The Contribution of the International Cruise Industry to the U.S. Economy in Prepared for: Cruise Lines International Association

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1 BREA Business Research & Economic Advisors The Contribution of the International Cruise Industry to the U.S. Economy in 2014 Prepared for: Cruise Lines International Association September 2014 Business Research & Economic Advisors P.O. Box 955 Exton, PA 19341

2 Table of Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY... 2 THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE INTERNATIONAL CRUISE INDUSTRY TO THE UNITED STATES ECONOMY... 2 FIVE YEAR TREND: THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE INTERNATIONAL CRUISE INDUSTRY TO INDIVIDUAL STATE ECONOMIES... 9 SECTION I: IMPACT OF THE INTERNATIONAL CRUISE INDUSTRY ON THE U.S. ECONOMY IN U.S. CRUISE PASSENGERS SPENDING IN THE U.S. ECONOMY GENERATED BY THE CRUISE INDUSTRY Direct Economic Impacts in the United States During Indirect and Induced Economic Impacts in the United States During Total Economic Impacts in the United States During SECTION II: THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE CRUISE INDUSTRY TO THE U.S. ECONOMY BY STATE IN ECONOMIC IMPACTS IN THE TOP TEN STATES Florida California Texas New York Alaska Washington Georgia Illinois Massachusetts New Jersey Economic Impacts in the Remaining States APPENDIX I STATE IMPACT METHODOLOGY APPENDIX II INDIVIDUAL STATE TABLES Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 1 September 2015

3 Executive Summary Both passengers sourced from the United States and those embarking from U.S. ports rose sharply in Passengers sourced from the U.S., including Puerto Rico, totaled million in 2014, another record for the United States (see Table ES-1). The increase of 5.8 percent from 2013 is the highest rate of growth since 2010 and U.S.-sourced passengers now stands 12 percent higher than in Cruise passenger embarkations at U.S. ports increased by 11 percent in 2014 to million. Once again, this was new high for passenger embarkations from U.S. ports. It was also the highest increase since 2004 when embarkations at U.S. ports rose by 13.9 percent. This increase was primarily the result of a redeployment of capacity from Europe, especially the Mediterranean, to North America by the international cruise lines in response to the stronger economic conditions in North America vis-à-vis Europe. The Contribution of the International Cruise Industry to the United States Economy Given the strong growth in passenger embarkations, the growth in direct spending by the international cruise industry in the United States also increased. Spending by the cruise lines and their passengers and crew in the United States rose by 4.6 percent to $21 billion in 2014, 16.4 percent higher than in Again, this represented a new peak in cruise industry expenditures in the United States. The $15.63 billion in expenditures by the cruise lines for goods and services, including capital expenditures, accounted for 74 percent of the direct spending and was a 3.6 percent increase from Cruise lines' direct expenditures for wages for U.S. employees and taxes paid to U.S. federal, state and local tax jurisdictions increased by 2.4 percent to $1.43 billion, accounting for 7 percent of total direct expenditures. The $3.96 billion in passenger and crew spending for transportation, accommodations, food and other retail goods accounted for the remaining 19 percent of direct cruise industry spending. Given the robust growth in passenger embarkations at U.S. ports, passenger and crew spending increased by 8.9 percent, the sharpest increase since Since 2010, passenger and crew spending has increased by 16 percent. Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 2 September 2015

4 Table ES-1 Expenditures of the International Cruise Industry in the United States, Source: Business Research & Economic Advisors and Cruise Lines International Association As indicated in Table ES-2, the growth in the economic benefits increased in tandem with the growth of passengers sourced from the United States. After increasing by 2.4 percent in 2013, direct cruise industry expenditures in the U.S. rose by 4.6 percent in 2014 to a new peak of $21 billion. Table ES-2 Economic Contribution of the International Cruise Industry, * Includes wages and salaries paid to U.S. employees of the cruise lines Source: Business Research & Economic Advisors and Cruise Lines International Association The $21 billion in direct cruise industry expenditures generated an estimated 152,272 direct jobs throughout the U.S. economy, paying $7.02 billion in wages and salaries during Driven by the 4.4 percent increase in direct expenditures, the employment impact rose by 3.0 percent while the income impact rose by 5.9 percent. As indicated in Table ES-3, the direct employment and wage income impacts were spread among virtually all industries in the U.S. economy. The core cruise travel sector in the United States, which consists of the cruise lines, airlines, travel agents, port service providers and local businesses, such as hotels and restaurants that are directly impacted by passenger and crew spending, accounted for 71 percent and 63 percent of the total direct employment and wage income impacts, respectively. Led by direct employment by the cruise lines and other Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 3 September 2015

5 impacts in the transportation sector, businesses in the core cruise travel sector benefitted from over 107,700 U.S. jobs paying $4.42 billion in wages and salaries. The cruise lines also purchased a variety of goods and services, such as food and beverages, fuel, insurance, financial and businesses services and entertainment among others, in support of their cruise operations. These expenditures generated another 44,527 jobs paying $2.6 billion in wages and salaries during As indicated in Table ES-3, these jobs were spread throughout the manufacturing and service sectors. Table ES-3 Direct Economic Contribution of the International Cruise Industry in 2014 Source: Business Research & Economic Advisors. The total economic impacts of the international cruise industry are the sum of the direct, indirect and induced impacts. The direct impacts discussed above generate additional, indirect and induced, impacts as the directly impacted businesses and their employees purchase goods and services from other business-to-business and business-to-consumer Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 4 September 2015

6 enterprises. As a result of these expenditures, the total economic impacts of the cruise industry generated $46.09 billion in total output throughout the U.S. economy. The production of these goods and services generated 373,738 jobs paying $19.43 billion in wages and salaries. The total output impact rose by 4.5 percent in 2014 while the employment and income impacts rose by 2.9 percent and 6.3 percent, respectively (see Table ES-4). On an industry basis, the services and government sector accounted for the largest proportion of the total economic impacts with $15.42 billion in output generating 206,026 jobs paying $9.61 billion in wages and salaries. Thus the services and government sector accounted for one-third of the national output impacts, 55 percent of the total employment impacts and 49 percent of the total income impacts. Table ES-4 Total Economic Contribution of the International Cruise Industry in 2014 Source: Business Research & Economic Advisors. The manufacturing sector, with $10.79 billion in output generated by cruise industry expenditures, accounted for nearly one-fourth of the total output impact. The 31,719 Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 5 September 2015

7 manufacturing jobs paying $2.22 billion in wages accounted for 8 percent and 11 percent of the total employment and wage income impacts, respectively. The transportation sector, which includes cruise lines and ports, benefited from $7.18 billion in output, 76,225 jobs and $3.51 billion in wages and salaries. This sector accounted for more than 15 percent of the total economic impacts of the cruise industry in the United States. The following are the major conclusions of the analysis of the cruise industry operations and impacts in the United States: An estimated million cruise passengers were sourced from the United States. A total of million cruise passengers embarked on their cruises at U.S. ports during Florida, whose ports handled 6.89 million embarkations, accounted for 62 percent of all U.S. cruise embarkations. The cruise lines and their passengers and crew directly spent $21 billion on goods and services in the United States, a 4.4 percent increase from 2013 and a 16.6 percent increase from The cruise lines spent $17.04 billion while passengers and crew spent $3.96 billion. Within the U.S., spending by the cruise lines with their direct suppliers was up from $10.71 million in 2013 to $10.77 in Including the indirect economic impacts, the spending of the cruise lines and their crew and passengers was responsible for the generation of 373,738 American jobs throughout the country. This represents a 2.9 percent increase over Total wages and salaries paid to these workers was $19.42 billion, an increase of 6.3 percent over The cruise industry generated the direct employment of an estimated 152,272 workers with U.S. businesses, who received $7.02 billion in wages and salaries during Including the indirect economic impacts, the spending of the cruise lines and their crew and passengers was responsible for the generation of $46.09 billion in gross output in the United States, a 4.5 percent increase from Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 6 September 2015

8 Five Year Trend: In 2009, 9.5 million cruise passengers were sourced from the United States. As shown in Figure ES-1, U.S.-sourced cruise passengers have been steadily increasing with an average annual growth rate of 3.6 percent over the period. Throughout this five year period, each year a new high in passengers was reached. As discussed previously the 5.8 percent increased experienced during 2014 was the highest percentage increase since the 6.2 percent increase in Figure ES-1 U.S. Cruise Passenger Statistics, Source: CLIA and BREA Embarkations at U.S. ports have been generally increasing over the five year period with an average annual increase of 4.4 percent. In 2014, embarkations rose by 11 percent which was the highest annual increase since Thus more and more passengers are being sourced by the international cruise industry from the United States for cruises around the globe. At the same time more and more passengers from the U.S. and elsewhere are beginning their cruises from ports in the United States. As a result of these cruises, the cruise lines and their passengers and crew purchase goods and services, such as food and beverages, hotel supplies and equipment to name a few, from businesses around the world and the United States, in particular. In 2009, U.S. businesses Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 7 September 2015

9 received an estimated $17.2 billion (see Figure ES-2). By 2014 these direct expenditures had increased by 22 percent to $21 billion. Thus, as the number of passengers sourced from the United States and embarking on cruises from U.S. ports has increased so too has the industry s expenditures with U.S. businesses. Over the five year period, these direct expenditures increased at an average annual rate of 4.1 percent. Figure ES-2 Direct Cruise Industry Expenditures in the United States, Source: BREA As the direct expenditures of the international cruise industry with U.S. businesses has grown over the past five years so has the industry's economic impact on the U.S. economy. As discussed previously, the total economic impacts are the sum of the direct, indirect and induced impacts that result from the direct expenditures. The total impact on cruise-induced output in the United States reached a pre-recession peak of $40.2 billion in As shown in Figure ES-3, the impact declined by 12.7 percent in 2009 to $35.1 billion due to the global recession and then began to recover in Since 2009, the total economic impact of the cruise industry has increased each year, growing from $35.1 billion in 2009 to $46.1 billion by Thus, over the past five years the total output that has resulted from cruiserelated spending in the U.S. has increased by 31 percent or at an average annual rate of 5.6 percent. 1 1 These figures are not adjusted for inflation. Using the implicit deflator for gross domestic product (GDP) the average annual growth in inflation-adjusted total output is 4.0 percent. Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 8 September 2015

10 The total employment impact of the international cruise industry has also followed the same recovery pattern, increasing from 313,998 jobs in 2009 to 373,738 jobs by Thus, the total employment impact of cruise industry expenditures in the United States has increased by 19 percent over the past five years, or 3.5 percent per year. Figure ES-3 Total Economic Impact of the International Cruise Industry, Source: Business Research & Economic Advisors The Contribution of the International Cruise Industry to Individual State Economies The U.S. economic impact of the International cruise industry spread into every state economy. Cruise passengers came from every state and the cruise lines made purchases in support of their operations in just about every state. The principal location factors that influenced the economic impacts by state were: cruise lines headquarters and other facilities, ports-of-embarkation and ports-of-call, place of residence of cruise passengers, and place of business of cruise industry vendors. As shown in Table ES-5 and Figure ES-4, million cruise passengers embarked on their cruises from U.S. ports in The top ten U.S. cruise ports accounted for 87.5 percent of 2014 embarkations, the highest percentage since Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 9 September 2015

