Chile, Cuba and the Dominican Republic May June 2009

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1 Chile, Cuba and the Dominican Republic May June 2009 The following articles are from the Wikipedia online encyclopedia during October The articles are subject to regular editing and readers are advised to use the links provided to view the most recent version. Santiago de Chile... 2 Transandine Railway History of Cuba History of Havana Fidel Castro Che Guevara Bay of Pigs Invasion José Martí Antonio Maceo Grajales Carlos Manuel de Céspedes Dominican Republic Santo Domingo Puerto Plata Christopher Columbus Juan Pablo Duarte END

2 Santiago de Chile Santiago (Spanish: Error! Santiago de Chile (help info)), is the capital and largest city of Chile, and the centre of its largest conurbation (Greater Santiago). It is located in the country's central valley, at an elevation of 520 m (1,700 ft) AMSL. Although Santiago is the capital, legislative bodies meet in nearby Valparaíso. Approximately three decades of uninterrupted economic growth have transformed Santiago into one of Latin America's most modern metropolitan areas, with extensive suburban development, dozens of shopping malls, and impressive high-rise architecture. It is an Alpha World City and has some of Latin America's most modern transportation infrastructure, such as the growing Santiago Metro (the metropolitan underground train system) and the new Costanera Norte, a toll-based highway system that passes below downtown and connects the Eastern and Western extremes of the city in a 25- minute drive. Santiago is headquarters to many important companies and is a regional financial centre. Usage note Flag Santiago Santiago skyline. Coat of arms Throughout this article the term Santiago will normally refer to the Greater Santiago area; Location of Santiago commune in Greater Santiago however, there are several other entities which bear the name of Santiago and need to be explained: The commune (comuna) of Santiago (sometimes referred to as Santiago Centro), is a subdivision of the Santiago Province, which is itself a subdivision of the Santiago Metropolitan Region. Greater Santiago includes the majority of the Santiago Province, and some areas of neighboring provinces (see Political divisions). The Great Santiago inhabitants are called Santiaguinos/as.

3 The commune of Santiago is administered by the Santiago municipality (Municipalidad de Santiago), a separate legal entity with an elected mayor and council. It encompasses the oldest part of Greater Santiago, enclosed by old rail lines, including downtown, historical neighborhoods and all major government infrastructure, including the Coordinates: S W33.45 S W Country 4Chile Region Santiago Metropolitan Region Province Santiago Province Foundation February 12, 1541 Government - Mayor Pablo Zalaquett Said (UDI) Area - Urban km 2 (247.6 sq mi) - Metro 15,403.2 km 2 (5,947.2 sq mi) Elevation 520 m (1,706 ft) Population (2009) - City 5,278,044 - Density 8,964/km 2 (23,216/sq mi) - Urban 6,676,745 - Metro 7.2 Million Time zone Chile Time (CLT) [1] (UTC-4) Chile Summer Time (CLST)[2] - Summer (DST) (UTC-3) Website municipalidaddesantiago.cl government palace La Moneda. It has an area of 22.4 km 2 (8.6 sq mi) and a population of 200,792 (2002 census). [3] Santiago Location in Chile abundant vegetation and the ease with which it could be defended the Mapocho River then split into two branches and rejoined further downstream, forming an island. [4] The Inca ruler Manco Cápac II warned the new rulers that his people Indigenous people would be hostile to the occupiers. The Spanish invaders had to battle against hunger caused by this resistance. Pedro de Valdivia ultimately succeeded in stabilizing the food supply and other resources needed for History Founding of the city Santiago was founded by Spanish Conquistador Pedro de Valdivia on February 12, 1541 Municipality of Santiago with the name Santiago del Nuevo Extremo, as a homage to Saint James and Extremadura, Valdivia's birth place in Spain. The founding ceremony was held on Huelén Hill (later renamed Cerro Santa Lucía). Valdivia chose the location of Santiago because of its climate, 1541 founding of Santiago

4 Santiago to thrive. [5] Contents 1 Usage note 2 History o 2.1 Founding of the city o 2.2 Attempted destruction o 2.3 Colonial Santiago o 2.4 Independence o th Century o 2.6 Crisis, boom and immigration o 2.7 Santiago in the 20th Century o 2.8 Economic crisis and recovery 3 Geography 4 Climate 5 Environmental issues 6 Demographics 7 Economy o 7.1 Industry 8 Transport o 8.1 Air o 8.2 Rail o 8.3 Inter-urban buses o 8.4 Highways o 8.5 Public transport Metro Bus Taxi 9 Political divisions 10 Cultural life o 10.1 Music o 10.2 Sports o 10.3 Newspapers o 10.4 Recreation 11 Education o 11.1 Religion 12 Gallery 13 Higher education o 13.1 Traditional o 13.2 Non-traditional o 13.3 Other 14 International relations o 14.1 Twin towns Sister cities 15 References 16 External links Santiago was founded on 12 February 1541 by Pedro de Valdivia, under the name "Santiago del Nuevo Extremo". In the same act, the environment of the province of Nueva Extremadura "collected. [6] The ceremony took place on the hill Cerro Santa Lucia (by Picunche-natives "huelen referred to), which is now a park on the outskirts of the historic centre. Valdivia chose the location because the river Mapocho here a larger island formed. This situation was favorable to the city against the attacks of the Mapuche to defend. The floor of the new town consisted of straight roads of 12 Varas (14.35 m) width, in equal intervals of 138 Varas ( m) or perpendicular to each other were. With nine roads in the east-west direction and 15 in the north-south direction, there were 126 Blocks that formed the so-called "Manzanas" or square cut. [7] Attempted destruction The resistance of the indigenous population continued and resulted in a series of further conflicts. On the September 11 of 1541 began an organised uprising of Picunche and Michimalongo-led attack on Santiago. Which lead a war of three years. At the time the Conquistadores were in a very precarious situation. Suffering from persistent food shortages and were in almost complete isolation from the rest of the world. Pedro de Valdivia sent in January of 1542 an emissary, Alonso de Monroy, with five tabs to Peru to request help. After 20 harsh months for the Conquistadors, De Monroy, was back from Peru with a reinforcement goods. This stopped the isolated and demoralized situation of the soldiers in Santiago. The uprising ultimately failed and the indigenous population moved down South and the city remained relatively safe.

