Kingsbridge) Stancombe Manor was confiscated by the crown in the C16th; it was owned by Sir Henry Pollexfen (Crown Prosecutor against Monmouth s followers) in the 17th century and was divided amongst Drake and Buller families in the 18th century. 16

17 Question 11 What happened in Aveton Gifford on Tuesday 26 January 1943? Aveton Gifford was bombed and strafed by the Luftwaffe, only a few houses escaped damage; a child was killed and at least 20 people were injured, some seriously Luftwaffe reports show the principal target was Kingsbridge, but due to wind direction this changed to the alternative target, Loddiswell. but they hit AG instead Before The original Rectory totally destroyed St Andrews church 1908 mostly destroyed The German planes circled around Loddiswell before approaching Aveton Gifford from the East Aftermath Bombed church showing the devastated sanctuary (altar area)

18 The story and the aftermath can be read about in a collation published from an eye witness s perspective in The Bombing of Aveton Gifford by Ken Doughty Question 12 What happened at Torcross in 1854 and what was the big upside? 18

19 Victorian era a road was built along the line, linking Kingsbridge with Dartmouth along the coast for the first time A stagecoach service was soon to follow and this created much-needed trade for the area Robert Foale - twice a week from the Kings Arms Hotel to Dartmouth and daily after 1864 when the railway was brought to Kingswear William Vickery married John Tucker s sister and became proprietor of the Torcross Hotel. He took advantage of the change of horses here and the addition of a fourth horse to help pull the coach up the hill at Strete Gate as well as providing refreshments for the passengers coaches a week between Kingsbridge and Dartmouth William Vickery took over the Anchor Hotel in Kingsbridge running coaches from there daily to Dartmouth, the journey taking 3 hours with brakes fitted to all carriages and foot warmers sent if required Single fare was 3 shillings. Surprisingly 56 lb of luggage was allowed per person and coaches awaited not only the arrival of trains in Dartmouth via the ferry but also steamboats from Totnes

20 Question 13 What would the residents of Hallsands say in 1918? 20

21 Nothing Nothing.. as 21

22 There was only one resident, Mrs. Elizabeth Prettejohn, left in Hallsands There was only one resident, Mrs. Elizabeth Prettejohn, left in Hallsands 22

23 On 26 January 1917, a combination of easterly gales and exceptionally high tides breached Hallsands' defences put up as a result of the storm of By the end of that year only one house remained habitable The U3A History Group are doing a future session specifically on Hallsands Question 14 The Cookworthy Museum building was constructed in the 17th Century for what purpose? The Free Grammar School was built and endowed in 1670 by Thomas Crispin, a Fuller of Exeter first headmaster - William Duncombe 23

24 Thomas Crispin in his will in 1689, left three yearly rent-charges: 5 a year for repairs 15 for the head master, in consideration of his teaching at least 15 free scholars in classical learning; and 10 to a master for teaching 25 poor children to read and 12 to write A native of Kingsbridge comes into the story in the next century William Cookworthy, born in 1705, the eldest of a family of seven It is possible that he was a pupil of Crispin's Grammar School The School remained in use until the early 1900's when the School itself moved further down in to the town and eventually in to a new building Old Kingsbridge Grammar School buildings 24

25 The museum was opened in 1972 in the old Kingsbridge Grammar School buildings by Mrs Evelyn Northcott who persuaded English China Clays Ltd. to rescue the derelict building The Museum was named after William Cookworthy Old Kingsbridge Grammar School buildings Question 15 What was William Cookworthy s claim to fame? William Cookworthy developed the first true hard-paste porcelain ( china ) to be made in this country rather than imported from China 25

26 William Cookworthy He was born in Kingsbridge in 1705 Eldest of a family of 7, William's father died when he was thirteen leaving the family in difficult circumstances His fortunes changed at the age of fifteen A Quaker apothecary - Silvanus Bevan offered to take the boy into his London business William set out on foot for London to take up this offer Returned to Devon in about 1726 William set up in business with Silvanus Bevan as a manufacturing chemist, trading in Plymouth as 'Bevan and Cookworthy He took an interest in the geology of the area Discovered deposits of kaolin and petunse, essential components of true porcelain, The U3A History Group are doing a future session specifically on William Cookworthy Question 16 Why was Tacket Wood or Ticket Wood so called? 26