11 Florida remains the center of cruising in the United States, accounting for more than 62 percent of all U.S. embarkations. Passenger embarkations in Florida increased by 12 percent in 2014 to 6.89 million. Miami led the Florida ports with a 26 percent increase, adding 534,000 embarkations in Port Everglades experienced a growth of 5.1 percent adding 95,000 embarkations. Since 2010, Florida ports have experienced a 19 percent increase in passenger embarkations. Table ES-5 U.S. Embarkations by Port, Source: U.S. Cruise Ports and BREA Embarkations in California s ports (Los Angeles, Long Beach, San Diego, and San Francisco) totaled 984,000 in The 49 percent increase during 2014 was primarily driven by a rebound in cruises originating in Los Angeles and Long Beach. Combined these two ports experienced a 64 percent increase in embarkations as more 3 and 4 day cruises were offered. Embarkations declined in San Diego, while San Francisco experienced a 30 percent increase as capacity in the Alaska market has continued to increase. While cruise activity in the remaining states is not as large, there were significant developments among these smaller ports which include the following. New York embarkations at its two cruise terminals in Manhattan and Brooklyn decreased by 4.0 percent to 576,000. After experiencing 30+ percent growth in 2012, embarkations at both Galveston and New Orleans remained virtually unchanged in 2013 with both ports reporting a 0.2 Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 10 September 2015

12 percent increase. In 2014, however, embarkations rose by 6.1 percent in Galveston and 2.7 percent in New Orleans. Figure ES-4 U.S. Embarkations by Port, 2013 and 2014 Source: U.S. Cruise Ports The major economic impacts of the international cruise industry by state during 2014 as shown in Table ES-6 were as follows: The economic impacts were concentrated in 10 states. These states accounted for 78 percent of the cruise industry s direct purchases in the United States, 80 percent of the total employment impact and 82 percent of the income impact. Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 11 September 2015

13 Table ES-6 Total Economic Impact of the International Cruise Industry by State, 2014 Source: Business Research & Economic Advisors Total cruise passenger and crew visits 2 to Florida totaled 10.5 million in 2014, accounting for 45 percent of all passenger and crew visits in the U.S. with an 11 percent increase from Combined, passengers, crew and cruise lines directly spent $7.95 billion in the state, accounting for 38 percent of the industry s direct expenditures and an 8.4 percent increase over Since individual passengers will make several port-of-call visits on any itinerary, passenger visits are approximately three times greater than the number of passengers taking cruises to U.S. ports-of-call. Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 12 September 2015

14 This spending generated 146,401 jobs paying $6.82 billion in income. In addition, the state of Florida, the home of corporate or administrative offices for many cruise lines, accounted for about two-thirds of the cruise lines U.S.-based employment during California, like Florida, hosts both cruise line headquarters and ports-ofembarkation. During 2014, cruise passenger and crew visits totaled 2.01 million. Passenger and crew visits increased for the first time in five years, by nearly 50 percent in This dramatic increase was the result of a combination of increased deployment in the Mexico West market and a shift from 7-day cruises to shorter 3- and 4-day cruises. With 10.6 percent of the industry s direct expenditures, California businesses received $2.22 billion in direct industry spending which in turn generated 44,369 jobs paying $2.73 billion in wage income. An estimated 1.07 million passengers and crew visited Texas during 2014, 4.6 percent of all passenger and crew visits at U.S. ports and a 19 percent increase from This increase was primarily the result of a quadrupling of visits at the Port of Houston as both Princess Cruises and Norwegian Cruise Line expanded operations at the port. With $1.33 billion in direct spending and 22,689 jobs paying $1.42 billion in income, Texas accounted for 6.3 percent of the industry s direct expenditures, 6.1 percent of the industry's total employment impact and 7.3 percent of the income impact. In 2014, an estimated 853,000 passengers and crew visited New York, 3.7 percent of total passenger and crew visits in the U.S. and a 2.85 percent decrease from New York accounted for 5.9 percent of the industry s direct expenditures with $1.24 billion in This spending generated an estimated 15,890 jobs paying $971 million in income. New York maintained its fourth place ranking among all states. Alaska benefits from the cruise industry primarily as a destination market. During 2014, the cruise industry produced 4.7 million passenger and crew visits to Alaska destinations., The state primarily benefits from cruise passenger spending for shore excursions, pre- and post-cruise stays, food and beverages and general retail. Because of this spending, Alaska accounted for 4.5 percent of the industry s direct spending with $953 million in expenditures generating 18,583 full- and part-time jobs paying just over $924 million in wage income. The state of Washington is the location of the Holland America Line Group, cruise industry administrative facilities, and a port-of-embarkation in Seattle. During 2014 an estimated 599,000 passengers and crew visited Seattle. With $743 million in direct spending and 17,362 jobs paying $918 million in income, Washington accounted for just under five percent of the industry s national economic impact. While Georgia has no direct cruise operations, it is a major source market for cruise passengers, making it a net exporter of cruise passengers, and also supports the industry with a wide range of goods and services. During 2014, Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 13 September 2015

15 245,000 residents of Georgia cruised. This represented 2.2 percent of U.S. resident passengers. As a result of the activity of the cruise industry, Georgia businesses received $666 million, or 3.2 percent of the direct expenditures generated by the cruise industry in the United States. These direct expenditures generated total economic impacts of 12,442 jobs and $665 million in income throughout the Georgia economy during Like Georgia, Illinois has no direct cruise operations. The state is a net exporter of cruise passengers. It also supports the industry with a wide range of goods and services. Resident cruise passengers in Illinois totaled 144,000 during 2014 and accounted for 1.3 percent of U.S. resident passengers. As a result of the activity of the cruise industry, Illinois businesses received $509 million, or 2.4 percent of the direct expenditures generated by the cruise industry in the United States. These direct expenditures generated total economic impacts of 7,799 jobs and $475 million in income throughout the Illinois economy during The Boston cruise port in Massachusetts is both a port-of-embarkation and a port-of-call for cruises to Canada and Bermuda. An estimated 295,000 passengers and crew visited Massachusetts during Massachusetts accounted for 2.1 percent of the industry s direct expenditures with $438 million in direct spending. These expenditures generated an estimated 6,825 jobs paying $447 million in income. In 2014, an estimated 324,000 passengers and crew visited New Jersey, 1.4 percent of total passenger and crew visits in the U.S. and a 6.1 percent decrease from New Jersey accounted for 2.0 percent of the industry s direct expenditures with $412 million. This spending generated an estimated 7,721 jobs paying $451 million in income. The impacts in the remaining states were primarily generated by cruise passenger spending for air travel and cruise line purchases from vendors located in each of the state. Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 14 September 2015

16 Section I: Impact of the International Cruise Industry on the U.S. Economy in 2014 The contribution of the international cruise industry to the U.S. economy is the result of the spending by the cruise lines and their passengers and crew. In this section, passengers sourced from the U.S., passenger embarkations from U.S. ports, crew arrivals at U.S. ports and the spending activity of the industry are detailed. U.S. Cruise Passengers As shown in Table 1, passenger embarkations at U.S. ports increased by 11 percent in 2014 following a 1.3 percent decline in Within the United States there was a significant variation in growth among the cruise ports. Passenger embarkations in Florida increased by 741,000 to 6.89 million in 2014, an increase of 12 percent from Each of the five Florida ports experienced an increase over Since 2010, passenger embarkations in Florida have increased by 19 percent. As a result, Florida s share of total U.S. embarkations has risen from 59.7 percent in 2010 to 62.3 percent in Table 1 U.S. Embarkations of the International Cruise Industry, Source: Port Authorities and Business Research and Economic Advisors Miami led the Florida ports with a 26 percent increase, adding 534,000 passengers in 2014 accounting for nearly three-fourths of the total increase among the state s ports. This strong Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 15 September 2015

17 growth was primarily the result of the deployment of two new 4,000+ passenger ships in Miami, the MSC Divina and the Norwegian Getaway. Currently, Miami berths 36 cruise ships from 18 cruise brands throughout the year. The Port of Tampa saw embarkations increase by 10 percent in 2014 increasing to 451,000 passengers. Tampa now homeports six vessels from four cruise lines: Carnival Cruise Lines, Holland America, Royal Caribbean International and Norwegian Cruise Line, offering a variety of 4, 5, 7, and 14-day cruise itineraries. Port Everglades, the second largest cruise port in Florida, experienced a growth of 5.1 percent adding 95,000 embarkations. Over the course of 2014, 43 different cruise ships representing 9 different cruise brands arrived at the port. Port Canaveral is the third largest cruise port in the state and saw cruise passenger embarkations increase by 4.0 percent to 1.77 million in A total of eleven cruise ships from three cruise lines, Carnival, Disney and Royal Caribbean, made at least one home port call at Port Canaveral during Finally, Jacksonville, which homeports the Carnival Fascination, saw embarkations increase by 1.7 percent during 2014 reaching 182,000 passengers. Passenger boardings in California s four cruise ports (Los Angeles, Long Beach, San Diego, and San Francisco) increased by 49 percent to 984,000 passengers during This was the first increase in embarkations in five years. The turnaround is primarily the result of a redeployment of capacity to the Mexico West cruise market. In addition, there was an increase in the number of 3- and 4-day cruises, which increase passenger throughput relative to 7-day cruises. As a result, total embarkations at the state s ports approached the one million mark for the first time since Passenger embarkations in Long Beach rose by 84 percent to 549,000 passengers as a second twice-a-week Carnival ship began homeporting during The Port of Los Angeles also experienced significant growth of 36 percent as embarkations increased to 291,000 passengers in Embarkations at San Francisco continued their positive growth trend with an increase of 30 percent to 95,000 passengers; this was the fifth consecutive year of Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 16 September 2015

18 increases and annual embarkations are now almost double those of Finally, in San Diego embarkations were 49,000 in Combined, the nine cruise ports of Florida and California experienced a 15.7 percent increase in embarkations accounting for nearly all (97 percent) of the total net increase in embarkations among all U.S. cruise ports. These nine ports now account for 71 percent of all U.S. passenger embarkations. While cruise activity in the remaining states is not as large as in Florida and California, there were significant developments among these ports as well. In New York embarkations at its two cruise terminals in Manhattan and Brooklyn decreased by 4.0 percent to 576,100 passengers during This followed a 2.4 percent increase in The decline is largely attributable to a shift in deployed capacity from the Canada/New England market which resulted in a decline in cruise ship calls at the two terminals from 212 in 2013 to 202 in Similar declines in embarkations among Northeast ports were also reported for Baltimore, Boston and Cape Liberty. Figure 1 - Distribution of U.S. Embarkations Source: Port Authorities and Business Research and Economic Advisors Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 17 September 2015