5 Colonial Santiago Map of Santiago at the beginning of the colonial eighteenth century. The South is located at the top of the image. While Santiago was on the verge of extinction by the Indian attack, an earthquake and a series of flood, the city began to [citation needed] settle rapidly. Of the 126 blocks designed by Gamboa, in 1558 and had been occupied forties, and in 1580, the full quote [8] while the land near hosted tens of thousands of head of livestock. In the architectural field, they begin to build the first important buildings in the city, highlighting the start of construction in stone of the first Cathedral in 1561 and the Church of San Francisco in 1572, both being built mainly in Adobe and stone. In 1767, the corregidor Luis Manuel de Zañartu, began one of the major architectural works throughout the colonial period: the Bridge Calicanto, which helped unite the city. In 1780, Governor Agustín de Jáuregui hired the Italian architect Toesca Joaquin, who designed, among other important works, the facade of the Cathedral, La Moneda. [9] The government of Bernardo O'Higgins also opened the road to Valparaíso in The bridge Calicanto over the Mapocho River was the main symbol of the city, after its opening in Independence On 12 February 1817 the Battle of Chacabuco was held in Colina, which is located just north of Santiago. There Argentine and Chilean independence armies, led by José de San Martín and Bernardo O'Higgins fought the Spanish royalists. Chile subsequently proclaimed on the same day its independence. During the authoritarian era of the so-called Republic (from 1830 to 1891) the school system was introduced and the Battle of Maipú 1818 cultural life started to flourish. In 1843 the Universidad de Chile was founded. In 1888 another university Universidad Pontificia Católica was also founded. By 1885 there were 189,322 people living in Santiago. 19th Century Map of Santiago in During the years of the Republican era, institutions were created primarily for educational reasons and they became milestones of the planning period, as the University of Chile, the Normal School of preceptors, Santiago in 1891 the School of Arts and Crafts and the Quinta Normal, which included the Museum of Fine Arts (now Museum of Science and Technology) and the National Museum of Natural History. In 1851, the first telegraph system connecting the capital with the port of Valparaiso was inaugurated.

6 A new momentum in the urban development of the capital took place during the so-called "Liberal Republic" and the administration of the city's mayor, Benjamín Vicuña Mackenna. Among the main works during this period are the remodeling of the Cerro Santa Lucia which despite its central location was in poor shape. In an effort to transform Santiago, Vicuña Mackenna began construction of the "Camino de Cintura" that surrounded the whole city, which until then had an extension similar to the current commune of Santiago. A new redevelopment of Alameda Ave. finally enshrined the central artery of the city. With the work of European landscapes in 1873, O'Higgins Park opened. The park, with a public access, became an point of interest in Santiago due to the large gardens, lakes and carriages. Similarly, other important buildings were opened during this era, such as the Teatro Municipal and the Riding Club. At the same time, James received the International Exposition, held in 1875 in the grounds of the Quinta Normal. [10] Santa Lucía In terms of transportation, the city became the main hub of the railways at the national level. The first railroad reached the city on September 14, 1857 in an emerging Central Station of Santiago, which would be opened permanently in During those years, the city was connected by rail to Valparaiso and rail crossing much of the country from north to south. With regards to urban transport, the streets of Santiago were paved and there were 1,107 cars in While 45,000 people used tram services as in daily basis. Crisis, boom and immigration The 1930s saw the beginning of a transformation of the city into a modern, industrialized one. Surrounding the Presidential Palace (La Moneda) was the administrative district Barrio Cívico with many ministries and other public facilities. The population increased due immigration from northern and southern Chile and by the 1940s it exceeded the milestone of a million inhabitants. Immigration continue and by the year of 1960 Santiago's population had doubled to two million inhabitant. This fast increase in population led, especially in the poor neighborhoods of the city, to even worse social conditions than experienced before. Numerous children were considered malnourished, many families were left homeless and unemployment was soaring high. The conversion of the city in a modern, industrialized city, began in the 1930s. Around the Presidential Palace (Palacio de La Moneda) was the administrative district Barrio Cívico many ministries and other public institutions. Population rose rapidly to by the migration from Northern and southern Chile and exceeded the limit of one million to Until 1960 it had doubled to two million. This led particularly in the slums of Santiagos to increase the social situation. Many children were considered undernourished, many families were homeless, and high unemployment. After the victory of Salvador Allende, were since 1970 the wages of workers and employees 35 to 60 percent increased. Prices for the rent and important Grundbedarfsmittel were frozen. Education and health care were made free of charge. Every child received shoes and daily a litre Gratismilch. The birth rate in the capital region fell by 20 percent. The focus of the policy was in the expropriation of foreign enterprises and banks.

7 Santiago in the 20th Century Alameda in 1906 In the following decades, Santiago flourished and continued to grow with high rise. In 1940, the city accumulated 952,075 inhabitants, in 1952 this figure reached 1,350,409 inhabitants, the census of 1960 totaled 1,907,378 Santiago. This growth was reflected in the urbanization of rural areas on the periphery, where they settled middle-class families with low and stable housing: in 1930, the urban area had an area of 6,500 hectares, which in 1960 came to 20,900 and 1980 came to 38,296. Although most of the communities continued to grow, it is mainly concentrated in outlying communities such as Canyon to the west, north and Conchalí the tank and the Farm to the south. In the case of the upper Greater Santiago, class, it began to approach the sector of the pre-las Condes and La Reina. The centre, by contrast, has lost population, leaving more space for the development of trade, banking and government activities. The growth took place without any regulation and started only to be implemented during the 1960s with the creation of various development plans of the Greater Santiago, which reflect the new reality of a city much larger. In 1958 the Plan was launched in Santiago and inter proposing the organization of urban territory, setting a limit of 38,600 hectares and semiurban, for a maximum population of 3,260,000 inhabitants, the Santiago City centre construction of new roads (such as Avenida Américo Vespucio Circunvalación and the Pan American highway), the widening of the existing and the establishment of "industrial cordons. The celebration of the World Cup in 1962 gave new impetus to the improvement works of the city. In 1966 he established the Metropolitan Park of Santiago in the Cerro San Cristóbal and MINVU began eradicating callampas populations and construction of new homes and remodeling San Borja, which was built near the Diego Portales Building. In 1967 was inaugurated the new International Airport Pudahuel, and after years of discussion, in 1969 it would begin construction of the Metro de Santiago, the first phase would run under the western section of the Alameda and would be inaugurated in Metro became one of the most prestigious of the city and in subsequent years to expand, reaching two perpendicular lines at the end of Telecommunications have an important development, as reflected by the construction of the Torre Entel, which since its construction in 1975 would be one of the symbols of the capital to be the tallest structure in the country for two decades. After the coup of 1973 and the establishment of the military regime, urban planning had no major changes until the start of 1980, when the government adopted a neoliberal economic model and the role of organizer of the state going to market. In 1979 the master plan is amended, extending the urban radio to more than 62,000 hectares for housing development, causing a further expansion of the city, arriving at 40,619 has extended the early 1990s, especially in the area Florida in the 1992 census became the country's most populous municipality with 328,881 inhabitants. Meanwhile, a strong earthquake struck the city on March 3, 1985, which caused few casualties but left many homeless and destroyed many old buildings.

