B I O M U R A. Poročilo za javnost / Layman s report

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1 BIOMURA Poročilo za javnost / Layman s report B I O M U R A LIFE06NAT/SLO/00006 Varstvo biodiverzitete reke Mure v Sloveniji / Conservation of Biodiversity of the Mura River in Slovenia Rečni prostor reke Mure v Sloveniji je ovrednoten kot naravovarstveno pomemben habitatni prostor z visoko biotsko pestrostjo. Večji del teh površin sodi v območje Natura 2000 po obeh klasifikacijah: psci in SPA. Gozdovi ob reki Muri so eni najbolj pomembnih nižinskih poplavnih gozdov v Sloveniji. Rečna dinamika tega območja ima potencial oblikovanja prodišč, rečnih rokavov, otokov, mrtvic in erozijskih obrežij. Zagotavljanje biotske pestrosti območja in zaščite ter obnove mokrišč je odvisno predvsem od ohranitve ali dviga nivojev podzemne vode in intenzivnejših hidrodinamičnih procesov v rečnem koridorju. Namen projekta je bilo zagotoviti obstoj naravnih virov in biodiverzitete s tem, da so bili doseženi boljši ekološki dejavniki za obstoj mokrišč in sonaravne habitatne strukture območja. Povezana je bila struga reke Mure z rokavi, ustvarjeni so bili pogoji za ustrezno višino rečne vode na lokacijah vtoka vode v rokave, narejene so bile lokalne razširitve struge, prikazano je bilo sonaravno vzdrževanje rokavov in mrtvic v poplavnem gozdu. The area of the Mura River in Slovenia has been designated environmentally significant habitat exhibiting high levels of biodiversity. A major part of this area has been included in the Natura 2000 sites pursuant to the psci and SPA classifications. The woodlands along the Mura constitute some of the most important lowland floodplain forests in Slovenia. The river dynamics of this area has the potential to create gravel bars, river branches, islands, oxbows and erosion banks. Conservation of biodiversity in an area and protection/ restoration of wetlands largely depend on the preservation or heightening of groundwater level and intensive hydrodynamic processes in the river corridor. The purpose of the project was to provide for preservation of natural resources and biodiversity by establishing better ecological circumstances for the existence of wetlands and sustainable natural habitat structure of the area. The Mura channel was connected with the branches, conditions necessary for an adequate water level at points of the inflow into the branches were established, the channel was widened locally, and sustainable maintenance of branches and oxbows in the floodplain forest was carried out. Vlažno obrečno (obvodno) visoko steblikovje / Riparian humid tall herb communities

2 2 VSEBINA CONTENTS 1. DEJSTVA O PROJEKTU Seznam ciljnih vrst projekta BIOMURA 2. DOSEŽENI REZULTATI PROJEKTA Dela na terenu Nakup zemljišč Osveščanje javnosti Rezultati dvoživke Rezultati ptice Rezultati ribe 3. PODATKI O PROJEKTU 1. PROJECT FACTS List of the BIOMURA Project target species 2. PROJECT RESULTS Field work Land purchase Public awareness building Results - amphibians Results - s Results - fishes 3. PROJECT DATA

3 3 1. DEJSTVA O PROJEKTU 1. PROJECT FACTS Območje projekta je veliko 15 km² in leži med visokovodnimi nasipi reke Mure med naselji Bakovci, Dokležovje, Ižakovci in Melinci ter Bunčani, Veržej, Zgornje Krapje, Spodnje Krapje in Mota. Intenzivna raba vode, dejavnosti v vodnem prostoru in spreminjanje rabe tal v porečju reke Mure so spremenili rečni prostor. Poplavnih dogodkov je vedno manj, obdobja z nizkimi pretoki so daljša, zaradi česar so poplavni gozdovi ob Muri vedno manj omočeni. Vodna dinamika v mrtvicah, stranskih rokavih in tleh postaja manj izrazita. Voda v rokave doteka le ob poplavnih dogodkih, medtem ko je normalen vtok vode iz struge reke Mure onemogočen zaradi nadvišanih brežin. V preteklosti zgrajene in utrjene brežine na mestih vto The project area covers 15 km² and lies within the high water protection embankments of the Mura, between the villages of Bakovci, Dokležovje, Ižakovci, Melinci, Bunčani, Veržej, Krapje and Mota. Intensive water use, activities in the water area and change of land use in the Mura hydrographic basin have thoroughly transformed the area along the river. The number of flood events is decreasing, while the periods of low discharge rate are becoming longer, causing the floodplain forests along the Mura to receive less and less water. The water dynamics in oxbows, side branches and in the ground is decreasing. Water can only flow into the branches at times of flooding, while a normal water inflow from the Mura channel is not possible due to the Projektno območje / Project Area ka vode v rokave so namreč prekinile vodne povezave med reko in njenimi rokavi. Vodna kreativna moč, potrebna za vzdrževanje vodne in mokriščne habitatne strukture v poplavnem svetu, se je zmanjšala. Ekološke razmere, potrebne za obstoj mokriščnih in vodnih haheightened banks. Water links between the river and its branches were cut due to the banks built in the past at the points where the water enters the branches. The creative power of water, needed for the sustenance of the water habitat and wetland habitat structure in the flooding