19 In 2014, embarkations rose by 6.1 percent in Galveston and 2.7 percent in New Orleans. Home port calls were essentially unchanged in both ports, but a combination of larger ships and higher occupancy rates pushed embarkations higher. Additionally, the Port of Houston experienced a quadrupling of embarkations from 26,900 in 2013 to 107,700 in This resulted from the home port deployment of the Emerald Princess and the Norwegian Jewel during As shown in Table 2, million cruise passengers worldwide were sourced from the United States including Puerto Rico. This represented a 5.8 percent increase from Among the nine census divisions and Puerto Rico, the number of passengers sourced during 2014 increased in four regions (South Atlantic, West South Central, Mountain and Pacific), declined in five (New England, Middle Atlantic, East North Central, West North Central and Puerto Rico) and remained virtually unchanged in one (East South Central). Consistent with the increase in passenger embarkations in Florida and California, the Pacific and South Atlantic regions each had the greatest percentage and absolute increase in passengers. The Pacific region experienced a 16.9 percent increase to 1.62 million passengers, an increase of more than 234,000 passengers. The growth rate in the South Atlantic was about half as much, 8.1 percent, but the absolute increase was higher at over 336,000 passengers. A total of 4.5 million passengers were sourced from the states of the South Atlantic region. Combined these two regions added just over 570,000 cruise passengers accounting for 92 percent of the total net increase in passengers sourced from the United States. With a total 6.1 million cruise passengers, the two regions also accounted for 54 percent of all cruise passengers sourced from the United States The remaining two regions with positive growth, the West South Central and Mountain regions, generated a total of 2.4 million cruise passengers accounting for 22 percent of all passengers sourced from the United States. Combined, these two regions added nearly 157,000 passengers. Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 18 September 2015

20 Table 2 Cruise Passengers Sourced from the United States, Source: Cruise Lines International Association Among the five regions with a decline in cruise passengers during 2014, the highest percentage declines were in the Middle Atlantic (-6.7 percent), West North Central (-4.3 percent) and Puerto Rico (-4.5 percent). As the largest of these regions, the Middle Atlantic had the highest absolute decline of just over 56,000. The West North Central region lost just over 11,000 passengers and Puerto Rico saw a decline of nearly 4,000 cruise passengers. The remaining two regions, New England and East North Central regions, experienced a combined decline of just over 38,000 passengers. Combined these five regions accounted for 2.48 million cruise passengers, accounting for 22 percent of the total number of cruise passengers sourced from the United States. Finally, the East South Central was the source for just over 252,000 cruise passengers which was virtually unchanged (an increase of 0.6 percent) from As shown in Figure 2, three regions, South Atlantic, Pacific and West South Central accounted for two-thirds of all passengers sourced from the United States. The South Atlantic region is the single largest source market for cruise passengers, accounting for 40 percent of all U.S.-sourced passengers. As noted previously, cruise passengers sourced from this market increased by 8.1 percent to 4.5 million. The Pacific and West South Central 3 The definitions of the nine census divisions are as follows: New England: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Vermont and Rhode Island Middle Atlantic: New Jersey, New York and Pennsylvania South Atlantic: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia and West Virginia East North Central: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio and Wisconsin East South Central: Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi and Tennessee West North Central: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota and South Dakota West South Central: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma and Texas Mountain: Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming Pacific: Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon and Washington. Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 19 September 2015

21 regions each accounted for 14 and 13 percent, respectively, of cruise passengers sourced from the United States. Figure 2 Distribution of Cruise Passengers Sourced from the United States Source: Cruise Lines International Association As these data show, U.S. passengers come from all regions of the country with passenger growth reflecting both the changing deployment strategy of the cruise industry and the underlying population growth in each region. Additionally, the number of cruise passengers that reside in the United States is greater than the number of cruise passenger embarkations from U.S. ports, million versus million. Consequently, U.S. resident cruise passengers also provide an economic stimulus to embarkation ports outside the United States. Finally, with million cruise embarkations from U.S. ports in 2014, the international cruise industry is a source of significant economic activity in the U.S. economy. Spending in the U.S. Economy Generated by the Cruise Industry Business Research and Economic Advisors (BREA) conducted a survey of the member cruise lines of the Cruise Lines International Association (CLIA) that provides the basis for our estimates of the industry s 2014 expenditures for the operating and administrative Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 20 September 2015

22 expense categories outlined in Table 3. These data were collected for global payments and payments made to U.S. businesses in addition to other regions of the world. Surveys were returned for 15 cruise lines. These cruise lines were: AIDA Cruises, Azamara Club Cruises, Carnival Cruise Line, Celebrity Cruises, Costa Crociere, Crystal Cruises, Cunard Line, Disney Cruise Line, Holland America Line, Norwegian Cruise Line, P&O Cruises (UK), Paul Gauguin Cruises, Princess Cruises, Royal Caribbean International and Seabourn Cruise Line. Combined, these cruise lines accounted for approximately 95 percent of the industry s global passengers. Table 3 Operating and Administrative Expense Categories In addition to the aggregate revenue and expense data, more detailed data on vendor purchases in 2014 were obtained from a smaller group of cruise lines. Vendor-specific data were obtained from the following cruise lines: Carnival Cruise Lines, Celebrity Cruises, Holland America Line, Princess Cruises and Royal Caribbean International. These five cruise lines accounted for approximately 75 percent of the industry s non-wage U.S. operating and administrative expenses. These data were then aggregated by industry group and state and used to estimate total cruise industry expenditures by industry. These detailed expenditures accounted for about 65 percent of the total estimated expenditures made by the international cruise lines with U.S. businesses. The vendor purchases were aggregated into 95 industry sectors consistent with the 2013 U.S. input/output accounts. Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 21 September 2015

23 The economic benefits that accrue to the U.S. economy arise from five principal sources of spending by the cruise industry and its passengers and crew: spending by cruise passengers and crew for goods and services associated with cruise ship arrivals at U.S. ports, including travel to the port of embarkation, pre- and post-cruise vacation spending, shore excursions, food and beverages and other retail; expenditures by the cruise lines for goods and services necessary for cruise operations, including food and beverages, fuel, vessel maintenance and repair, ship s supplies and so forth; spending by the cruise lines for port services at U.S. ports-of-embarkation and transit ports-of-call; the shore-side staffing by the cruise lines for their headquarters, marketing and tour operations; and capital expenditures for facilities constructed in the U.S., including port terminals, office facilities, and other capital equipment. As shown in Table 4, the cruise lines spent an estimated $15.6 billion for goods and services with U.S. businesses during 2014, including nearly $2.0 billion for capital expenditures. This represents a 3.6 percent increase from similar expenditures in This was the fifth consecutive year of increased spending with U.S. businesses following a 12 percent decline in As a result, the 2014 spending for goods and services by cruise lines reached a new peak and is 23 percent above the 2009 recession induced cyclical low of $12.7 billion. Table 4 U.S. Expenditures ($ Billions) of the International Cruise Industry, Cruise passengers and crew added $3.96 billion in spending with U.S. businesses. Approximately 33 percent of these expenditures represented airfares that were directly purchased by passengers. Of the remaining passenger and crew expenditures, 28 percent were spent on food and beverages and lodging. Entertainment, local transit, retail purchases, sightseeing and other travel related expenditures accounted for the remaining 40 percent. Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 22 September 2015

24 Passenger expenditures, excluding airfares, were made at the U.S. ports-of-embarkation and transit ports-of-call. Estimated passenger and crew spending for 2014 increased by 8.9 percent from This was the highest rate of increase since 2005 and represents a new high for passenger and crew spending in the United States. Thus, the international cruise industry and its passengers and crew spent a total of $19.6 billion for goods and services (excludes wages and taxes) provided by U.S. businesses, a 4.6 percent increase from similar expenditures in It is also 23 percent above the 2009 cyclical low of $16 billion. In addition to the direct purchase of goods and services from U.S. businesses, the cruise industry made combined payments of $1.43 billion in wages and benefits to its employees and taxes to federal, state and local governments in the United States. Wage and benefit payments accounted for about 85 percent of the total. The tax payments consisted primarily of employer contributions to Social Security and sales and property taxes paid to state and local governments. This represented a 3.1 percent increase from Including wages and taxes, the international cruise industry and its passengers and crew made total payments of $21 billion to U.S. businesses, U.S.-resident cruise line employees and U.S. taxing jurisdictions. This was a 4.6 percent increase from total spending by the international cruise industry in Direct Economic Impacts in the United States During 2014 The direct economic impacts of the cruise industry in the United States are derived from a broad range of activities including: port services and cruise industry employment; transportation of cruise passengers from their place of residence to the ports of embarkation; travel agent commissions; spending for shore excursions and pre- and post-cruise stays in U.S. port cities; passenger and crew spending for retail goods in U.S. port cities; and purchases of supplies by the cruise lines from U.S. businesses. Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 23 September 2015

25 As shown in Table 5, the international cruise industry and its passengers and crew spent $21 billion in the United States during 2014, a 4.6 percent increase from Spending in the core cruise travel sector totaled $10.25 billion while the cruise industry purchased an additional $10.76 billion in goods and services from its direct suppliers. Table 5 Direct Economic Impacts of the Cruise Industry in the United States 2014 As a result of this spending, an estimated 152,272 full and part-time jobs 4 were generated, paying wages of $7.02 billion during Thus, the 4.6 percent annual growth in direct industry expenditures resulted in a 3.0 percent increase in direct employment and a 5.9 percent increase in direct wage income relative to The slower growth in employment is primarily the result of the overall increase in labor productivity in all sectors which reduced 4 Throughout this report all employment impacts are the sum of annualized full- and part-time jobs. 5 These figures include the U.S. employees of the cruise lines and the industry s trade associations and their wage income. Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 24 September 2015

26 the number of employees per dollar of final demand. This increase in labor productivity also resulted in a higher increase in direct wage income relative to the direct employment gains. Figure 3 Direct Cruise Industry Expenditures and Employment, Figure 3 shows the direct cruise industry expenditures and direct employment impacts from 2000 through Despite the decline in the direct employment impact in both 2008 and 2009, the international cruise industry s direct contribution to the U.S. economy has grown significantly since Direct cruise industry expenditures have more than doubled from $10.3 billion in 2000 to $21 billion in Throughout this period, direct expenditures have declined in only one year, 2009, and, in fact, had peaked in 2008 at $19.1 billion until reaching a new peak of $19.6 billion in With the 4.6 percent increase in 2014 another peak was reached with the $21 billion in cruise industry expenditures. Similarly, the annual direct employment contribution has increased by nearly 60 percent since 2000, rising from 95,592 to 152,272. Since the 2009 recession low the direct employment impact has increased by 13.2 percent over the subsequent five year period. The Core Cruise Travel Sector in the United States The core cruise travel sector in the United States consists of the cruise lines, airlines, travel agents, port service providers and local businesses, such as hotels and restaurants that are directly impacted by passenger and crew spending. Businesses in these sectors of the U.S. Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 25 September 2015

27 economy received an estimated $10.25 billion in direct spending by the cruise lines and their passengers and crew in This was an increase of 4.8 percent from This, in turn, supported the employment of an estimated 107,744 workers, an increase of 3.2 percent from 2013, and $4.42 billion in wage income, an increase of 5.2 percent. The core cruise travel sector accounted for 49 percent of the direct spending by the cruise industry, 71 percent of the direct employment, and 63 percent of the direct wage income. The $10.25 billion in core cruise travel spending in 2014 was more than double the $4.92 billion in the corresponding expenditures in 2000, while the direct employment and wage impacts were 64 percent and 133 percent higher, respectively. Port Services and Cruise Lines in the United States Cruise lines and port service providers were the leading component of the core cruise sector, accounting for 33 percent of cruise industry spending in the core cruise travel sector (see Figure 4). This segment of the core cruise sector includes two primary components: i) expenditures with U.S. cruise ports and their service providers, such as stevedores and pilots and ii) the direct U.S.-based employment and wages of the cruise industry, including the employment and income of the industry s trade associations. Port service providers at each of the embarkation ports and transit ports-of-call in the United States provide a broad range of services including tugboat and piloting services, port agents, stevedores, passenger reception services, warehousing and other material handling services. Secondly, many of the major international cruise lines maintain administrative and marketing offices throughout the United States. While Florida hosts the majority of cruise headquarters, cruise line offices are also located in California and Washington. Additionally, the lines also maintain marketing and telephone centers in several other states, including Colorado and Kansas, and also have tour operations and support staff in Alaska and Hawaii. These employees and their wages are included in this sector. Third, industry trade associations maintain staff in Alaska, Florida, and Washington, DC. As with the cruise lines, the employees of these associations and their wages are also included in the core cruise travel sector. Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 26 September 2015