8 Economic crisis and recovery Starting in 1981, Chile and Santiago for that matter, went into a deep economic and financial crisis. The Chilean solution to the crisis was heterodox in the sense that many policies appeared to have been arbitrary, and Alameda Avenue policy mistakes were made and corrected along the way. However, the economy recovered relatively quickly, and since eastern Santiago has built a strong financial sector that allowed the country to avoid the financial turmoil observed during 1995 and in other emerging market economies. [11] Geography Satellite image of Santiago The city lies in the centre of the Santiago Basin, a large bowl-shaped valley consisting of a broad and fertile plain surrounded by mountains. It is flanked by the main chain of the Andes on the east and the Chilean Coastal Range on the west. On the north, it is bound by the Cordón de Sanhattan, a financial district in Mapocho river Chacabuco, a transverse mountain range of the Andes, whereas at the southern border lies Angostura de Paine, where an elongated spur of the Andes almost reaches the Coastal Range. Santiago Basin is part of the Intermediate Depression and is remarkably flat, interrupted only by a few hills. Among those are Cerro Renca, Cerro Blanco and Cerro Santa Lucía. The Andes mountains around Santiago are quite tall, culminating in Tupungato volcano at 6,570 m (21,555 ft). Other volcanoes include Tupungatito, San José and Maipo. Cerro El Plomo is the highest mountain visible from Santiago's urban area. Santiago is situated mainly on a plain known as the Santiago basin. This basin is part of the Intermediate Depression and is clearly delimited by the string of Chacabuco in the north, the Cerro San Cristobal Andes Mountains in the east, the narrowness of Paine in the south and the Cordillera de la Costa. Approximately has a length of 80 km in a north-south direction and 35 km from east to west. For hundreds of millions of years, the current territory of the city was covered by the ocean and marine sediment, the only land mass near the existing Coastal Cordillera. The morphology of the region begin to take its present form since the late Paleozoic, when it begins the subduction of the Nazca Plate under the South American plate, then belonging to the continent of Gondwana. This subduction generated foldings of the crust from the Triassic, lifting the rocks that give rise to the Andes. Subsequently, new activities generate tectonic subsidence of the great rock mass forming the depression lifted. [12]

9 The regional morphology would change. Glacial periods with ice cover the region forming moraines. The strong volcanism in that time, generate a series of volcanic eruptions releasing large pyroclastic flows and causing the melting of glaciers. This would create more sediment deposition in the valley, later supplemented by fluvial entrainment. The sedimentation of the valley would continue for thousands of years and even fun, for violent volcanic eruptions, remontarían be less than 5000 years ago. These sediments would allow the existence of a fertile basin and cover the relief before the formation andina, leaving exposed only the tops of some hills, called "closed island". At present, Santiago lies mainly in the plain of the basin, with an altitude between 400 in the western areas and reaching the 540 on the Plaza Baquedano, [13] presented some hills in the area of Cerrillos. The metropolitan area has surrounded some of these islands, mountains, as in the case of Cerro Santa Lucia, Cerro Blanco, the Renca Calán and that 800 meters is the highest point of the city. Southwest of the city there is a string of rocky hills several islands within the highlighting Cerro Chena. To the west are also presented some of the main stage of the Cordillera de la Costa, the Oak Hill High with 2185 meters of altitude, and the Maipo River area alone in the mountain range loses height. Smog, seen in Santiago's skies, is a major environmental problem. During recent decades, urban growth has expanded the boundaries of the city to the east closer to the Andean Precordillera allophones cones existing droppings. Even in areas such as La Dehesa, Lo Curro and El Arrayan has been reached to overcome the barrier of 1000 meters of altitude. [14] Some low-lying foothills of the Andes emerge and goes into the basin, as is the If the mountain range of The Pyramid and the hill Cerro San Cristobal, in the northeastern sector of Santiago. To the east, stands the massive call Ramon Sierra, a mountain chain formed in the foothills of the Precordillera due to the action of the fault Ramon, reaching 3296 meters at the Cerro de Ramon. 20 km further east is the Cordillera of the Andes with its mountain ranges and volcanoes, many of which exceed 6,000 m and in which some glaciers are maintained. The higher the Tupungato volcano with 6570 meters, [17] located near the volcano Tupungatito of 5913 meters of altitude. To the northeast lie Lead Hill (5,424 meters) and Nevado El Plomo 6070 meters in altitude. [17] To the southeast of the capital, meanwhile, are located on the Nevado Piuquenes (6,019 meters) volcano San Jose (5,856 m) and the volcano Maipo (5,323 m). From these peaks, the Tupungatito as San José and Maipo are active volcanoes. Climate Weather data for Santiago ( period) Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Average high C ( F) Average low C ( F) Precipitation mm (inches) 29 (84) 14 (57) 28 (82) 13 (55) 25 (77) 9 (48) 21 (70) 7 (45) 17 (63) 5 (41) 14 (57) 3 (37) 13 (55) 2 (36) 14 (57) 3 (37) 18 (64) 6 (43) 22 (72) 8 (46) 25 (77) 10 (50) 28 (82) 13 (55) 21 (70) 8 (46) (0.08) (0.04) (0.39) (1.1) (2.56) (3.23) (2.76) (2.48) (1.22) (0.79) (0.55) (0.39) (15.59) Source: The World Meteorological Organization [15] Nov 2006 Santiago has a mild Mediterranean climate: relatively hot dry summers (November to March) with temperatures reaching up to 35 degrees Celsius (95 degrees Fahrenheit) on the hottest days; winters (June to August) are more humid with cold mornings, typical maximum daily temperatures