4 4 bitatov in avtohtonih rastlinskih in živalskih vrst v poplavnem svetu reke Mure, se slabšajo tudi zaradi neustreznega gospodarjenja v gozdnih in na kmetijskih površinah. area, has been reduced. Ecological conditions, necessary for the existence of water and wetland habitats and indigenous plant and animal species in the Mura floodplains, are deteriorating, also due to improper management in the forest and agricultural area. Rečni rokav reke Mure / A branch of the Mura Vpliv hidroelektrarn, regulacij v Avstriji in osuševalnih del v prispevnih območjih na rečno dinamiko je velik. Vsi našteti vplivi in velika črpanja vode iz podzemnih zalog vodonosnikov Mure povzročajo zniževanje nivojev podzemne vode, hkrati se poglablja tudi rečno dno. Na mejnem odseku Mure z Avstrijo se je dno v zadnjih 30 letih poglobilo tudi do 1,5 m. Zaznaven je trend poglabljanja rečnega dna v Sloveniji. Študije Halcrow Vodnogospodarski inštitut in Inštitut za vode Republike Slovenije so pokazale, da se spreminjajo tudi hidrološke razmere. Nov rokav pri Bunčanih / New branch at Bunčani Hydroelectric power plants, regulations in Austria and drainage of the areas supplying water have an immense effect on the river dynamics. These factors and vast exploitation of groundwater of the Mura aquifers cause gradual decrease in groundwater levels and deepening of the river bed. On the Slovenian-Austrian border, the Mura channel became as much as 1.5 m deeper in the past 30 years. The trend of the deepening of the river bed has been noticed in Slovenia as well. The study made by Halcrow Water Management Institute and Institute for Water of the Republic of Slovenia shows that hydrological conditions are also changing. Prodišče / Gravel bars

5 5 Najbolj pomemben habitatni tip gozda so obrečna vrbovja, jelševja in jesenovja (Alnus glutinosa in Fraxinus excelsior). S temi akcijami izboljšujemo stanje vodnih in obvodnih habitatov, varujemo ogrožene živalske vrste, s tem pa povečujemo biotsko raznovrstnost in ohranjamo naravno krajino. Seznam ciljnih vrst projekta BIOMURA The most important forest habitat types are riverine willow, alder and ash stands (Alnus glutinosa in Fraxinus excelsior). Such actions contribute towards the improvement of conditions in water habitats and riparian habitats, protection of endangered animal species, and consequential improvement of biodiversity and preservation of the landscape. List of the BIOMURA Project target species Ime ciljne vrste Skupina Target species name Group Bela štorklja (Ciconia ciconia) White Stork (Ciconia ciconia) Belovrati muhar (Ficedula albicollis) Collared Flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) Čapljica (Ixobrychus minutus) Little Bittern (Ixobrychus minutus) Črna štorklja (Ciconia nigra) Black Stork (Ciconia nigra) Grahasta tukalica (Porzana porzana) Spotted Crake (Porzana porzana) Mala tukalica (Porzana parva) Little Crake (Porzana parva) Pisana penica (Sylvia nisoria) Barred Warbler (Sylvia nisoria) Srednji detel (Dendrocopos medius) Sršenar (Pernis apivorus) Vodomec (Alcedo atthis) Črtasti medvedek (Callimorpha quadripunctaria) Kačji potočnik (Ophiogomphus cecilia) Činklja (Misgurnus fossilis) Pezdirk (Rhodeus sericeus amarus) Smrkež (Gymnocephalus schraetzer) Velika senčica (Umbria krameri) Bolen (Aspius aspius) Nižinski urh (Bombina bombina) metulj kačji pastir riba riba riba riba riba dvoživka Middle Spotted Woodpecker (Dendrocopos medius) Honey Buzzard (Pernis apivorus) Common Kingfisher (Alcedo atthis) Jersey Tiger Moth (Callimorpha quadripunctaria) Green Club-tailed Dragonfly (Ophiogomphus cecilia) Weather Loach (Misgurnus fossilis) Bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus amarus) Schraetzer (Gymnocephalus schraetzer) European Mudminnow (Umbria krameri ) Asp (Aspius aspius) butterfly dragonfly fish fish fish fish fish Fire-bellied Toad (Bombina bombina) amphibian Črna štorklja (Ciconia nigra) / Black Stork Čapljica (Ixobrychus minutus) / Little Bittern