28 Figure 4 Distribution of Core Cruise Travel Sector Direct Spending 2014 ($ Billions) During 2014, the cruise industry spent $3.42 billion on such services. This represents a 2.1 percent increase from The growth in these expenditures is the result of a 2.8 percent increase in cruise industry employee wages and salaries and a 1.9 percent increase in the costs associated with cruise port operations. As a result of these expenditures, port service providers, the cruise lines and their trade associations provided 48,211 full- and part-time jobs, an increase of 1.1 percent from 2013, paying an annual income of $2.12 billion, an increase of 3.1 percent from On an industry basis, all of these jobs are found in the transportation sector, including water transportation, trucking, warehousing and other transport services. The cruise lines directly account for approximately 55 percent of the employment and wage impacts in this sector. The remaining 45 percent of the impacts occur principally with port authorities with additional impacts affecting ship agents, stevedoring and warehousing firms and other water transportation services, such as pilots and tugboats. Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 27 September 2015

29 Transportation Services in United States With $2.71 billion in direct expenditures the transportation services sector was the second largest component of the core cruise travel sector and accounted for 27 percent of cruise industry spending within the core cruise travel sector. Transportation services primarily include travel agents and tour operators. Payments to travel agents throughout the U.S. accounted for about 57 percent of the total, or $1.55 billion while tour operators, principally in U.S. destinations in Alaska, Hawaii and Florida, accounted for 30 percent of the total. The remaining 13 percent was paid to businesses providing ground transportation, including tour operators, and other miscellaneous transport services. The $2.71 billion in spending by the cruise lines and their passengers and crew for transportation services was a 0.3 percent decrease from This decline is largely attributable to a reported decrease in spending for ground miscellaneous transport services. Overall, BREA estimated that the cruise industry spending for these transportation services was responsible for the generation of 24,969 jobs in this sector paying $1.14 billion in wage income. The employment impact rose by 1.7 percent from 2013 while the income impact increased by 3.6 percent. Travel agents accounted for about 60 percent of the direct employment and wage impacts in the transportation services sector while tour operators and other providers of transportation services accounted for the remaining 40 percent of the direct effects. The high proportion of impacts on travel agents reflects the fact that the United States is primarily a source market for cruises rather than a destination market. Air Transportation Services in United States The third largest component of the core cruise travel sector is air transportation which accounts for another 21 percent of cruise industry spending in the core cruise travel sector. The percentage of passengers arriving by air at the ports-of-embarkation was about 48 percent. At the same time the average airfare rose by about 4.0 percent to approximately $416 per passenger. As a result, cruise passengers who flew to their port city spent an estimated $2.18 billion on air transportation, an increase of 9.9 percent from These Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 28 September 2015

30 expenditures produced 11,428 jobs in the United States an increase of 4.4 percent from 2013, while the wage income impact rose by 7.1 percent to $568 million. Passenger and Crew Spending in United States The final component of the core cruise travel sector is the spending of cruise passengers and crew for a variety of retail, dining, local transit and lodging services. 6 First, as previously discussed, million passengers embarked on cruises at U.S. ports. Second, the industry generated approximately 5.3 million transit visits 7 at U.S. ports-of call, most of which were in Alaska, Hawaii, Port Canaveral and Key West. Finally, crew onboard cruise ships visit both ports-of-embarkation and transit ports-of-call. The combined spending for nontransportation services of passengers and crew totaled an estimated $1.94 billion in the United States during 2014, an increase of 12.2 percent from These expenditures accounted for 19 percent of cruise industry spending within the core cruise travel sector. This spending was responsible for the generation of 23,137 jobs in United States, an increase of 8.9 percent from 2013, paying annual wages of $600 million, a 5.2 percent increase from On an industry basis, the employment and wage impacts were concentrated in the accommodation, food and beverage service and retail industries. The accommodation sector accounted for 35 percent of passenger and crew non-transportation expenditures while the food and beverage service sector accounted for about 31 percent and the retail trade industry accounted for the remaining 34 percent of the economic impacts generated by passenger and crew expenditures. Adding in the cost of shore tours and local transportation, which was included in Transportation Services, passengers and crew spent $2.34 billion in port cities throughout the United States. This was a 7.3 percent increase from As shown in Table 6 and Figure 5, embarkation passengers accounted for 59 percent of the total spending with $1.37 billion in Based upon the passenger survey data referenced previously, about 40 percent of embarking passengers stayed one or more nights in a port city and spent a total of 6 Passenger and crew expenditures for sightseeing and shore excursions are included in the Transportation Services category of the core cruise travel sector. 7 Since individual passengers will make several port-of-call visits on any itinerary, passenger visits are approximately three times greater than the number of passengers taking cruises to U.S. ports-of-call. Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 29 September 2015

31 $1.16 billion during their visits. On average, these overnight cruise visitors spent $258 per visit, an increase of 5.0 percent from The average length of stay of these passengers was approximately 1.1 nights. Table 6 Passenger and Crew Expenditures in the United States 2014 Embarking passengers who arrived at the port city on the day of their cruise spent an average of $31.16, an increase of 3.4 percent from Most of these expenditures were for local transit, parking and limited food and retail purchases. In total, we estimated that these passengers spent $204 million during Figure 5 Distribution of Passenger and Crew Spending in the United States 2014 Total = $2.18 Billion Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 30 September 2015

32 BREA also estimated that the cruise industry generated 5.25 million transit port-of-call visits. 8 Approximately 60 percent of these visits were made to ports in Alaska. Cruise ships also make calls at other ports throughout the United States including Hawaii, Port Canaveral, Key West and many of the East and West Coast ports. Survey data for transit port-of-call passengers indicated that the typical port-of-call passenger spent an average of nearly $122 per visit. Consequently, we have estimated that these passengers spent $641 million in the United States during 2014, or 27 percent of the total passenger and crew spending. Finally, crew onboard the cruise ships will disembark at both ports-of-embarkation and transit ports-of-call. We estimated that nearly seven million crew visits were made at U.S. port cities with an average per crew expenditures of $47.43 per visit, an increase of 1.9 percent from Consequently, crew spent an estimated $331 million in the United States during 2014, or 14 percent of the total expenditures of passengers and crew. Table 7 Estimated Onshore Spending Generated by a 3,000-Passenger Cruise Ship 2014 Another way to view passenger and crew spending is in terms of the onshore spending generated by a typical or average cruise ship call. As shown in Table 7, we have estimated that a 3,000-passenger ship generated an average of approximately $402,000 in passenger and crew onshore spending per call in the home port city during A similar ship making transit port-of-call visits generated an average of approximately $384,000 in passenger and crew onshore spending per U.S. port call. 8 Since individual passengers will make several port-of-call visits on any itinerary, passenger visits are approximately three times greater than the number of passengers taking cruises to U.S. ports-of-call. Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 31 September 2015

33 Other Direct Impacts in the United States Cruise Line Expenditures During 2014, U.S. businesses outside the core cruise travel sector received $10.76 billion in direct spending by the cruise lines. These expenditures generated an estimated 44,527 jobs in the nation paying wage income of $2.6 billion. Expenditures with suppliers increased by 4.4 percent from As a result of a shift in industry mix and productivity gains, the employment impact among cruise industry suppliers increased by 2.4 percent while the income impact rose by 7.1 percent. Table 5 shows the direct impacts of these expenditures by the cruise lines on major business sectors of the U.S. economy. These economic impacts by sector are as follows: Petroleum Refining ($2.08 billion in direct expenditures, 157 jobs and $21 million in wage income): the refining of petroleum products used to power the cruise ships and lubricate engines and equipment. As a result of the net effect of the continued expansion of the cruise ship fleet and moderating oil prices during 2014, expenditures for petroleum products rose by 2.0 percent. The employment and wage impacts in this capital intensive industry increased by 3.4 percent and 5.1 percent, respectively. Professional, Scientific and Technical Services ($1.64 billion in direct expenditures, 14,843 jobs, and $625 million in wage income): comprised of a very broad range of business services, including legal, accounting and consulting services; advertising, promotional and marketing agencies; computer hardware and software consulting; and security and manpower services. The cruise industry expenditures with these service providers increased by 4.7 percent from The subsequent employment impact rose by 2.4 percent while the income impact increased by 6.9 percent. Finance, Insurance, Real Estate and Leasing ($1.11 billion in direct expenditures, 2,887 jobs, $246 million in wage income): banking and brokerage services; vessel, passenger travel and employee health insurance; real estate services and the leasing of property and equipment. Spending with financial service providers rose by 10.8 percent from The employment impact increased by 3.8 percent from 2013 while the income impact increased by 6.6 percent. Food and Beverages ($1.02 billion in direct expenditures, 2,101 jobs, and $99 million in wage income): cruise line purchases of alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages and food consumed on the cruise ships by passengers and crew. The cruise industry increased its expenditures on food and beverages by 2.4 percent in The direct employment impact rose by 2.7 percent while the wage impact increased by 4.0 percent. Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 32 September 2015

34 Ship Maintenance and Repair ($722 million in direct expenditures, 2,150 jobs and $166 million in wage income): includes cruise ship maintenance and repair by all of the cruise lines at U.S. shipyards and the construction of support vessels, such as lifeboats and passenger tenders. The direct employment impact fell by 1.3 percent while the wage impact rose by 1.6 percent from Figure 6 Distribution of Direct Expenditures to Cruise Industry Suppliers 2014 Total = $10.76 Billion Wholesale Trade ($590 million in direct expenditures, 2,862 jobs, and $190 million in wage income): primarily includes the wholesale distribution and warehousing costs associated with the purchase and delivery of manufactured products consumed and/or used onboard the cruise ships. Expenditures among wholesalers remained virtually flat, increasing by 0.1 percent from 2013 while the employment impact rose by 1.3 percent and the wage impact increased by 3.9 percent from Industrial Machinery ($437 million in direct expenditures, 1,265 jobs, and $82 million in wage income): includes heavy equipment used to power the cruise ships such as boilers and turbines, elevators and parts, printing equipment, kitchen and restaurant equipment and plumbing and water treatment equipment. Direct expenditures in this industry increased by 8.2 percent while the direct employment rose by 7.1 percent and the wage impacts increased by 8.5 percent. Computers and Electronic Equipment ($278 million in direct expenditures, 796 jobs and $84 million in wage income): includes the manufacture of computers, lighting equipment, audio-visual products and communication and navigation equipment. The cruise industry's expenditures for computers and electronic equipment remained virtually unchanged from As a result, the direct employment impact in this industry fell by 1.0 percent and the wage income impact rose by 3.2 percent. Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 33 September 2015