10 of 15 degrees Celsius (59 degrees Fahrenheit), and minimums of a few degrees above freezing. Occasional snowfall occurs in the city, and may extend throughout the city, though this happens infrequently (about every 8 10 years). Mean rainfall is 360 mm per year and is heavily concentrated in the cooler months. The climate of Santiago is a warm-temperate climate with winter rainfall and prolonged dry season, better known as continental Mediterranean climate. Within the main climatic characteristics of Santiago is the concentration of about 80% of rainfall during the austral winter months (May to September), varying between 50 and 80 mm of rain fall during these months. That amount contrasts with figures for the months corresponding to a very dry season, caused by an anticyclonic dominance continued for about seven or eight months, mainly during Santiago in winter the summer months between December and March. This season, the water drop does not exceed 4 mm on average. These rains are usually composed only of rain, as the snowfall and hail is produced mainly in the sectors of the Precordillera about 1500 meters, in some cases, nevazones affect the city but only on its eastern sectors, where in very rare opportunity extended to the rest of the city. The temperatures vary throughout the year from an average of 20 C in January to 8 C in June and July. In the summer, January is hot, easily reaching over 30 C and a record high close to 37 C, while nights are generally pleasant and slightly cooler without lowering of 15 C. For his part, during autumn and winter the temperature drops and is slightly lower than the 10 C, the temperature may even drop slightly from 0 C, especially during the morning, and its historic low of -6, 8 C in Santiago in summer Santiago's location within a watershed is one of the most important factors in the climate of the city. The coastal mountain range serves as a "screen climate" to oppose the spread of marine influence, contributing to the increase in annual and daily thermal oscillation (the difference between the maximum and minimum daily temperatures can reach 14 C) and maintaining low relative humidity close to an annual average of 70%. It also prevents the entry of air masses with the exception of some coastal low clouds that penetrate to the basin through the river valleys. Prevailing winds are from the southwest direction, with an average of 15 km / h, especially during the summer as in winter calm prevail. Environmental issues Thermal inversion (a meteorological phenomenon whereby a stable layer of warm air holds down colder air close to the ground) causes high levels of smog and air pollution to be trapped and concentrate within the Central Valley during winter months. In the 1990s air pollution fell by about one-third, but there has been little progress since As of March 2007, only 61% of the wastewater in Santiago was Smog in Santiago treated, [16] which increased up to 71% by the end of the same year. However, the Mapocho river, which crosses the city from the north-east to the south-west of

11 the Central Valley, remains contaminated by household, agricultural and industrial sewage, and by upstream copper-mining waste (there are a number of copper mines in the Andes east of Santiago), which is dumped unfiltered into the river. [17] Laws force industry and local governments to process all their wastewater, but are loosely enforced. [18] There are now a number of large wastewater processing and recycling plants under construction. There are ongoing plans to decontaminate the river [19] and make it navigable. [20] Noise levels on the main streets are high, [21] mostly because of noisy diesel buses. Diesel trucks and buses are also major contributors to winter smog. A lengthy replacement process of the bus system began in 2005 and will last until 2010 (see Transportation section below). However, a major source of Santiago air pollution year-round is the smelter of El Teniente copper mine. [22][23] Nevertheless, the government does not usually report it as being a local pollution source as it is just outside the reporting area of the Santiago Metropolitan Region, being 110 km. (70 miles) from downtown., [24][25] Demographics Population of Santiago from 1820 to Santiago financial district at night Panoramic view of northern Santiago, as seen from Providencia According to data collected in the 2002 census by the National Institute of statistics, the Santiago metropolitan area population reached inhabitants, equivalent to 35,91 per cent of the national total and 89,56 % of total regional this figure reflects broad growth in the population of the city during the 20th century: in 1907 had inhabitants, in 1940, in 1960, in 1982 and in [26] (porcentaje de la población total, 2007) [27] The growth of Santiago has undergone several changes over the course of its history. In his early years, had a rate of growth 2,68 per cent annually until the 17TH century, then down to less than 2 % per year until the early 20th century figures. Middle of this century Santiago by Human Development Index on a commune-basis. Greener is higher. The blue line was a demographic explosion explaining as, in his capacity as capital, absorbed on migration from mining camps in northern Chile during the crisis of the 1930s and divides the formal areas of the city. from population from rural sectors between 1940 and 1960, mainly. Lots of migration coupled with