6 6 2. Doseženi rezultati projekta Dela na terenu Za zagotovitev večje osončenosti območja, večjih vodnih površin mrtvice in povezave s podzemno vodo so bile v zimskem obdobju 2008/2009 očiščene površine nekdanjega rokava pri Bunčanih. Iz dna rokava Besnice so bile ponekod odstranjene usedline, s čimer se je povečal dotok podzemne vode v Besnico. Opravljeni so bili sanitarni poseki grmovja in drevja, odstranjene so bile naplavine. Oblika brežine je ostala ohranjena, izkopani material pa je bil razporejen po robu brežin. V zimi 2009/2010 smo izkopali 550 m dolgo novo strugo in jo priključili na Besnico. Na trasi so bili opravljeni poseki in čiščenje, za izvajanje del je bila urejena dovozna pot do gradbišča. Vtok rečne vode v rokav je bil omogočen po izgradnji drče z odkopom brežine pozimi V času med zimo 2009/2010 in zimo 2010/2011 sta bili na reki Muri zgrajeni dve drči. Graditev drč je bila razdeljena v tri faze: pilotiranje, izgradnja telesa drče ter izgradnja obrežnega zavarovanja. Prvi dve fazi graditve sta potekali sočasno, obrežno zavarovanje pa je bilo opravljeno naknadno. Za normalen potek graditve drče je osnovni pogoj nizka višina vode reke Mure. V obdobju graditve prve drče je bila višina velikokrat prevelika, zato je bilo delo na drči nekajkrat prekinjeno. Na območju Bakovcev smo v letu 2010 omogočili začetek naravnega razširjanja struge reke Mure na levo stran, in sicer tako, da smo odstranili obstoječa obrežna zavarovanja in na dolžini 260 m oblikovali novo levo brežino reke Mure. Nastal je otok, iz katerega se v reko sprošča zemljina in tako nastajajo novi rečni sedimenti. Na zaledni strani nove obrežne utrditve je bil nato oblikovan habitat mrtvice. Opravljene so bile tri poglobitve, v katere se steka zaledna voda. Na desnem bregu reke Mure pri Veržeju so bila poleti 2010 odstranjena obrežna zavarovanja med reko Muro Gradnja drče / Construction of the stone riffle 2. PROJECT RESULTS Field work To provide for the area s better exposure to the sun, as well as to create larger water areas of the oxbow and to provide for connections with groundwater, the former branch at Bunčani was cleaned during the winter of 2008/2009. In some parts, the bottom of the Besnica channel was cleared of sediments, which increased the inflow of groundwater into the Besnica. Sanitary removals of bushes and trees were carried out and river deposit removed. The shape of the channel bank was preserved, and the dredged material spread out on the edges of the banks. During the winter of 2009/2010, a new 550 m long river channel was dug and connected with the Besnica channel. The site was cleaned of trees and material, and a driveway leading to the building site was built. After the stone riffle was built by removing the bank in the winter of 2011, the water from the river could enter the branch. Between the winter of 2009/2010 and the winter of 2010/2011, two stone riffles were built on the Mura. The building process of the stone riffles was divided into three stages: piloting, building of the body of the stone riffle, and construction of bank protection. The first two stages took place simultaneously, while the bank protection was constructed at a later stage. The basic requirement for a normal stone riffle construction process is a low water level of the Mura. During the time of the construction of the first stone riffle, the water level was often too high. Consequently, the work on the riffle was interrupted for a few times. In 2010, the initial natural widening of the Mura channel in the Bakovci area was enabled. The channel was widened to the left side by removing the existing bank protections, and a new 260 m long left channel bank was formed. An island from which the soil is being released into the river, thus forming new river sediments, was created. Eventually, the oxbow habitat was created on the rear side of the new bank. The area was deepened in three places, into which the water from the back areas can now flow freely. In the summer of 2010, bank protections between the Mura and the former branch were removed from the west bank of the river at Veržej. Material was excavated and the channel bank solidified, which would prevent further erosion of the bank area. In 2009, beavers settled in the outfall area of this branch. In 2010, vegetation and sediments were removed from the branch that was filled with material in the area of Dokležovje, at a length of 490 m. In this area, part of the fortified channel bank was also removed, allowing the inflow of water into the branch also at low discharge rates. This provides for constant wetness of the ground