27 Tacket or Ticket Wood is located in the parish of West Alvington Originally a wood Opened as a slate quarry, it produced large coarse slates and good stone for general purposes Since its last workings in the 19th C. it reverted to thick woodland Being on the creek side of the old road to Salcombe and away from the sea (e.g. Beesands), ships found it easy to berth and take on their loads. also one of four local venues for meetings led by John Hicks, the nonconformist preacher Others being Sorley Green, the top of Lincombe Hill/Linkham Hill-head and Saltstone Rock Salt Stone is an area of rock, isolated at high tide, off Wareham Point, where Frogmore Creek (on the left) joins the main Kingsbridge Estuary, which is between the rock and Lincombe Boat Yard beyond The area became known as Ticket Wood because attendees had to prove their adherence to nonconformist faiths Preachers became victims of the Conventicles Act of 1664 that forbade religious assemblies of more than five people outside the auspices of the C of E 27

28 Troublous times; or, Leaves from the note-book of the rev. mr. John Hicks Preachers were avidly prosecuted by two local magistrates Brutally supported by their town constable John Lucas Constable John Lucas died in 1671 and Hicks was accused of his murder and imprisoned at Exeter for a time Hicks left Devon and later joined the Duke of Monmouth s rebellion and was executed in 1685 Two other magistrates, more merciful ended up being prosecuted for not suppressing religious assemblies 1689, the Act of Toleration was passed, so people, excluding Catholics and Unitarians, were permitted to practice their religion and build churches Question 17 Where in Kingsbridge were the barracks built to house militiamen for the Napoleonic War in 1804? Early 19th Century Army Barracks, Dodbrooke Temporary barracks was built on land on the east side of the estuary about ½ mile west of High House They held 600 men and various regiments occupied them during the war It was removed after the Napoleonic War except for the hospital and gun room. The bakehouse formed part of Ivy Cottage and Windsor Lodge was built in one of the fields in 1818 Most of the materials of the structures were auctioned off in

29 Question 18 Can you name one of the paddle steamers which was a forerunner to the Rivermaid? The passenger vessel 'Rivermaid' operates between Kingsbridge and Salcombe during the summer months There were 9 paddle steamers Salcombe Castle Ilton Castle Kenwith Castle The Express Reindeer Ringleader Queen Kings Bridge Kingsbridge Packet A steamer from Salcombe bound for Kingsbridge 29

30 Question 19 When did the railway come to Kingsbridge? December 1893 Kingsbridge railway station was the terminus station of the single track branch of the GWR line from Brent to Kingsbridge The line became known as the Primrose Line It left the Brent to Plymouth line at Brent and ran 12 miles, following the route of the River Avon to Kingsbridge A proposed extension to Salcombe was not constructed 30

31 A stone built station served the town and the surrounding area. Despite a great deal of local opposition, the station was closed for freight and passengers on 16 September 1963 Kingsbridge Station, with a '4575' 2-6-2T. View eastward, towards the buffer-stops: The locomotive, No (built 11/28, withdrawn 10/60) is running round the branch train standing at the platform. Kingsbridge Station forecourt in c note the coach meeting the train to take tourists on to Salcombe Question 20 In the first part of the 20th century before Quay House became the home of Kingsbridge Town Council, it was occupied by girls, why? Quay House was built in 1789 by the Ilbert family In 1902 it became Twyford School for Girls for about 50 years In the 1970s it became the premises for Kingsbridge Town Council In the grounds of Quay House is the stone base of the Victorian drinking fountain which used to stand on the quay 31

32 Question 21 What is the special ingredient of white ale once brewed in Kingsbridge? The history of Devon white ale is shrouded in mystery and confusion Devon white ale seems to bear no relation to any other known beer style It has frequently been claimed that it was confined to the South Hams, yet in the mid-nineteenth century it was brewed in at least 44 Plymouth pubs A bone of contention is the so-called secret ingredient Some sources state categorically that the recipe was known only to the members of one family and handed down from generation to generation Others imply it was common knowledge As to where it was first brewed, although Dodbrooke (now part of Kingsbridge) is the name that most frequently crops up, Dartmouth, Plymouth and even Germany have also been suggested 32