12 the high fertility rate at that time were reflected in figures annual growth reached 4.92 per cent between 1952 and However, since the end of this century, growth figures been reduced again, reaching the early 2000s [28] % 1,35. of Similarly, the size of the city expanded constantly. The 20,000 hectares covering Santiago in 1960, doubled by 1980 and in 2002 reached hectares. Thus the density of population in Santiago is 8.463,7 inhabitants/km². The population of Santiago [26] has been booming over the years, fertility decreased both the improvement in quality of life. For 2007 is estimated that 32,89 per cent of men and 30,73 per cent of women were less than 20 years, while 10,23 per cent and 13,43 % had on the 60 years, respectively. In contrast, in 1990 the figure under 20 years in total era 38,04 % and 60, a 8,86 %, higher and for the year 2020 is estimated that both figures will be 26,69 per cent and 16,79 % people in Chile say they were born in one of the communes of Grand Santiago [26] according to the 2002 census what amounts to 28,54 per cent of the national total. Of the current inhabitants of Santiago, 67,6 per cent was born in the communes of the metropolitan area while 2,11 per cent is immigrant alien. Economy Santiago is the industrial and financial centre of Chile, and generates 45 percent of the country's GDP. [29] Some international institutions, such as ECLAC (Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean), have their offices in Santiago. In recent years, due to the strong growth and stability of the Chilean economy, [30] many multinational companies have chosen Santiago as the place for their headquarters in the region (Southern Cone), such as HP, Reuters, Procter & Gamble, Intel, Coca-Cola, Unilever, Nestlé, Kodak, BHP Billiton, IBM, Motorola, Microsoft, Ford, Yahoo!, and many more. LAN Airlines headquarters Avenue Apoquindo, financial centre The construction sector is booming in Santiago. [31] Several large apartment complexes are being built throughout the city and construction cranes are a common sight. Currently under construction is the Costanera Center, a mega project in Santiago's Financial District. This includes a 280,000-squaremetre (3,000,000 sq ft) mall, a 300-metre (980 ft) tower, two office towers of 170 metres (558 ft) each, and a hotel 105 metres (344 ft) tall. When completed in 2010 it will be the tallest building in South America. In January 2009 the retailer in charge, Cencosud, has said in a statement that the construction of the mega-mall would gradually be reduced until financial uncertainty is cleared. [32] Near Costanera Center another skyscraper is being built, Titanium La Portada, and this will be 190 metres (623 ft) tall. Although these are the two biggest projects, there are many other office buildings under construction in Santiago, as well as hundreds of high rise residential buildings. Industry

13 Progress of the Costanera Center and Titanium La Portada in February Santiago is Chile s major industrial and agricultural region. The bulk of Chile s industrial and commercial activity is concentrated in the national and regional capital of Santiago, but there are important farm-supply, marketing, and processing activities at San Bernardo (location of major railroad shops), Puente Alto (a paper- and gypsum-processing centre), Melipilla, Talagante, and Buin. Dairying and beef production are significant; the main crops are grains, grapes, potatoes, and beans. Copper, gypsum, and limestone are mined. Marketing is facilitated by the proximity of urban centres, by main-line railroad communications, and by the best-developed regional road system in Chile. Area 5,926 square miles (15,349 square km). Pop. (1990 est.) 5,236,322. Transport Comodoro Arturo Merino Benítez International Airport is Santiago's national and Santiago Financial centre international airport. 15 minutes from downtown through the urban highways (Costanera Norte-Vespucio Norte). Rail Air Central Station Talcahuano-Hualqui. Talcahuano-Renaico. Victoria-Temuco. [34] Trains operated by Chile's Comodoro Arturo Merino national railway, Empresa de Benítez International Airport los Ferrocarriles del Estado, connect Santiago to Chillan, in the central-southern part of the country. All such trains arrive and depart from the Estación Central ("Central Station") which can be access by bus or subway. [33] The routes and coverage are from: Santiago-San Fernando. Santiago-Chillán. Talca-Constitución. Inter-urban buses Bus companies provide passenger transportation from Santiago to most areas of the country, while some also provide parcel-shipping and delivery services. There are several bus terminals in Santiago: Terminal San Borja: located near the Metro station "Estación Central" Terminal Los Heroes: located near the Metro station "Los Heroes" Terminal La Paz: located in the municipality of Independencia, the closest Metro station is "Puente Cal y Canto" Terminal Alameda: located near the Metro station "Universidad de Santiago" [35] Highways

14 Toll road, inter-urban free flow highways connect the city's extremes, including the Vespucio Highway (which surrounds the city describing a semi-circle), Autopista Central (which crosses the city in a North-South direction), and the Costanera Norte (which runs from the eastern edge, in Las Condes to the international airport and the highways to Valparaíso on the western side of the city). Public transport Santiago concentrates 37.32% of vehicles in Chile, with a total of 991,838 vehicles, 979,346 of which are motorized. 805,220 cars pass through the city, which is equivalent to 37.63% of the [citation needed] national and at a rate of one car for every 7 people. To support this huge number of cars there is an extensive network of streets and avenues stretching across Santiago so that you can travel between the different communities that make up the metropolitan area. Baquedano Metro Station The major axis corresponds to the Avenida Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins (more commonly known as the Alameda) which runs southwest to northeast direction in the capital, which also includes the Los Pajaritos Avenue to the west and the avenues to Providence and Apoquindo to the east. The main avenue of the city is crossed by several longitudinal axis (in a north to south) and the Avenida General Velásquez, North- South Grand Avenue, Independencia, Recoleta, Santa Rosa, Vicuña Mackenna and Tobalaba. Next to the Alameda, others that cross the network is composed of the avenues Ten-July Estacion Central Irarrázaval, Matta-Departmental and Greece, among others. Finally, Avenida Américo Vespucio ring surrounding the inner city sector by facilitating the connection of the various axes. During the year 2000, in order to improve vehicular transportation in Santiago, various urban freeways were built throughout the capital. Overall Velasquez and the stretches of the Panamerican highway running through the city were turned into the Central Motorway, while Amerigo Vespucci gave way to highways Vespucio Norte Express, and the future Vespucio Sur Vespucio Oriente. Following the edge of the river Mapocho Costanera Norte was built to provide a more expeditious the northeastern sector of the capital with the airport and downtown area. All these concessioned highways, totaling 210 km in length, with a free flow toll system. As regards public transport, from the early 1990s have been conducted with various governmental efforts to resolve the chaotic system in the city. There were tendered in 1994 for the first time for the routes of the yellow buses (minibuses identified with the colour). Despite this, the system had serious problems and therefore a new transport system, called Transantiago was devised. This project began operations on February 10, 2007, combining core services across the city with a local feeder routes, which have a unified system of payment through the contactless Smartcard beep!. Transantiago, however, has had a series of errors in design and implementation which have not yet been resolved which have made it less successful than it [citation needed otherwise would be. One of the cornerstones of Transantiago is the Metro, which since its inception in 1975, is considered one of the most efficient and modern transport systems in the Americas. Every day, over 2 million people pass through its five lines (1, 2, 4, 4A and 5), extending over 84 km and 89 stations. By 2010, new extensions to the communes of Maipú and Las Condes, mean the Metro will expand to more than 105 km in length.