7 7 in nekdanjim rokavom. Poskrbljeno je bilo za izkop materiala in utrditev brežine, kar bo preprečilo nadaljnjo erozijo priobrežnih površin. Na izlivnem delu tega rokava se je v letu 2009 naselil bober. Na območju Dokležovja smo leta 2010 v dolžini 490 m odstranili vegetacijo in usedline iz zasutega rokava. Na tem območju smo odstranili tudi del utrditev na rečni brežini, tako da na območje priteka voda tudi ob nizkih pretokih. S tem omogoča stalno namočenost tal območja in pri visokih pretokih povzroča erozijo brežin. Struga reke Mure se bo na tem odseku lahko razširila. Na območju Dokležovja, vendar na levi strani reke Mure, smo v letu 2010 uredili tudi tri mrtvice. Iz že obstoječih in zaraščenih mrtvic so bile odstranjene usedline in vegetacija. Na dveh območjih, pri farmi Nemščak in pri Otoku ljubezni (Ižakovci), smo v letu 2011 poglobili in uredili brežine rokava v dolžini 200 m. Odstranili smo cevni prepust in pregradno steno ter delno poglobili rokav v dolžini 120 m. Za opravljanje večine del na omenjenih območjih je bilo treba urediti dovozne poti do gradbišča in ponekod zgraditi talpe oz. prehode prek struge v skladu z določbami Zavoda za gozdove Slovenije. Izkopan rokav / An excavated branch of the river Utrjen prehod čez rokav / Fortified channel crossing Nakup zemljišč Zaraščenost brežin in struge Besnice, rokava reke Mure, se je z leti močno povečala, zaradi nasipavanja pa se je struga ponekod precej zožila. Prevelika zaraščenost ne ovira samo glavne funkcije poplavnega področja, temveč ovira tudi rast avtohtonih rastlin. Z namenom trajnega varovanja narave in izboljšanja razmer za živali in rastline ob reki Muri je bilo v času projekta odkupljenih 26 zemljišč s skupno površino 3,57 ha. Vsa zemljišča, ki sestojijo iz gozda, travnika ali neplodnega zemljišča, ležijo v katastrski občini Bunčani. Na odkupljenih zemljiščih se bodo s primernim vzdrževanjem struge v prihodnjih letih izboljšale ekološke razmere za obstoj mokriščnih in vodnih habitatov. To bo v povezavi z že izvedenimi aktivnostmi pomagalo k povečanju hidravličnih poin the area and causes channel bank erosion at high discharge rates. The Mura channel will thus be able to become wider in this part. In the area of Dokležovje, but on the left side of the Mura, we cleaned out three oxbows in From the existing oxbows, overgrown with vegetation, plants and sediments were removed. In two areas, at the Nemščak farm and the Island of Love (Ižakovci), we deepened and cleaned the branch banks at a length of 200 m in We removed culverts and dividing wall and carried out a partial deepening of the branch at a length of 120 m. Several driveways through which the construction sites could be reached had to be built in order for the works in most of the areas to be carried out. In certain areas, ramps over the river channel had to be built, in accordance with the provisions of the Slovenia Forest Service. Land purchase Over the years, the banks and the channel of the Besnica, which is a branch of the Mura, have become excessively overgrown with vegetation. The river bed became narrower in some places due to the gravel material spread over the banks. If the vegetation is too dense, this not only hinders the main function of the floodplain but also interferes with the growth of indigenous plants. With the purpose of long-term nature protection and improvement of the living conditions of animals and plants along the Mura, 26 plots of land in the area of 3.57 ha were bought during the time of the project. All of them belong to the Bunčani cadastral community and consist of forests, meadows or infertile land. Proper maintenance of the river channel in the following years will result in certain improvement of ecological conditions needed for the existence of wetland and water habitats in the purchased plots. In connection with other activities already carried out, this will help improve hydraulic connections between surface waters and groundwater. We expect the

8 8 vezav med površinsko in podzemno vodo. Pričakujemo dvig podtalnice na območju projekta. Sajenje avtohtonih vrst v območju kot tudi selektivno čiščenje bo pozitivno vplivalo na sestavo in ekološki značaj poplavnega območja reke Mure. Jelšev gozd / Alder forest Osveščanje javnosti Poleg dela na terenu je projekt Biomura veliko pozornosti namenil tudi obveščanju, osveščanju in izobraževanju javnosti ter širil zavest o pomembnosti biotske pestrosti in raznolikosti pokrajine ob reki Muri. Izdanih je bilo 10 številk časopisa Biomura, izdelana je bila internetna stran z aktualnimi novicami o projektu, postavljena je bila ekološko-učna pot na Moti z informacijskimi tablami. V Murski Soboti je bil odprt regionalni promocijski center, ki je dobil svojo izpostavo tudi na Otoku ljubezni. V Moti je bil odprt tudi lokalni informacijski center. Izdani sta bili dve brošuri, izdelani so bili panoji in plakati z informacijami o projektu. Objavljeni so bili številni članki v radijskih, televizijskih in tiskanih medijih. Organiziranih je bilo pet delavnic. Celostnost in povezava različnih načinov podajanja informacij je okrepila znanje in zavest domačinov, interesnih skupin in pomembnih odločevalcev, kar je prispevalo k tesnejši povezanosti glavnih akterjev na področju. Odziv domačinov, lokalnih skupnosti, zasebnih lastnikov, pomembnih deležnikov v prostoru in obiskovalcev je bil zelo pozitiven in stimulativen. groundwater level to rise in the project area. Planting indigenous species and selective