35 Fabricated Metal Products ($222 million in direct expenditures, 874 jobs, and $58 million in wage income): includes a variety of hard goods, such as doors and fixtures in cabins and crew quarters, security equipment, fabricated products used in equipment and storage facilities on the cruise ships, etc., and tools used onboard cruise ships during repair and maintenance of the vessels. Direct expenditures in this industry increased by 3.0 percent from 2013 while the direct employment and wage impacts increased by 4.4 percent and 9.0 percent, respectively. Arts, Entertainment and Recreation ($212 million in direct expenditures, 1,789 jobs and $95 million in wage income): includes the purchase of art work for cruise ships, the hiring of designers, entertainers and crew for shows onboard cruise ships and other recreational activities on and off the cruise ships. Cruise industry expenditures for entertainment services increased by 0.3 percent over The direct employment impact increased by 0.8 percent while the wage income impact rose by 6.0 percent. Indirect and Induced Economic Impacts in the United States During 2014 The indirect economic benefits derived from the cruise industry result in part from the additional spending by the suppliers to the cruise industry. For example, food processors must purchase raw foodstuffs for processing; utility services, such as electricity and water, to run equipment and process raw materials; transportation services to deliver finished products to the cruise lines or wholesalers; and insurance for property and employees. The U.S. input/output table and multipliers were used to estimate the indirect impacts. 9 The input/output table reflects the inter-industry links among industries in the U.S. economy. Use of the U.S. input/output table permits the estimation of the additional economic impacts that the direct spending by the cruise industry, its passengers and its suppliers has on all other industries in the U.S. economy. In addition to the indirect impacts generated by the purchase of business goods and services by cruise industry suppliers, the employees of the cruise lines and their suppliers generate additional economic benefits through their purchases of consumer goods and services including such goods as autos, food, clothing, furniture, health care and so forth. The economic impact analysis implied that the direct spending of the international cruise industry generated another 221,466 jobs in the United States through the indirect and 9 Bureau of Economic Analysis, Annual Input/Output Accounts for the U.S. Economy, Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 34 September 2015

36 induced spending by businesses and employees, an increase of 2.9 percent from In addition, these jobs generated $12.4 billion in wage income for these workers, an increase of 6.6 percent from As shown in Table 8, the indirect economic impacts touch virtually every industry in the nation. Table 8 Indirect and Induced Economic Impacts of the Cruise Industry in the United States 2014 The Services & Government sector was the most significantly impacted sector within the nation. This sector accounted for 60 percent of the indirect employment impact and 55 percent of the wage impact. The indirect impacts of cruise industry spending generated 132,237 jobs in the Services and Government sector paying $6.8 billion in wage income. The indirect employment impacts in this sector rose by 2.0 percent while the income increased by 5.0 percent from Within the Services & Government segment, approximately 98 percent of the employment and income impacts were in the services industry with federal, state and local government agencies accounting for the remaining two percent. Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 35 September 2015

37 Within the Professional, Scientific and Technical Services subsector, the indirect impacts added 21,896 jobs, an increase of 2.0 percent from 2013, and $2.07 billion in wage income, a growth of 5.0 percent over These impacts resulted from business demand for a variety of services, including legal and accounting services, consulting services, especially computer consulting, advertising and other business services. Figure 7 Distribution of Indirect Employment Impacts 2014 Total = 221,466 Jobs Another 25,724 jobs and $894 million in income were generated in the Administrative and Waste Management Services subsector. The respective percentage increases from 2013 for the employment and wage income impacts were 6.9 and 7.6 percent, respectively. This sector is comprised of establishments that provide routine support activities for the day-to-day operations of other businesses. These include such activities as temporary help services, document preparation services, telephone call and answering services, security services, travel agents and tour operators and sanitary services to name a few. The Accommodations and Food Services subsector, which includes hotels and restaurants, benefited from the creation of an estimated 21,928 jobs and $471 million in wage income. These impacts are primarily due to the travel and dining requirements of day-to-day business operations, as well as consumer vacation travel. The indirect employment impact rose by 4.4 percent from 2013 and the income impact increased by 7.5 percent. Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 36 September 2015

38 The indirect impacts measured in the Other Services & Government subsector are primarily personal, health, amusement and entertainment, and educational and social services that are generated by the spending of households whose income is directly and indirectly generated by the cruise industry. With respective indirect employment and income impacts of 57,877 jobs and $3.17 billion, the indirect employment impacts fell by 0.8 percent from 2013 while the income impacts increased by 6.4 percent. An estimated 29,864 indirect jobs, 14 percent of the total indirect employment impacts, with an annual income of $1.45 billion were generated in the Wholesale & Retail Trade sector because of cruise industry spending in Relative to 2013, the indirect employment impacts in this sector rose by 2.9 percent while the wage income impacts increased by 6.0 percent. The wholesale trade subsector accounted for approximately 40 percent of the indirect employment impacts and 55 percent of the wage income impacts in the two subsectors. The higher income share reflects the higher average wage in the wholesale trade industry. The Transportation sector remained an important sector within the nation with 16,523 indirect jobs, seven percent of the total indirect employment impacts, paying $823 million in wages. This reflects the strong inter-industry linkages within the transportation sector, as well as, the heavy usage of a variety of transportation services to supply businesses with their inputs and to deliver consumer goods to retail outlets. The indirect employment impacts in this sector rose by 7.0 percent from 2013 while the income impacts increased by 10 percent. Finally, the indirect impacts of cruise industry spending generated 19,561 jobs within the manufacturing sector during 2014, nine percent of the total indirect employment impacts and an increase of 1.5 percent from These jobs paid $1.40 billion in annual income, an increase of 3.9 percent from The majority of the employment impacts were spread among nine industries with the employment impacts ranging from 561 jobs in the petroleum refining industry to 3,396 jobs in the fabricated metals industry. Combined, the nine industries shown in Table 8 accounted for 82 percent of the indirect impacts in the manufacturing sector. Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 37 September 2015

39 Total Economic Impacts in the United States During 2014 Even though the international cruise industry provides a service that is considered an import to the U.S. economy, it is responsible for considerable domestic economic activity. As noted previously the industry directly spent $21 billion in the United States in As shown in Table 9, this spending generated $46.1 billion in total industry output among U.S. businesses during 2014, an increase of 4.5 percent from The $46.1 billion in total gross product resulted in the employment of 373,738 workers, an increase of 2.9 percent from 2013, and $19.4 billion in wages and salaries, a growth of 6.3 percent from These total impacts are the sum of the direct, indirect and induced impacts of the direct spending of the international cruise industry. Table 9 Total Economic Impacts of the Cruise Industry in the United States 2014 Since 2000, the total economic impact of the international cruise industry has increased significantly. Total annual output supported by the cruise industry has more than doubled over the fourteen year period, increasing by 178 percent. As a result of the increased output, Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 38 September 2015

40 the cruise industry s total annual employment and wage impacts have increased by 46 percent and 123 percent respectively. Virtually all sectors of the economy were affected by the international passenger cruise industry. The industries that were most significantly affected included: Air Transportation Travel Agents Advertising Food Processing Ship Maintenance and Repair Petroleum Refining Business Services Wholesale Trade However, many other industries were affected in some form, including lodging, insurance, telecommunications, retail trade and many others. As shown in Table 9 and Figure 8, the Transportation Services sector accounted for the most total jobs generated by the international cruise industry. Just over 76,200 jobs were generated in this sector, accounting for 20 percent of the total employment impact. These jobs, in turn, generated $3.51 billion in wages. The Administrative & Waste Management Services and the Other Services & Government subsectors each accounted for about 14 percent of all (direct, indirect and induced) jobs generated in the United States by the spending of the cruise industry and its passengers and crew. Combined, these two subsectors generated just over 101,000 jobs and $5.4 billion in wages during the year as a result of the spending by the international cruise industry. Approximately, $10.8 billion in output was generated in the Manufacturing sector. The Manufacturing sector accounted for nine percent of the total jobs, over 31,700, and over 11 percent of the income, $2.22 billion, generated by cruise industry spending. The impacts were split evenly between nondurable and durable goods industries. Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 39 September 2015

41 Figure 8 Distribution of Total Employment Impacts 2014 Total = 373,738 Jobs Finally, the Wholesale & Retail Trade sector accounted for nine percent of the total employment impact of the cruise industry having generated just over 33,000 jobs and $1.66 billion in income as a result of the expenditures of the international cruise industry. Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 40 September 2015

42 Section II: The Contribution of the Cruise Industry to the U.S. Economy by State in 2014 The national economic contributions discussed in the previous section also had an effect on individual state economies. The direct economic contribution of the cruise industry and its passengers and crew was allocated to each state based on several criteria. First, vendor purchases by industry were allocated to each state based upon a sample of state- and industry-specific vendor purchases obtained from the cruise lines. Second, wages and salaries of shoreside employees of the cruise lines were allocated to each state based upon the location of administrative facilities as provided by the cruise lines. Third, national travel agent commissions were allocated to each state based upon the place of residence of cruise passengers. Fourth, air transportation spending was assigned to each state based upon a combination of the residence of passengers and the ports of embarkation of passengers. Fifth, cruise passenger and crew expenditures were allocated to states based upon embarkation and arrival data. The total economic contribution in each state was estimated by using state- and industryspecific multipliers obtained from the Bureau of Economic Analysis. These multipliers reflect the industry and wage structure in each state. As a consequence, the direct and indirect economic contributions estimated for each state reflect the distribution of vendor purchases by the cruise industry by industry and state, the place of residence of cruise passengers, the regional distribution of cruise embarkations and port-of-call visits and the economic structure of each state. As shown in Figure 9, our analysis shows that the international cruise industry affects every state economy. The contributions result, in part, from the direct spending of the cruise lines for goods and services used to support their cruise operations. These range from the purchase of food and beverages, to ship maintenance and refurbishment, to engineering, insurance and management consulting services. Economic contributions are also generated by other components of what we have called the core cruise travel sector. These include the commissions received by travel agents from the cruise lines, airfares received by airlines from cruise passengers and fees received by port authorities and port service providers. Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 41 September 2015

43 Figure 9 Direct Expenditures of the International Cruise Industry by State Economic Impacts in the Top Ten States As shown in Figure 10, all states had some direct expenditures generated by the international cruise industry in This ranged from $2 million in Wyoming to $7.95 billion in Florida. The top 10 states accounted for 78 percent of the direct expenditures of the cruise industry with $16.5 billion (See Table 10). Of the top 10 states, eight (Florida, California, Texas, Alaska, New York, Washington, Massachusetts and New Jersey) had significant cruise ports. Of these, Alaska was primarily a destination rather than a homeport state. The other two states, Georgia, and Illinois, had no cruise ports but were significant source markets for cruise passengers and provided vendor support for cruise and cruise tour operations. These ten states also accounted for 80 percent of the total jobs generated by cruise tourism in the United States with just over 300,000 jobs paying $15.8 billion in wage income, 82 percent of the total national impact. Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 42 September 2015

44 Table 10 Direct Expenditures of the International Cruise Industry by State 2014 Of the remaining states, twenty-one, including the District of Columbia, received less than $50 million in direct cruise industry expenditures. With the exception of Maine, these were largely source market states will small populations. Another 20 states received between $50 and $410 million in direct expenditures. These were larger states but, again most were source markets with the exception of Louisiana, Hawaii, Maryland and South Carolina which have home and transit port cruise operations. Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 43 September 2015