15 Other local transport systems include 25 thousand taxis [citation needed], identified by black colour cars and yellow roof. [63] With regard to cycling, in recent years the city has tried to promote the use of bicycles with the construction of bicycle paths but so far the number built is limited. Metro Santiago Metro Currently with 107 operating stations and 16 under construction, Santiago Metro is South America's most extensive metro system. The metro system serves the city of Santiago, Chile. The system carries around 2,400,000 passengers per day. The Santiago Metro has five operating lines. Two underground lines (Line 4 and 4A) and an extension of Line 2 was inaugurated during late 2005 and beginning of [36] The system is under expansion, and extensions are going to be built on Lines 1 and 5 throughout 2009 and [37] Bus Transantiago is the name for the city's public transport system. It works by combining local (feeder) bus lines, main bus lines and the Metro network. It includes an integrated fare system, which allows passengers to make bus-to-bus or bus-to-metro transfers for the price of one Transantiago Bus ticket, using a single contactless smartcard. One disadvantage Santiago Metro map of this system is the inability to pay cash fares - even at a significantly higher price than is charged with the smartcard. Taxi Taxicabs can usually be found on the streets and are painted black with yellow roofs; unmarked taxis may be called up by telephone (Radiotaxis). Colectivos are shared taxicabs that carry passengers along a specific route, for a fixed fee. Political divisions Santiago de Chile lacks a metropolitan government for its administration, which is currently distributed by various authorities, which complicates the operation of the city as a single entity. [38] With the current structure of the country, it is divided into three levels (regions, provinces and communes), but Santiago does not fit perfectly with any of them. The metropolitan area of Santiago was established in 1976 to encompass locations away from the main city. At the provincial level, Greater Santiago overlaps the limits of the current province of Santiago, so that including the communes of Cordillera, Maipo and Talagante. At the municipal level, the city is composed of about thirty of them. Greater Santiago extends throughout 37 municipalities and covered 64,140 ha in [39] The majority of Santiago lies within the same named province, with some peripheral areas contained in the provinces of Talagante, Maipo and Cordillera. Specifically, Santiago joins the cities of San Bernardo (Maipo province) and Puente Alto (Cordillera province) to form the Greater Santiago conurbation.

16 The province of Santiago is divided into 32 municipalities (comunas in Spanish). Each municipality in Chile is headed by a mayor (alcalde) elected by voters every four years. The members of the municipal council (concejales) are elected in the same election on a separate ballot. Cultural life Plaza de Armas of Santiago Municipal Theatre of Santiago Despite the long history, there are only a few historical buildings from the Spanish colonial period in the city, because Santiago - as the rest of the country - was regularly hit by earthquakes. The buildings from this period include the Casa Colorada (1769), the Church San Francisco (1586) and Posada del Corregidor (1750). Another reason is, that it lack old buildings from this time, is the new richness of Chile. At the time of the Spanish colony, the city had economically only a low impact, the upswing was only after independence. This explains the low age of many buildings built mainly in Palacio de La Moneda neoclassic style. The Cathedral on the central square (Plaza de Armas), 1745 according to plans by Joaquim Toesca built, ranks as the sights as Palacio de La Moneda, the Classicist Presidential Palace until 1981 showed even the Einschüsse, General Pinochet troops by the coup against the democratically elected President Salvador Allende 1973 had left. The original building was between 1784 and 1805 of the architect Joaquín Toesca. Since 1846, the Presidential Palace is home to the Government of's. Other buildings at the Plaza de Armas are finished on 1882 and between 1804 and 1807 built Palacio de la real Audjencia, of 18. September today date of Nationalfeiertages - met the first Government of the country. The Centre houses the historical museum with 12,000 exhibits. In the South-East of the square is the built in 1893 blue Eisenkontruktion of Edwards Kaufhauses (Edificio commercial Edwards) and the 1769 finished colonial building the "Casa Colorada", the historical city museum Close is the (Teatro Municipal) Theatre. In 1906 by an earthquake destroyed building was built of the French architect Brunet of Edward Baines Not far from the theatre the Mansión Subercaseaux (today seat Banco Edwards) and the National Library (one

17 of the largest libraries of South America). "" In opposite group the previous National Convention, the law courts and the Royal custom's House (Palacio real Casa de Aduana) with the Museum of pre-columbian art. Communes in Santiago Province Santiago Cerrillos Cerro Navia Conchalí El Bosque Estación Central Huechuraba Independencia La Cisterna La Florida La Granja Padre Hurtado Pirque Contemporary Art Museum of Santiago La Pintana La Reina Las Condes Lo Barnechea Lo Espejo Lo Prado Macul Maipú Ñuñoa Pedro Aguirre Cerda Peñalolén Communes in other provinces Puente Alto San Bernardo Providencia Pudahuel Quilicura Quinta Normal Recoleta Renca San Joaquín San Miguel San Ramón Vitacura San José de Maipo A fire destroyed the building in It was then rebuilt and reopened 1901 in neoclassic style. The first Chilean National Congress was 4. July 1811 decision (1810) the Government junta in Santiago formed by. The Congress was deposed under the military dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet ( ) and after the dictatorship in Valparaíso on 11. Newly constituted March The Plaza Montt is the building of the Justice Palace (Palacio de Tribun Musicales). The building was between 1907 and 1926 of the architect Emilio Doyére. It is home to the Supreme Court (Corte comparison de Justicia). The Kollegialgericht with 21 judges is the highest judiciary in Chile. The judges be proposed by the judges of the Supreme Court and appointed by the President on lifetime. The building is also home of the Supreme Court of appeal. At the Plaza Montt is the building of the Justice Palace (Palacio de Tribunales). The building was created from 1907 to 1926 after plans by the architect Emilio Doyére. It is the seat of the Supreme Court (Corte Suprema de Justicia). The panel of 21 Fine Arts Museum judges is the highest judicial Biblioteca Nacional de Chile power in Chile. The judges are appointed by the judges of the Supreme Court and proposed by the President appointed for life. The building is also headquarters of the Supreme Court of the country. Calle Bandera leads to 1917 completed the building of the Merchants' Exchange (Bolsa de Comercio), opened the 1925 "Club de la Unión", to the Universidad de Chile (1872) and the oldest church in the city, the Iglesia de San Francisco (1586 to 1628 built ) with the Mary statue