cleaning of the area will have a positive effect on the structure and ecological character of the Mura floodplain. Public awareness building The Biomura Project was focused not only on fieldwork but also on educating and informing the general public. It raised public awareness about the importance of biodiversity and landscape complexity along the Mura River. We published 10 issues of the Biomura newsletter, created a webpage with project updates and established an educational trail at Mota where we provided the visitors with information boards. In Murska Sobota, a regional promotional centre with a branch office on the Island of Love was opened. At Mota, a local information centre was also established. Two brochures and several boards and posters with information on the project as well as several TV and radio footages were made. We also published numerous articles about the project and organized five workshops. Such creative and holistic approach to informing the public improved and strengthened the knowledge and awareness of the locals, interest groups and important decision-makers, contributing towards closer relations among the main participants from the area. The feedback of the locals, local communities, private owners, important beneficiaries from the area and visitors was very positive and stimulating. Results amphibians Between 2007 and 2011, the following amphibians, whose reproduction also takes place here, were found in the Biomura Project area: Common Toad Bufo bufo, Yellow-bellied Toad Bombina variegata, Common Spadefoot Pelobates fuscus, European Fire-bellied Toad Bombina bombina, European Tree Frog Hyla arborea, Agile Frog Rana dalmatina, Common Frog Rana temporaria, Moor Frog Rana arvalis, Edible Frog Rana kl. esculenta, Pool Frog Rana lessonae, Common Newt Lisotriton vulgaris and Italian Crested Newt Triturus carnifex, in total 11 amphibian species. Plavček (Rana arvalis) / Moor frog

9 9 Rezultati dvoživke Na celotnem območju Biomura so bile med letoma 2007 in 2011 najdene naslednje dvoživke, ki se tu tudi razmnožujejo: navadna krastača Bufo bufo, hribski urh Bombina variegata, česnovka Pelobates fuscus, nižinski urh Bombina bombina, zelena rega Hyla arborea, rosnica Rana dalmatina, sekulja Rana temporaria, plavček Rana arvalis, zelena žaba Rana kl. esculenta, pisana žaba Rana lessonae, navadni pupek Lisotriton vulgaris ter veliki pupek Triturus carnifex. Skupaj torej enajst vrst. Številčnost ter uspešnost dvoživk sta bili podrobneje spremljani v rokavih pri Bunčanih, Veržeju in Dokležovju. Število vrst pri žabah je bilo ocenjeno glede na število mrestov, pri krastači glede na število parov in samic, pri pupkih pa glede na število preštetih osebkov, vse v času reprodukcijskega obdobja med mesecem marcem in junijem. Vsi renaturirani rokavi so postali pomembno mrestišče dvoživk, kar se je pokazalo že takoj prvo leto po posegu. Posebej pomemben se je po dograditvi drče in vtoku vode v rokav pokazal na novo izdelani rokav. Pred pričetkom del so tam živele le posamezne dvoživke, vode na tem območju ni bilo oziroma ni bila stalna. Mrest rosnice / Spawn of agile frog Rezultati ptice Ptice na območju Biomura bi lahko v grobem razdelili v dve skupini, in sicer tiste, ki so vezane na gozd, ter tiste, ki so vezane na vodo. Hidrološka dela na ptice, ki so vezane na kopne habitate, nimajo tako neposrednega in takojšnjega učinka kot na dvoživke. Pozitivni učinki na ptice bodo vidni postopoma in na daljše obdobje. Uresničeni ukrepi zagotavljajo večjo ohranjenost habitatov poplavnega gozda in erodiranih brežin ter nastajanje novih prodišč. Tu pričakujemo gnezdenje najbolj ogroženih vrst ptic, kot so breguljka, vodomec, mali deževnik, belovrati muhar in srednji detel. Vrste, ki so vezane na vodo in njeno bližino, bodo pozitivnih učinkov deležne še hitreje. Renaturirani odseki rokavov ter možnost nemotenega toka matične reke bodo ustvarili erodirane stene, ki so gnezdišče vodomca in breguljke, ter prodišča, ki so gnezdišče malega deževnika. Nižinski urh (Bombina bombina) / Fire-bellied Toad The number and performance of amphibians was closely monitored in the branches at Bunčani, Veržej and Dokležovje. The number of frog species was estimated according to the frog-spawn number, the number of toads according to the number of the couples and females, and the number of newts according to the number of counted specimens. All estimations were made during the reproduction period between March and June. All renaturalized branches serve as important amphibian spawning grounds, which became evident as early as during the first year after the works were carried out. After the completion of the stone riffle and inflow of the water into the branch, the newly formed branch proved to be of extreme importance. Prior to these works, only individual