45 Figure 10 Distribution of Direct Expenditures of the International Cruise Industry by State 2014 U.S. Total = $21 Billion The following sections provide a summary of the characteristics of cruise-related activity in each of the top ten states. Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 44 September 2015

46 Florida As has been discussed previously in this report, Florida is the center for cruising from the United States. As shown in Table 11, 6.89 million passengers boarded their cruises form one of Florida s five cruise ports, Port of Miami, Port Everglades, Port Canaveral, Port of Tampa and Port of Jacksonville 10, accounting for 62 percent of embarkations at all U.S. ports. While these ports primarily offer cruises to the Bahamas, the Caribbean and Central America, cruises that originate in Florida also travel to ports around the world. Table 11 Summary of 2014 Cruise Industry Impacts Florida Source: Cruise Lines International Association and Business Research and Economic Advisors Given the proximity of cruise homeports in Florida and the Gulf Coast to Florida residents, the state also led the nation in U.S.-sourced cruise passengers with 3.7 million passengers, 33 percent of all U.S.-sourced cruise passengers. With nearly twice as many embarkations as resident passengers, the cruise industry in Florida is the largest net importer of cruise passengers in the United States. Relative to 2013, Florida experienced an increase in both passenger embarkations and resident cruise passengers. Passenger embarkations rose by 12 percent while resident cruise passengers increased by 11 percent, both above the national average. As a result, Florida s share of both passenger embarkations and U.S.-sourced cruise passengers increased in Including homeport and transit calls, cruising at Florida ports generated an estimated 10.5 million passenger and crew visits, accounting for 45 percent of all passenger and crew visits 10 Key West is a port-of-call for Caribbean cruises and thus does not generate passenger embarkations. However, passenger and crew transit visits and spending in Key West and other ports are included in the state visit and spending estimates. Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 45 September 2015

47 in the United States. These visits produced an estimated $1.04 billion in passenger and crew onshore spending, or nearly $100 per visit. Florida is the first and only state to generate over $1 billion in annual passenger and crew expenditures. Total passenger and crew spending in Florida increased by 9.6 percent from 2013 as a result of the increase in passenger and crew visits. Florida is not only the center for cruise originations, it is the center of just about all aspects of the cruise industry. Carnival Corporation & plc., Royal Caribbean Cruises, Ltd. and Norwegian Cruise Line have their headquarters in Florida as do other cruise lines. Overall, these operations employed more than 16,000 workers, approximately 60 percent of the total employment of all cruise lines throughout the United States. As a result of the activity of the cruise industry, Florida businesses received $7.95 billion, or 38 percent of the direct expenditures generated by the cruise industry in the United States. This represents an 8.4 percent increase from Tourism-related businesses in addition to the cruise lines, such as travel agencies, airlines, hotels, restaurants and providers of ground transportation were certainly the main beneficiaries of the cruise industry. These tourismrelated industries received approximately $3.6 billion, or 45 percent of the industry s direct expenditures in Florida. Another $1.0 billion, or 13 percent of the total, was spent with businesses in six additional business segments, food processors, electrical and nonelectrical machinery manufacturers and chemical manufacturers, including, paints, pharmaceuticals and cleaning supplies, within the manufacturing sector; and advertising agencies, management and technical consulting companies and manpower agencies in the nonmanufacturing sector. Due to the absolute scale of the industry, direct expenditures in Florida impacted just about all segments of the economy, including recreation and amusement establishments, wholesalers of products purchased by cruise lines, manufacturers of communications and navigation equipment, producers of machinery and equipment such as engine parts, boilers, laundry equipment and computers, manufacturers of fabricated metal products such as locks and security equipment and business service providers such as interior designers and computer services consultants. Finally, these direct expenditures generated total economic impacts of 146,401 jobs and $6.82 billion in income throughout the Florida during Florida s total employment Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 46 September 2015

48 impact increased by 4.3 percent while the total wage impact rose by 4.6 percent. These impacts accounted for 39 percent of the national employment impact and 35 percent of the national wage impact. Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 47 September 2015

49 California With respect to the cruise industry, California is very similar to Florida only on a smaller scale. The state has four major cruise ports in Los Angeles, Long Beach, San Diego and San Francisco that combined generated 984,000 passenger embarkations during 2014, 8.9 percent of total U.S. embarkations (see Table 12). Cruise itineraries primarily include ports along the Pacific coast of Mexico, but also include cruises through the Panama Canal, to Hawaii and Alaska. Table 12 Summary of 2014 Cruise Industry Impacts California Source: Cruise Lines International Association and Business Research and Economic Advisors Embarkations increased by 49 percent in This was the first increase in embarkations in five years. The turnaround is primarily the result of a redeployment of capacity to the Mexico West cruise market. In addition, there was an increase in the number of 3- and 4-day cruises which increase passenger throughput relative to 7-day cruises. As a result, total embarkations at the state s ports approached the one million mark for the first time since Passenger embarkations in Long Beach rose by 84 percent to 549,000 passengers as a second twice-a-week Carnival ship began homeporting during The Port of Los Angeles also experienced significant growth of 36 percent as embarkations increased to 291,000 passengers in Embarkations in San Francisco continued their strong growth trend with an increase of 30 percent to 95,000 passengers. This was the fifth consecutive year of increases and annual embarkations are now almost double those of Finally, San Diego saw 49,000 embarkations during As a result, California s share of U.S. passenger embarkations rose from 6.6 percent in 2013 to 8.9 percent in Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 48 September 2015

50 Cruise passengers sourced from California accounted for 11.1 percent of U.S.-sourced passengers and totaled 1.25 million during Thus, California was a net exporter of cruise passengers. Including homeport and transit calls, cruising at California ports generated an estimated two million passenger and crew visits, accounting for 8.6 percent of all passenger and crew visits in the United States. These visits produced an estimated $132 million in passenger and crew onshore spending, or about $65 per visit. Total estimated spending by passengers and crew increased by 39 percent from 2013 as a result of the 48 percent increase in passenger and crew visits. Again, like Florida, California is the home of headquarters and support facilities for several cruise lines including Princess and Crystal Cruises. Overall, the industry had approximately 1,300 employees, or about five percent of total employment of the cruise lines throughout the United States. Total direct cruise industry expenditures in California rose by 19.2 percent in 2014 to $2.22 billion, or 10.6 percent of the direct expenditures generated by the cruise industry in the United States. This figure is the result of increased spending with businesses that support the industry beyond just cruises originating in California. These include entertainment, food processing and legal and professional services to name a few. Tourism-related businesses, such as travel agencies, airlines, hotels, etc., received $700 million, or 32 percent of the industry s direct expenditures in California and an 18 percent increase from Another $888 million, or 40 percent of the total, was spent with businesses in six additional business segments, food processors, ship repair companies and petroleum refiners within the manufacturing sector; and advertising agencies, insurance companies and professional services, such as legal, accounting and consulting services, in the nonmanufacturing sector. Direct expenditures in California also impacted many other industries throughout the state including business service providers such as computer services, software developers, apparel manufacturing and the entertainment and amusement industry, including artwork and producers of musical and theatrical shows. Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 49 September 2015

51 Finally, these direct expenditures generated total economic impacts of 44,369 jobs and $2.73 billion in income throughout the California economy during These impacts accounted for 11.9 percent of national employment impact and 14.1 percent of the national wage impact. Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 50 September 2015

52 Texas During 2014, Texas two cruise ports, Galveston and Houston, had 750,000 embarkations, 6.8 percent of total U.S. cruise embarkations. Passenger embarkations increased by over 20 percent during Cruise passengers sourced from Texas accounted for 11.0 percent of U.S.-sourced passengers and totaled 1.23 million during Thus, Texas was a net exporter of cruise passengers. Table 13 Summary of 2014 Cruise Industry Impacts Texas Source: Cruise Lines International Association and Business Research and Economic Advisors Combining passenger and crew visits, cruises calling at the Texas ports generated an estimated 1.07 million passenger and crew visits, accounting for 4.6 percent of all passenger and crew visits in the United States. This represented a 19 percent increase over These visits produced an estimated $85.1 million in passenger and crew onshore spending, or approximately $80 per visit. Total passenger and crew spending in 2014 increased by 24 percent from 2013 as a result of the 19 percent increase in visits and a 5.0 percent increase in average spend per visit. Cruise industry direct expenditures increased by 5.6 percent in 2014 to $1.33 billion, or 6.3 percent of the direct expenditures generated by the cruise industry in the United States. Tourism-related businesses, such as travel agencies, airlines, hotels, etc., received approximately $569 million, 43 percent of the industry s direct expenditures in Texas. Another $481 million, 36 percent of direct expenditures in the state, was spent with businesses in six additional business segments, food processors, machinery manufacturers and petroleum refiners in the manufacturing sector; and advertising agencies, insurance carriers, and management and technical consulting companies in the nonmanufacturing Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 51 September 2015

53 sector. The remaining 21 percent of direct expenditures in Texas also impacted many other industries throughout the state including food processors, wholesalers of products purchased by cruise lines, apparel manufacturers, software publishers and companies that manufacture and distribute communication and navigation equipment. Finally, these direct expenditures generated total economic impacts of, 22,689 jobs and $1.42 billion in income throughout the Texas economy during These impacts accounted for 6.1 percent of national employment impact and 7.3 percent of the national wage impact. Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 52 September 2015

54 New York New York is primarily a place of embarkation for cruises to Canada, Bermuda, the Bahamas and the Caribbean. While the cruises to Canada and Bermuda are seasonal (Spring through Fall months), cruises to the Bahamas and the Caribbean are offered on a year-round basis. The City of New York saw 576,000 passenger embarkations during 2014, 5.2 percent of total U.S. embarkations. The Manhattan Cruise Terminal handled approximately 90 percent of the passengers while the Brooklyn Cruise Terminal, processed the remaining 10 percent. Table 14 Summary of 2014 Cruise Industry Impacts New York Source: Cruise Lines International Association and Business Research and Economic Advisors Cruise passengers sourced from New York accounted for 3.0 percent of U.S.-sourced passengers and totaled 336,000 during In addition to the state of New York, passengers boarding cruises in New York also include residents of Connecticut, New Jersey and parts of Pennsylvania. As a result, New York was a net importer of cruise passengers. Including homeport and transit calls, cruising at New York cruise terminals generated an estimated 853,000 passenger and crew visits, accounting for 3.7 percent of all passenger and crew visits in the United States. These visits produced an estimated $146 million in passenger and crew onshore spending, or $171 per visit. Passenger and crew spending increased by 3.5 percent from Cruise industry direct expenditures in New York totaled $1.24 billion, or 5.9 percent of the direct expenditures generated by the cruise industry in the United States. Direct cruise industry expenditures in the state decreased by 1.1 percent from Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 53 September 2015

55 Tourism-related businesses, such as travel agencies, airlines, hotels, etc., received approximately $365 million, 29 percent of the industry s direct expenditures in New York. Another $532 million, 43 percent of the direct expenditures, was spent with businesses in five additional business segments, food processors, textile and apparel manufacturers, and petroleum refiners and distributors within the manufacturing sector; and advertising agencies and financial services, including banking, insurance and securities companies in the nonmanufacturing sector. The remaining 28 percent of direct expenditures in New York also impacted many other industries throughout the state including law firms, business service companies such as computer services, software consulting and marketing, manufacturers of fabricated metal products such as locks and security equipment and performing arts and amusement establishments. Finally, these direct expenditures generated total economic impacts of 15,890 jobs and $971 million in income throughout the New York economy during These impacts accounted for 4.3 percent of national employment impact and 5.0 percent of the national wage impact. The employment impact in New York fell by 3.6 percent while the wage impact rose by 0.4 percent over Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 54 September 2015