18 "La Virgen del Socorro" by Pedro de Valdivia. North of the Plaza de Armas, the Paseo Puente to Santo Domingo Church (1771) and Market (Mercado Central), a powerful iron construction. In the centre of Santiago is the Torre Entel, a meter high TV tower with observation deck. The tower, completed in He is one of the telephone company, ENTEL Chile and serves as a communications centre. Former Congress building With the Costanera Center, a commercial and architectural landmark of the capital. When completed in 2009 is a combination of jobs, housing, shopping and entertainment venues have been achieved. The project with a total area of 600,000 square meters, includes the 300-meter high "Gran Torre Costanera" (South America's tallest building) and three other commercial buildings with shopping malls, shops, cinemas, an amusement centre, restaurants, hotels, offices and luxury apartments. The four office towers extensive building complex is replaced by a highway and subway connections. [40] Music There are two symphonic orchestras: Orquesta Filarmónica de Santiago, which performs in the Teatro Municipal Orquesta Sinfónica de Chile, dependent of the Universidad de Chile, performs in its theater. There are a number of jazz establishments, some of them, including "El Perseguidor", "Thelonious" and "Le Fournil Jazz Club" are placed in Bellavista, one of Santiago's most hip neighborhoods, though "Club de Jazz de Santiago", the oldest and most traditional one is set in Ñuñoa. The city has a vibrant underground music scene. Sports Santiago is home of Chile's most successful football clubs. The most successful of them is Colo Colo. It was founded on April 19, It has a long tradition and plays since the establishment of the first Chilean league in 1933 continuously in the highest league. 28 national titles, 10 Copa Chile successes and in 1991 champions of Copa Libertadores, Chile's only team that ever won the tournament. The club hosts its home games in the Estadio Monumental, in the commune of Macul. Another great club is CF Universidad de Chile. The club is considered one of the best known and most successful with 13 national titles and 3 Copa Chile successes. It was founded on May 24, 1927 under the name Club Deportivo Universitario as a union of Club Náutico and Federación Universitaria. The founders were students of the Universidad de Chile. 1980, the organization separated from the University of Chile and the club is now completely independent. The team plays its home games in the Estadio Nacional de Chile, in the commune of Ñuñoa. Estadio Nacional de Chile 1993, loosing to São Paulo FC. Club Deportivo Universidad Católica was founded on April 21, 1937 and is also often referred to briefly as UC. It consists of fourteen different departments responsible for the students of the same university are excluded. Far beyond the borders of Chile is known mainly for his club soccer team. This team plays its home games in Estadio San Carlos de Apoquindo. Universidad Católica has 9 national titles, making it the third most successful football club in the country. It has played the Copa Libertadores more than 20 times, reaching the final in

19 Several other football clubs are based in Santiago, the most important of them being Unión Española, Audax Italiano, Palestino and Santiago Morning. In addition to playing football in particular tennis and horse riding (here especially the Chilean Rodeo) plays an important role. In the entire metropolitan area are distributed Wettstuben in which mainly the male population of Santiago, the horse racing track at screens. Completed the 1904 "Hipódromo Chile is located in the south of the city. Here is a weekly horse racing. Newspapers Because of its central role in the economy, social and political affairs of the country, the newspaper's coverage tends to focus in Santiago's news, even though there are several local newspapers in other zones of the country. The publishing industry in Chile is rather small and minorities (ethnic and cultural) most of time are not represented or are misrepresented in the pages of the newspapers. [citation needed] There are two important players in Chile: El Mercurio and Copesa. Both companies have a conservative and right-wing editorial lines, which tend to avoid discussing into much detail themes such as divorce, AIDS, sindical rights, aboriginal rights and subjects involving powerful companies or politicians. Both companies hold more than the 80% of revenues generated in printed advertising in Chile. [41] Some of the most popular newspapers available in Santiago are: El Mercurio La Tercera La Cuarta Las Últimas Noticias La Segunda The Clinic Recreation The city's main parks are: Cerro San Cristóbal - San Cristóbal Hill, which includes the Santiago Metropolitan Park Zoo Parque O'Higgins - O'Higgins Park Parque Forestal - Forestal Park, park located at the city centre alongside Mapocho river Cerro Santa Lucía - Santa Lucía Hill Modern ski resorts within an hour's drive east from the city include: Farellones Valle Nevado La Parva Portillo is about three hours away. Some of the country's most important winegrowing areas lie in the nearby Maipo and Aconcagua Valleys. Several vineyards are located in this area. Cultural places to visit include: Museo de Bellas Artes - Fine Arts Museum Barrio Bellavista, cultural and bohemian neighborhood Central Station, railway station designed by Gustave Eiffel Víctor Jara Stadium