amphibians were present here, with either no water in the area or the water was not permanent. Results s Birds in the Biomura Project area can roughly be divided into two groups: forest-restricted and water-restricted s. Compared to amphibians, the effect of hydrological works on s, which are restricted to land habitats, is slower and less direct. The positive effects on s will be seen gradually and through a longer period of time. The carried out works provide for better preservation of the floodplain forest habitat and eroded channel banks habitat and ensure creation of new gravel bars. We expect most of the endangered species to breed here, such as the Sand Martin, Common Kingfisher, Little Ringed Plover, Collared Flycatcher and Middle Spotted Woodpecker. Species restricted to water and its proximity will experience positive effects sooner. Renaturalized parts of the branches and the possibility of a constant flow of the main river will create eroded walls, which are the nest-sites of the Common Kingfisher and Sand Martin, and gravel bars that are the nest-sites of the Little Ringed Plover. There are very few lowland floodplain willow forests in a state as good as those that can be found along the Mura between the villages of Krapje and Razkrižje. This is proved by the density of breeders and the spe

10 10 Nižinskih poplavnih gozdov z vrbovjem, ki bi bili tako dobro ohranjeni kot ti ob Muri med Krapjem in Razkrižjem, je pri nas izredno malo. To se kaže tudi v sestavi in gostoti ptic gnezdilk. Z raziskavami se je pokazalo, da sta število vrst in gostota ptic višja v vrbovem sestoju kot tista, ugotovljena v jesenovem. Razlika je najbolj očitna pri gostoti. Razliko v številu vrst si lahko razlagamo v večji raznolikosti vrbovega sestoja, z ležečimi suhimi drevesi, stoječimi sušicami, z več zeliščnim in grmovnim slojem, skratka z večjo horizontalno in vertikalno razčlenjenostjo. To pa posledično pomeni tudi več prostora za gnezdenje in tudi več razpoložljive hrane od tal do krošenj. Na obeh površinah so bili močno zastopani duplarji, med njimi tudi primarni duplarji, ki si dupla dolbejo sami in so kot taki zelo pomembni za druge vrste, ki že zasedajo narejena dupla, npr. ogroženi belovrati muhar. Visok delež duplarjev je posledica velikega števila sušečih se dreves, predvsem v vrbovem sestoju, kjer je bilo opaziti veliko povsem suhih vrb. Srednji detel (Dendrocopos medius) / Middle Spotted Woodpecker Belovrati muhar (Ficedula albicollis) / Collared Flycatcher Med redkimi vrstami velja posebej omeniti dve, ki sta tudi kvalifikacijski vrsti za Natura 2000, to sta srednji detel in belovrati muhar. Srednji detel je bil v vrbovem sestoju med dominantnimi vrstami z izredno visoko gostoto, in tudi v jesenovem sestoju je dosegel zelo visoko gostocies structure. The studies have shown that the number of species and the density of s are higher in willow stands than those in ash stands. The difference is particularly noticeable in terms of density. The difference in the number of species can be explained by the greater diversity of willow stands, fallen withered trees, standing withered trees, larger herbal and bush layers, in short, with greater horizontal and vertical diversity. Consequently, this means more breeding space and more food available between the ground and the canopy. Both areas showed high density of hole breeders, including primary hole breeders which excavate their own holes. These have an important role for other species which use the already excavated holes, such as the endangered Collared Flycatcher. The large proportion of hole breeders results from the large number of withering trees, especially in the willow stand where many willows were completely withered. Of all the rare species, there are two that are listed as Natura 2000 qualifying species and are especially worth mentioning, specifically the Middle Spotted Woodpecker and Collared Flycatcher. The Middle Spotted Woodpecker was among the species with the highest density in the willow stand and reached a high density also in the ash stand. The high density of the Middle Spotted Woodpecker in the predominantly willow stand can be attributed to the large quantity of withered trees and tree branches, which serve as the feeding place of the Middle Spotted Woodpecker. The open spaces that occur in the forest due to fallen trees and the consequential bigger treetop sun exposure also have a positive effect on the woodpecker, which is a thermophilic species. The willow stand was also inhabited by a large number of Collared Flycatchers, and the number grew even higher during the course of the project. Similar to the Middle Spotted Woodpecker, the Collared Flycatcher inhabits the standing withered trees or larger dried up branches growing from the still-living trees.