56 Alaska Alaska is the premier cruise destination market in the United States. During 2014, Alaska ports received about 3.3 million cruise passenger visits. The state does have homeporting operations as well, and generated 141,000 embarkations on turnaround cruises between Alaska and Vancouver, Canada. The cruise lines also maintain significant tour operations in the state and employed an annual average of approximately 2,200 full- and part-time employees during the year. During the peak season, the cruise lines employed more than 4,000 employees in Alaska. Table 15 Summary of 2014 Cruise Industry Impacts Alaska Source: Cruise Lines International Association and Business Research and Economic Advisors Alaska is one of the least populous states in the nation and thus resident cruise passengers in the state totaled only 7,000 and accounted for 0.1 percent of U.S.-sourced passengers during Thus, Alaska was a net importer of cruise passengers. Relative to 2013, Alaska experienced a 13 percent increase in passenger embarkations and a 4.0 percent decrease in cruise passenger and crew visits. Including homeport and transit calls, cruising at Alaska ports generated 4.7 million passenger and crew visits, 11 accounting for 20.2 percent of all passenger and crew visits in the United. These visits produced an estimated $483 million in passenger and crew onshore spending, or nearly $103 per visit. Alaska ranked fifth in cruise industry direct expenditures with $953 million, or 4.5 percent of the direct expenditures generated by the cruise industry in the United States. Tourism-related businesses, such as tour operators, airlines, hotels, etc., received approximately $603 million, 11 Since individual passengers will make several port-of-call visits on any itinerary, passenger visits are approximately three times greater than the number of passengers taking cruises to Alaska. Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 55 September 2015

57 approximately 63 percent of the industry s direct expenditures in Alaska. 12 Another $65 million was spent with businesses in five additional business segments, food processors and petroleum refiners and distributors within the manufacturing sector; and employment agencies, trucking companies and utilities in the nonmanufacturing sector. Finally, these direct expenditures generated total economic impacts of 18,583 jobs and $924 million in income throughout the Alaska economy during These impacts accounted for 5.0 percent of national employment impact and 4.8 percent of the national wage impact. 12 Excludes the wages and salaries paid to cruise line employees in the state. Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 56 September 2015

58 Washington Washington has one major cruise port, Port of Seattle, which had 408,000 passenger embarkations during Also, Holland America Group has its headquarters in Washington. The Seattle cruises were destined for the Alaska cruise market and also included at least one visit to a Canadian port. Washington's share of embarkations at U.S. ports was 3.7 percent in Table 16 Summary of 2014 Cruise Industry Impacts Washington Source: Cruise Lines International Association and Business Research and Economic Advisors Cruise passengers sourced from Washington totaled 329,000 during 2014, 2.9 percent of U.S.-sourced passengers and a 13 percent increase from Thus, Washington was a net importer of cruise passengers. Combining passenger and crew visits, cruising from the Port of Seattle generated an estimated 599,000 passenger and crew visits, accounting for 2.6 percent of all passenger and crew visits in the United States. These visits produced an estimated $33.8 million in passenger and crew onshore spending, or $56 per visit. Direct cruise industry was 3.5 percent of the direct expenditures generated by the cruise industry in the United States. Tourism-related businesses, such as travel agencies, airlines, hotels, etc., received more than $238 million, or 32 percent of the industry s direct expenditures in the state. Another $250 million was spent with businesses in six additional business segments, food processors, petroleum refiners and distributors, and ship repair companies within the manufacturing sector; and advertising agencies, engineering and design companies and management consulting firms in the nonmanufacturing sector. Direct expenditures in Washington also impacted many other industries throughout the state Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 57 September 2015

59 including law firms, insurance carriers, business service providers such as computer services, software consulting and marketing, and other financial service companies. Finally, these direct expenditures generated total economic impacts of 17,362 jobs and $918 million in income throughout the Washington economy during Both the employment and wage impacts accounted for just under 5.0 percent of the corresponding national impacts. Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 58 September 2015

60 Georgia While Georgia has no direct cruise operations, it is a major source market for cruise passengers, making it a net exporter of cruise passengers. It also supports the industry with a wide range of goods and services. Cruise passengers sourced from Georgia totaled 245,000 during 2014, 2.2 percent of U.S.-sourced passengers and a 2.5 percent increase over Table 17 Summary of 2014 Cruise Industry Impacts Georgia Source: Cruise Lines International Association and Business Research and Economic Advisors Cruise industry expenditures in Georgia grew by 1.9 percent in 2014 to $666 million, or 3.2 percent of the direct expenditures generated by the cruise industry in the United States. Since Georgia is a source market for cruise passengers, tourism-related businesses, such as travel agencies, airlines, hotels, etc., accounted for 29 percent of the industry s direct expenditures in the state, or $196 million. Another $201 million was spent with businesses in the top six support industries, food processors, chemical manufacturers and computer and electronic equipment manufacturers within the manufacturing sector; and advertising agencies, insurance companies and management and technical consultants in the nonmanufacturing sector. Direct expenditures in Georgia also impacted many other industries throughout the state including telecomm companies, other financial services, software publishers and textile and apparel manufacturers. Finally, these direct expenditures generated total economic impacts of 12,442 jobs and $665 million in income throughout the Georgia economy during Georgia s total employment impact increased by 5.8 percent as a result of the increase in direct spending while the total wage impact grew by 10 percent. These impacts accounted for approximately three percent of national employment and wage impacts. Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 59 September 2015

61 Illinois Like Georgia, Illinois has no direct cruise operations but it is a major source market for cruise passengers, making it a net exporter of cruise passengers. It also supports the industry with a wide range of goods and services. Cruise passengers sourced from Illinois totaled 144,000 during 2014, accounting for 1.3 percent of U.S.-sourced passengers. Table 18 Summary of 2014 Cruise Industry Impacts Illinois Source: Cruise Lines International Association and Business Research and Economic Advisors Cruise industry expenditures in Illinois increased by 3.0 percent in 2014 to $509 million, or 2.4 percent of the direct expenditures generated by the cruise industry in the United States. Since Illinois is a source market for cruise passengers, tourism-related businesses, such as travel agencies, airlines, hotels, etc., accounted for 14 percent of the industry s direct expenditures in the state, or $69 million. Approximately $153 million was spent with businesses in the top five support industries, food processors, paper manufacturers, and apparel and textile firms within the manufacturing sector; and advertising agencies and insurance companies in the nonmanufacturing sector. Direct expenditures in Illinois also impacted many other industries throughout the state including management and technical consultants, video and music production companies, paint and chemical manufacturers, business service providers such as computer services, software consulting and marketing. Finally, these direct expenditures generated total economic impacts of 7,799 jobs and $475 million in income throughout the Illinois economy during As a result of the increases in direct cruise expenditures in the state, Illinois total employment impact increased by 3.9 percent from 2013 while the wage impact rose by 7.9 percent. These impacts accounted for 2.1 percent of national employment impact and 2.4 percent of the national wage impact. Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 60 September 2015

62 Massachusetts The Boston cruise port in Massachusetts is both a port-of-embarkation and a port-of-call for cruises to Canada and Bermuda. The cruises to Canada and Bermuda are seasonal (Spring through Fall months). Cruise ships sailing from Boston carried an estimated 106,000 passengers during 2014, 1.0 percent of total U.S. embarkations. Cruise passengers sourced from Massachusetts accounted for 5.6 percent of U.S.-sourced passengers and totaled 628,000 during Table 19 Summary of 2014 Cruise Industry Impacts Massachusetts Source: Cruise Lines International Association and Business Research and Economic Advisors Total passenger and crew visits to Massachusetts were 295,000, accounting for 1.3 percent of all passenger and crew visits in the United States. These visits produced an estimated $23.9 million in passenger and crew onshore spending, or just under $81 per visit. Cruise industry direct expenditures in Massachusetts in 2014 totaled $438 million, or 2.1 percent of the direct expenditures generated by the cruise industry in the United States. Tourism-related businesses, such as travel agencies, airlines, hotels, etc., received approximately $200 million, or 46 percent of the industry s direct expenditures in Massachusetts. Another $148 million, 34 percent of the direct expenditures, was spent with businesses in five additional business segments, food processors and petroleum companies within the manufacturing sector and advertising agencies, insurance agencies and management consulting firms in the nonmanufacturing sector. The remaining 20 percent of direct expenditures in Massachusetts also impacted many other industries throughout the state including law firms, business service companies such as computer services, software Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 61 September 2015

63 consulting and marketing, manufacturers of textile and apparel products, and educational and training institutions. Finally, these direct expenditures generated total economic impacts of 6,825 jobs and $447 million in income throughout the Massachusetts economy during These impacts accounted for 1.8 percent of national employment impact and 2.3 percent of the national wage impact. Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 62 September 2015

64 New Jersey New Jersey is primarily a place of embarkation for cruises to Canada, Bermuda, the Bahamas and the Caribbean. While the cruises to Canada and Bermuda are seasonal (Spring through Fall months), cruises to the Bahamas and the Caribbean are offered on a year-round basis. Cape Liberty, New Jersey's cruise port, saw an estimated 224,100 passenger embarkations during 2014, 2.0 percent of total U.S. embarkations. Table 20 Summary of 2014 Cruise Industry Impacts New Jersey Source: Cruise Lines International Association and Business Research and Economic Advisors Cruise passengers sourced from New Jersey accounted for 2.4 percent of U.S.-sourced passengers and totaled 269,000 during Thus, New Jersey was a net exporter of cruise passengers. Cape Liberty generated an estimated 324,000 passenger and crew visits, accounting for 1.4 percent of all passenger and crew visits in the United States. These visits produced an estimated $15.3 million in passenger and crew onshore spending in New Jersey, or just over $47 per visit. Direct cruise industry expenditures were $412 million, or 2.0 percent of the direct expenditures generated by the cruise industry in the United States. Tourism-related businesses, such as travel agencies, airlines, hotels, etc., received approximately $183 million, 44 percent of the industry s direct expenditures in New Jersey. Another $110 million, 27 percent of the direct expenditures, was spent with businesses in five additional business segments, food processors, textile and apparel manufacturers, and petroleum refiners and distributors within the manufacturing sector; and advertising agencies and insurance companies in the nonmanufacturing sector. The remaining 29 percent of direct expenditures in New Jersey also impacted many other industries throughout the state including law firms, Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 63 September 2015

65 business service companies such as computer services, software consulting and marketing and manufacturers of chemical products Finally, these direct expenditures generated total economic impacts of 7,721 jobs and $451 million in income throughout the New Jersey economy during These impacts accounted for 2.1 percent of national employment impact and 2.3 percent of the national wage impact. Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 64 September 2015