33 first, dubious, reference to white ale comes in Andrew Boorde s Dyetary of Health 1736 first unequivocal reference to White Ale comes in William Ellis s London & Country Brewer, the Plymouth people are so attach d to their white thick ale, that many have undone themselves by drinking it Unlike Boorde, Ellis gives details of how this seductive tipple was brewed White ale is a clear wort made from pale malt fermented with ripening, a composition of: Flour of malt, yeast, and whites of eggs [a nostrum (medicine prepared by an unqualified person) is made and sold only by two or three in these parts] The wort is brewed and the ale vended by many of the publicans It is drank while it is still fermenting in earthen steens, in such a thick manner as resembles butter d ale Sold for two pence-halfpenny the full quart Question 22 Which is the oldest family retailer in Kingsbridge? Does this help? 33

34 J. H. Donovan & Son Ltd is known as the oldest family run business in Kingsbridge John Donovan John Henry Donovan Exact date of the opening not recorded John Weymouth Donovan John Nicholas Donovan Known to have been in 1873, original John Donovan started trading as a china shop at the top of Church Street, This property is long gone, pulled down and cottages built The U3A History Group are doing a future session specifically on the Donovan family Question 23 Who are the Feoffees? A feoffee is a trustee who holds a fief (or "fee"), that is to say an estate in land, for the use of a beneficial owner The term is more fully stated as a feoffee to uses of the beneficial owner The use of such trustees developed towards the end of the era of feudalism in the middle ages and became obsolete with the formal ending of that social and economic system in

35 Kingsbridge Feoffees The Feoffees were, and still are, the trustees of the property which had been given to the town in order that the profits arising from it might be used for charitable purposes. The properties were mainly houses and shops, with gardens and closes, in Kingsbridge and Dodbrooke. There were also lands at Ford in Chivelstone, at Fursdon in Sherford and at Merrifield in Churchstow Their coat of arms can be seen above the entrance of the Town Hall, the Market Hall and 20 Fore Street General feed back (See below) Please take a few minutes to discuss if any of these might be of interest for future Society meetings? Ones planned (See next page) 35

36 General feed back 1. Where would you find a Celtic hilltop fort close to Kingsbridge? 2. After the Norman invasion of 1066 who became the major land owners of the lands around Kyngysbrygge, or as it is better known, Kingsbridge? 3. Henry the VI issued a charter in the mid 15th century to allow Kingsbridge to hold some event weekly and annually, what was it? 4. To the nearest 10, how many houses were reported in Kingsbridge in the mid 1600 s? 5. What was the previous name for the Crabshell area? 6. What is a Turnpike Trust? 7. Why did the shipyards in Kingsbridge Close and, for an extra point, when did they close? 8. What was the effect of the blizzard of 1891 in South Hams? 9. Here is one especially for those avid gardeners. What was grown for the first time in the UK on the terrace of the former Cliff House at Salcombe built in 1842? 10. Which famous US (and worldwide) religious leaders ancestors were tenant farmers of Stancombe manor? 11. What happened in Aveton Gifford on Tuesday 26 January 1943? 12. What happened at Torcross in 1854 and what was the big upside? 13. What would the residents of Hall sands say in 1918? 14. The Cookworthy Museum building was constructed in the 17th Century for what purpose? 15. What was William Cookworthy s claim to fame? 16. Why was Tacket Wood or Ticket Wood so called? 17. Where in Kingsbridge were the barracks built to house militiamen for the Napoleonic War in 1804? 18. Can you name one of the paddle steamers which was a forerunner to the Rivermaid? 19. When did the railway come to Kingsbridge? 20. In the first part of the 20th century before Quay House became the home of Kingsbridge Town Council, it was occupied by girls, why? 21. What is the special ingredient of white ale once brewed in Kingsbridge? 22. Which is the oldest family retailer in Kingsbridge? 23. Who are the Feoffees? Neil Martin January