11 11 to. Izredno visoke gostote srednjega detla v pretežno vrbovem sestoju so zagotovo posledica velikega deleža suhega drevja in vej, kjer se srednji detel hrani. Dodatno na detlovo številčnost ugodno vplivajo še manjše vrzeli zaradi podrtih dreves v gozdu, ki omogočajo večjo osončenost krošenj, kar je za srednjega detla, kot bolj termofilno vrsto, prednost. Tudi gostota belovratega muharja je bila v pretežno vrbovem sestoju zelo visoka; v času projekta se je celo še nekoliko povišala. Podobno kot srednji detel je tudi belovrati muhar navezan na suha stoječa drevesa ali večje odmrle veje na še živih drevesih. Rezultati ribe Z ihtiološkimi raziskavami smo določili referenčno stanje, ki je izhodišče za ugotavljanje vpliva spremenjenih hidroloških razmer na ribe. V rokavu Besnica je bilo evidentiranih 18 vrst od skupaj 40 domorodnih vrst, ki so bile popisane na celotnem območju reke Mure. Rokav daje glede na razpoložljive habitate prostor predvsem indiferentnim in tolerantnim vrstam. Prevladujejo rdečeoka, pezdirk, zelenika, klen in navadni ostriž. Vse omenjene vrste živijo v počasi tekočih in stoječih vodah. V času raziskave smo registrirali tri ogrožene ribje vrste: pezdirka, navadno nežico in beloplavutega globočka. Od drugih ciljnih vrst je obstajala potencialna možnost, da tukaj živi činklja. Bolen, sabljarka, smrkež in čep se zadržujejo v reki ali v ustju rokavov, velika senčica pa v mrtvicah, zato jih nismo ujeli. Največ različnih vrst je bilo popisanih na lokaciji pred vtokom v rečni rokav pri Veržeju, ki je tudi najbližje sami reki Muri in ima zato stalno vodo. Bolen, sabljarka, smrkež in čep so izrazito rečne ribe in rokavi niso njihov optimalni habitat. Results fish The ichthyological studies helped identify the reference state, which served as the starting point of determining the effect that the changed hydrological conditions had on fish. Of the 40 indigenous species registered in the whole area of Mura, 18 were found in the Besnica branch. Considering the available habitats, the branch mainly hosts indifferent and tolerant species. The prevalent species are the Roach, Bitterlink, Common Bleak, Chub and Perch. They inhabit slow-flowing and standing waters. Three endangered fish species were registered during the research period: Bitterlink, Danubian Spined Loach and Danube Whitefin Gudgeon. There was a possibility of the target species, i.e. Weather Loach, also inhabiting the branch. As Asp, Razor Fish, Schraetzer and Zingel keep to the river or estuaries, and as European Mudminnow inhabits oxbows, none of them were caught. The greatest variety of species was registered in the spot before the point of the inflow of the water into the channel branch at Veržej, which is also closest to the Mura itself and thus has a permanent water supply. Since the Asp, Razor Fish, Schraetzer and Zingel are distinctively riverine species, the branches do not constitute an optimal habitat space for them. On the basis of the acquired data and the knowledge of the registered fish species biology and ecology, we expect, due to greater flow power and larger water quantity in the branch, changes in the species structure and population size of individual species. The time period of three years of the Biomura Project actions is too short and it is thus not yet possible to show the positive effect Navadna nežica (Cobitis elongatoides) / Spined loach Beloplavuti globoček (Romanogobio vladykovi) / White-finned gudgeon Pezdirk (Rhodeus sericeus amarus) / Bitterling Na osnovi dobljenih podatkov in poznavanja biologije in ekologije popisanih ribjih vrst pričakujemo zaradi večje pretočnosti in vodnatosti rokava spremembe tako v vrst nem sestavu kot v okviru velikosti populacij posameznih vrst. Ker je obdobje 3 let, v katerem so potekale akcije projekta Biomura, prekratko, še ne moremo pokazati, kako spremenjena morfologija vpliva na boljše stanje ribjih populacij. Rezultati, bodisi pozitivni ali negativni, se bodo pokazali veliko kasneje, najbolj opazni bodo vsaj 10 let po posegu. Razlog je v življenjski dobi posameznih ribjih vrst oziroma spolni zrelosti. that the changed morphology has on the improved state of fish population. The results, either positive or negative, will become visible later on, to the greatest degree at least ten years after the carried out works. This is due to the lifespan of individual fish species and their sexual maturity.