66 Economic Impacts in the Remaining States The direct expenditures generated by the international cruise industry and their total economic impacts in each of the states in 2014 are shown in Table 21. As discussed above, the magnitude of the economic impacts in each state is dependent upon the scope of cruise operations, if any, the number of resident cruise passengers and the value of vendor purchases. The 40 states and the District of Columbia outside the top ten states accounted for 22 percent of the cruise industry s direct expenditures. Most of the states outside of the top ten are source markets for cruise passengers and vendor goods and services. Some states, such as Hawaii, Louisiana, Maryland and South Carolina, have cruise operations, as well. These three states ranked 12 th, 11 th, 19 th and 25 th respectively in terms of direct industry expenditures during Of these four states, Louisiana increased its ranking from 13 th to 11 th while Hawaii s ranking fell from 11 th to 12 th from The rankings for Maryland and South Carolina remained unchanged. Since 2009 passenger embarkations in New Orleans have more than doubled and reached a new high of 502,000 in The Port of Charleston in South Carolina reported 166,400 embarkations, more than four times higher than in 2009 and a 1.53 percent increase over Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 65 September 2015

67 Table 21 Total Economic Impact of the International Cruise Industry by State, 2014 Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 66 September 2015

68 Appendix I State Impact Methodology As described in Section I of this report, member cruise lines of CLIA were asked to provide data on aggregate domestic and international expenditures for their operating and administrative expenses. Responses were obtained from 15 cruise lines. Combined, these cruise lines 13 accounted for approximately 95 percent of the industry s global passengers. These data were used to develop the estimates of the overall spending of the cruise industry in the United States. As indicated in Section I, we estimated that the industry spent $21 billion on goods and services in the United States. Of this total, $10.75 billion represented direct payments by the cruise lines to U.S. suppliers for operating and administrative goods and services. The remaining $10.25 billion represented expenditures by passengers for air travel and other goods and services, wage payments to the U.S. resident employees of the cruise lines and their associations, and port-related expenses and travel agent commissions paid by the cruise lines. In addition to the aggregate revenue and expense data for 2014, more detailed data on vendor purchases in 2014 were obtained from a smaller group of cruise lines. 14 These data were then aggregated by industry group and state and used to estimate total cruise industry expenditures by industry. These detailed expenditures totaled $7.0 billion and accounted for 65 percent of the estimated $10.75 billion that the international cruise lines spent with U.S. businesses in These data listed the type of commodities and services that were purchased, as well as the location of the vendors. As a result, we were able to establish industry- and state-specific shares for the cruise industry purchases. Using these shares, the national direct vendor purchases for 2014 were allocated to the corresponding industries in each state. The $10.25 billion in core cruise travel expenditures were allocated to each state using data on the place of residence of cruise passengers and passenger embarkations as described in 13 These cruise lines were: AIDA Cruises, Azamara Club Cruises, Carnival Cruise Lines, Celebrity Cruises, Costa Crociere, Crystal Cruises, Cunard Line, Disney Cruise Line, Holland America Line, Norwegian Cruise Line, P&O Cruises (UK), Paul Gauguin Cruises, Princess Cruises, Royal Caribbean International and Seabourn Cruise Line. 14 Vendor-specific data were obtained for the following cruise lines: Carnival Cruise Lines, Royal Caribbean International, Celebrity Cruises, Holland America Line, and Princess Cruises. These five cruise lines accounted for approximately 75 percent of the industry s non-wage U.S. operating and administrative expenses. Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 67 September 2015

69 Section I of this report. During 2014, the cruise industry spent $3.42 billion for port services and wages of their U.S.-resident employees. The $1.22 billion in wages of the employees of the cruise lines were allocated to each state based upon state-specific employment and wage data received from the cruise lines. The remaining $2.2 billion in U.S. port service expenditures were allocated to each state based upon its share of U.S. passenger and crew visits. For example, Florida, which accounted for 45 percent of total passenger and crew visits to U.S. ports, was allocated $1.0 billion in port service spending. The $1.98 billion in air transportation expenditures was split in half, one half representing the origination of air travel and the other half representing the destination of air travel. The origination half of air travel expenditures were allocated to each state based upon its share of U.S.-sourced cruise passengers. Thus, Massachusetts, which accounted for 6.1 percent of U.S. passengers sourced from the United States, was allocated $60 million for the origination component of air travel spending. Massachusetts also accounted for 1.5 percent of U.S. cruise embarkations and thus was allocated another $15 million for the destination component of air travel spending. Thus, Massachusetts received a total allocation of approximately $75 million in direct air transportation expenditures, 3.8 percent of national expenditures for air transportation generated by the international cruise industry. The $2.71 billion in U.S. transportation services expenditures consists of $654 million in expenditures for passenger shore excursions and $2.06 billion for travel agent commissions and other miscellaneous ground transportation services, such as bus service between airports and cruise terminals. Since travel agent commissions accounted for more than 98 percent of the $2.06 billion, the total was allocated to each state based upon its share of U.S. passengers on a place-of-residence basis. Thus Texas, which accounted for 11 percent of U.S.-resident cruise passengers, was allocated approximately $226 million in transportation service expenditures. The allocation of the $640 million in expenditures for shore excursions is discussed below. Finally, the $1.94 billion in passenger and crew spending and the $640 million in shore excursion expenditures were allocated to each state based upon each state s embarkations, split between overnight stays and day of cruise arrivals, estimated port-of-call arrivals and estimated crew visits. Total U.S. spending for the four categories was reported in Table 6 in Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 68 September 2015

70 Section I. When possible, survey data were used to estimate spending for each category for each state. Passenger and crew spending estimates were based on data collected from various research reports prepared by BREA and other researchers for the following ports: Port Everglades, Port of Miami, Port of New Orleans, Port of New York, Port of Tampa, Port of San Diego, Port of Los Angeles and Hawaii and Alaska ports-of-call. Per passenger spending estimates for the ports-of-embarkation were used to estimate total passenger spending at each of the ports. The average for the ports was then used to estimate total passenger spending for all other passenger embarkations. 15 For example, survey data representing the five embarkation cruise ports in Florida indicated that 39.3 percent of embarking cruise passengers stayed one or more nights in the port city and that these passengers spent an average of nearly $237 during their stay. Thus, 2.71 million (0.393 x 6.89 million) cruise passengers were estimated to have spent $642 million on lodging, food, entertainment, etc. in Florida during The remaining 4.18 million Florida cruise passengers (day of cruise arrivals) spent an average of $34.40 per passenger for a total of $144 million. An estimated 1.2 million passengers visited Florida ports as port-of-call or transit passengers. These passengers spent an average of $75 per visit, resulting in total expenditures of approximately $90 million. Finally, crew who went ashore spent an average of $105 on each call to a Florida port. An estimated 1.53 million crew disembarked cruise ships and visited Florida during 2014 and spent $160 million. Thus, we have estimated that passengers and crew spent approximately $1.03 billion in Florida during 2014, 44 percent of total passenger and crew spending (excluding travel) in the United States. By comparison, passengers and crew were estimated to have spent $146 million (6.2 percent of total U.S. spending by passengers and crew) in New York during Approximately 77 percent, $113 million, was spent by embarking passengers who spent one or more nights in New York City. Passengers who stayed overnight in New York spent an average of $456 during their stay which averaged 2.2 nights. Alaska received an estimated 3.23 million cruise passenger visits during This includes approximately 141,000 passengers who either embarked or disembarked on their cruise in 15 Per passenger spending estimates were segmented by passengers who stayed overnight either prior to or after a cruise and those passengers who arrived on the day of the cruise. Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 69 September 2015

71 Alaska. Cruise passengers spent an average of $145 per visit. Thus, we have estimated that $470 million was spent by cruise passengers visiting Alaska ports. An estimated 700,000 onshore crew visits generated another $13 million, or $18.60 per visit. Thus, cruise passengers and crew spent a total of $483 million in Alaska, accounting for 25 percent of total passenger and crew spending in the United States. Passenger and crew expenditures were allocated to the remaining states using average per visit spending estimates from all available surveys. Thus, the $21 billion in U.S. expenditures paid by the international cruise industry and its passengers and crew were allocated among all states and the District of Columbia. The total value of the direct spending by state is shown in Table 10 in Section II. The direct spending data by industry in each state are shown in the individual state tables in Appendix II that follows. The industry direct expenditure data in each state was then converted to value-added using national ratios of value-added to output for each industry. While these ratios varied by industry, the $21 billion in national direct expenditures was equivalent to $9.4 billion in value-added. Using industry- and state-specific ratios of compensation-to-value-added, implied compensation in each industry and state was estimated for the direct expenditures. The direct employment impacts resulting from the direct industry spending were estimated by dividing the wage compensation estimates by industry- and state-specific annual compensation rates. All of these data were obtained from the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA). The direct employment estimates were then multiplied by the BEA employment multipliers to generate the estimates of the total employment contribution of the cruise industry by state and industry. Finally, the employment estimates were multiplied by average annual compensation rates to estimate the total effect on wage compensation in each state. The total employment and wage contribution of the international cruise industry by state and industry are shown in Appendix II. The estimated direct and total economic impacts at the state level were controlled to sum to the national economic impacts on an industry-by-industry basis. Thus, the estimated state Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 70 September 2015

72 economic impacts for direct purchases, employment and wage income sum to the national impacts. Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 71 September 2015

73 Appendix II Individual State Tables Figure 11 Total Employment Impact of the International Cruise Industry by State Figure 12 Total Income Impact of the International Cruise Industry by State Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 72 September 2015

74 Table 22 Total Economic Impacts Alabama Table 23 Total Economic Impacts Alaska Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 73 September 2015

75 Table 24 Total Economic Impacts Arizona Table 25 Total Economic Impacts Arkansas Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 74 September 2015

76 Table 26 Total Economic Impacts California Table 27 Total Economic Impacts Colorado Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 75 September 2015

77 Table 28 Total Economic Impacts Connecticut Table 29 Total Economic Impacts Delaware Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 76 September 2015

78 Table 30 Total Economic Impacts District of Columbia Table 31 Total Economic Impacts Florida 2014 Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 77 September 2015

79 Table 32 Total Economic Impacts Georgia Table 33 Total Economic Impacts Hawaii Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 78 September 2015

80 Table 34 Total Economic Impacts Idaho Table 35 Total Economic Impacts Illinois Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 79 September 2015

81 Table 36 Total Economic Impacts Indiana Table 37 Total Economic Impacts Iowa Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 80 September 2015

82 Table 38 Total Economic Impacts Kansas Table 39 Total Economic Impacts Kentucky Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 81 September 2015

83 Table 40 Total Economic Impacts Louisiana Table 41 Total Economic Impacts Maine Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 82 September 2015

84 Table 42 Total Economic Impacts Maryland Table 43 Total Economic Impacts Massachusetts Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 83 September 2015

85 Table 44 Total Economic Impacts Michigan Table 45 Total Economic Impacts Minnesota Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 84 September 2015

86 Table 46 Total Economic Impacts Mississippi Table 47 Total Economic Impacts Missouri Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 85 September 2015

87 Table 48 Total Economic Impacts Montana Table 49 Total Economic Impacts Nebraska Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 86 September 2015

88 Table 50 Total Economic Impacts Nevada Table 51 Total Economic Impacts New Hampshire Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 87 September 2015

89 Table 52 Total Economic Impacts New Jersey Table 53 Total Economic Impacts New Mexico Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 88 September 2015

90 Table 54 Total Economic Impacts New York Table 55 Total Economic Impacts North Carolina Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 89 September 2015

91 Table 56 Total Economic Impacts North Dakota Table 57 Total Economic Impacts Ohio Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 90 September 2015

92 Table 58 Total Economic Impacts Oklahoma Table 59 Total Economic Impacts Oregon Business Research and Economic Advisors Page 91 September 2015

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