12 12 B I O M U R A LIFE06NAT/SLO/ PODATKI O PROJEKTU / PROJECT DATA Ime projekta / Project name BIOMURA - Varstvo biodiverzitete reke Mure v Sloveniji / BIOMURA - Conservation of Biodiversity of the Mura River in Slovenia Oznaka projekta / LIFE06 NAT/SI/ Project reference Nosilec projekta / Beneficiary Inštitut za vode Republike Slovenije / Institute for Water of the Republic of Slovenia, Hajdrihova 28c, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenija Vodja projekta / Project manager Dr. Lidija Globevnik Kontakt / Contact Tel.: (00386) Partnerji / Project partners Inženiring za vode, d.o.o., Mura vodnogospodarsko podjetje, d.d., Zavod Republike Slovenije za varstvo narave, Regionalna razvojna agencija Mura, Prleška razvojna agencija, giz, Društvo za preučevanje ptic in varstvo narave, World Wide Fund for Nature Austria WWF Austria Inštitucije strokovnega spremljevalnega odbora / Institutions in za gozdove Slovenije, SOLINE Pridelava soli d. o. o. in partnerji / and partners Ministrstvo RS za okolje in prostor, Agencija Republike Slovenije za okolje, Zavod the Steering Committee Druge sodelujoče inštitucije / Other cooperating institutions Spletna stran projekta / Project website Predvidena vrednost projekta / Estimated budget Porabljena sredstva / Funds spent Sofinancerji / Co-funding Trajanje projekta / Project duration Ribiška družina Ljutomer; Zavod za turizem in kulturo Beltinci; Fakulteta za gradbeništvo in geodezijo, Univerza v Ljubljani; LUTRA, Inštitut za ohranjanje naravne dediščine; Zavod Umbra; EBRA d.o.o.; Gozdarski inštitut Slovenije; Zveza društev MOJA MURA ,00 e ,87 e Evropska komisija: 49,07 % od odobrenih stroškov projekta / European Commission: % of approved project costs Ministrstvo RS za okolje in prostor / Ministry of the Environmental and spatial planning: Inštitut za vode Republike Slovenije in projektni partnerji / Institute for Water of the Republic of Slovenia and Project partners 1. oktober 2006 do 31. oktober 2011 from 1 st October 2006 to 31 st October 2011 Poročilo za javnost o projektu Varstvo biodiverzitete reke Mure v Sloveniji (BIOMURA) je pripravil Inštitut za vode Republike Slovenije. Besedilo: arhiv projekta BIOMURA. Fotografije: Milan Vogrin, Janez Gregori, Jože Pojbič, Lidija Globevnik, Boštjana Žajdela, Katarina Zore, arhiv projekta BIOMURA. Grafično oblikovanje in tisk: Atelje za črko in sliko. Število izvodov: 800. Sofinancirano s pomočjo finančnega instrumenta za okolje Evropske skupnosti LIFE. Sončni zahod nad reko Muro / Sunset over the Mura Layman s Report on the Conservation of Biodiversity of the Mura River in Slovenia (BIOMURA) was prepared by the Institute for Water of the Republic of Slovenia. Text: BIOMURA Project archives. Photo: Milan Vogrin, Janez Gregori, Jože Pojbič, Lidija Globevnik, Boštjana Žajdela, Katarina Zore, BIOMURA Project archives. Graphic design and printing: Atelje za črko in sliko. Circulation: 800 copies. Co-financed by the EU Financial Instrument for the Environment LIFE.

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