20 Ex National Congress Plaza de Armas, downtown square Palacio de La Moneda, government palace Main sport venues: Estadio Nacional (site of the 1962 World Cup final) all-seated Estadio Monumental David Arellano all-seated Estadio Santa Laura all-seated Estadio San Carlos de Apoquindo all-seated Education The city is home to numerous universities, colleges and universities, research institutions and libraries. The Universidad de Chile is Chile's largest university and one of the oldest on the American continent. The roots of the University date back to the year 1622, as on 19 August the first university in Chile under the name of Santo Tomás de Aquino was founded. On 28 July 1738, she was in honor of King Philip V of Spain in the Real Universidad de San Felipe renamed. In the vernacular, it is also known as Casa de Bello (Spanish: Bellos house - after Universidad de Chile their first Rector, Andrés Bello) known. On 17 April 1839, after Chile from the mother country, the Kingdom of Spain, became independent, was officially to the University Universidad de Chile, and opened on 17 September The Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile (PUC) was signed on 21 Founded in June On 11 February 1930 was the university by a decree by Pope Pius XI. to an appointed Pontifical University, 1931, the full recognition by the Chilean government. Joaquín Larrain Gandarillas ( ), Archbishop of Anazarba, was the founder and first rector of the PUC. The PUC is a modern university, the campus of San Joaquin has a number of contemporary buildings and also offers many parks and sports facilities. Other major universities have their headquarters in Santiago: Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Universidad Metropolitana de Ciencias de la Educación, Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana, Universidad Academia de Humanismo Cristiano, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Universidad Alberto Hurtado, Universidad Bernardo O'Higgins, Universidad Bolivariana, Universidad Católica Raúl Silva Henríquez, Universidad Central de Chile, Universidad de Artes y Ciencias Sociales and Universidad de Artes, Ciencias y Comunicación. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile Other major universities are: Universidad de Ciencias de la Informática, Universidad de Las Américas, Universidad de Los Andes, Universidad del Desarrollo, Universidad del Pacífico, Universidad Diego Portales, Universidad Finis Terrae, Universidad Gabriela Mistral, Universidad Iberoamericana de Ciencias y Tecnología, Universidad Internacional SEK, Universidad La República, Universidad Mariano Egaña, Universidad Mayor, Universidad Miguel de Cervantes, Universidad Nacional Andrés Bello, Universidad Santo Tomas and Universidad Tecnológica de Chile. As a kind of message does the European universities, postgraduate and continuing education centre at the University of Heidelberg (Ruprecht Karl University).

21 Religion Santiago's Metropolitan Cathedral Main article: Roman Catholicism in Chile Most of Chile's population is Catholic and Santiago is no exception. According to the National Census, carried out in 2002 by the National Statistics Bureau (INE), in the Santiago Metropolitan Region, 3,129,249 people 15 and older identified themselves as Catholics, equivalent to 68.7% of the total population, while 595,173 (13.1%) described themselves as Evangelical Protestants. Around 1.2% of the population declared themselves as being Jehovah's Witnesses, while 0.9% identified themselves as Latter-day Saints (Mormons), 0.25% as Jewish, 0.11% as Orthodox and 0.03% as Muslim. Approximately 10.4% of the population of the Metropolitan Region stated that they were atheist or agnostic, while 5.4% declared to follow other religions. [42] There are about eleven million Catholics - around 70% of the total population ( in 2008). There are 5 archidioceses, 18 dioceses, 2 territorial prelatures, 1 apostolic vicariate, 1 military ordinariate and a personal prelature (Opus Dei). Catholicism was introduced by priests with the Spanish colonialists in the 16th century. Most of the native population in the northern and central regions was evangelized by The southern area proved more difficult. In the 20th century, church expansion was impeded by a shortage of clergy and government attempts to control church administration. Relations between church and state were strained under Salvador Allende and Augusto Pinochet. Higher education Traditional Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile (PUC) Universidad de Chile (U, UCh) Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH) Universidad Metropolitana de Ciencias de la Educación (UMCE) Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana (UTEM) Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María (UTFSM) Non-traditional Universidad Academia de Humanismo Cristiano (UAHC) Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez (UAI) Universidad Alberto Hurtado (UAH) Universidad Bolivariana Universidad Católica Raúl Silva Henríquez Universidad Central de Chile Universidad de Artes y Ciencias Sociales (Arcis) Universidad de Artes, Ciencias y Comunicación (UNIACC) Universidad de Ciencias de la Informática (UCINF) [4] Universidad de las Américas Universidad de Los Andes Universidad del Desarrollo Universidad del Pacífico Universidad Diego Portales

22 Other Universidad Europea de Negocios Universidad Finis Terrae Universidad Gabriela Mistral (UGM) Universidad Mayor (UM) [5] Universidad Nacional Andrés Bello (Unab) Universidad Pedro de Valdivia (Upv) Universidad Santo Tomás Universidad San Sebastián Universidad Tecnológica Vicente Pérez Rosales Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg's Postgraduierten- und Weiterbildungszentrum der Universität Heidelberg in Santiago [6] David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies (DRCLAS) Regional Office in Santiago [7] Stanford Faculty in Santiago [8] References 1. ^ "Chile Time". World Time Zones.org. Retrieved ^ "Chile Summer Time". World Time Zones.org. Retrieved ^ "Chile: Ciudades, Pueblos, Aldeas y Caseríos 2005". Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas. June dcasjunio2005.zip. 4. ^ "Llega Pedro de Valdivia al valle del Mapocho". Icarito ^ De Ramón, Armando (2000). Santiago de Chile ( ). Historia de una sociedad urbana. Santiago de Chile: Editorial Sudamericana. p. 15f. ISBN Retrieved 19 March ^ Luis de Cartagena ( v.). Actas del Cabildo de Santiago de 1541 a 1557th In Colección de Historiador de Chile y de documentos relativos a la historia nacional. Tomo 1st. Santiago de Chile: Impr. del Ferrocarril. p ^ De Ramón, Armando, 2000, p ^ Municipality of Santiago. "Plan strategic community development, Santiago Chapter I: Strategic Diagnostics" (PDF). Retrieved ^ Ayarza Elorza, Hernán. "Historia in engineering: the embankments Mapocho" (PDF). Engineering Magazine. Retrieved ^ Martín ( ). "Past, present, and future images of a "green space" in the metropolitan area of Santiago". Revista Urbanismo, Nº ^ ^ Turiscom (2002). Guía Turística Turistel - Zona Centro. Santiago: Turismo y Comunicaciones S.A.. ISBN ^ Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile (2001). "Contaminación atmosférica. Casos de estudio: Santiago de Chile". Retrieved ^ Peaklist (2007). "Argentina and Chile Central, Ultra-Prominences". Retrieved

23 15. ^ "(English) Weather Information for Buenos Aires". Retrieved Dec ^ Revista Ecoamérica. "Cruzada ambiental por el Mapocho limpio" (in Spanish). Retrieved "permitirá pasar del 68 al 81% en el tratamiento de las aguas servidas" 17. ^ El Mercurio. "Región Metropolitana saneará el 100% de aguas servidas al 2010" (in Spanish). Fundación Terram. Retrieved ^ Comisión Regional Metropolitana del Medio Ambiente. "Agua, Recurso Escaso y Vital" (in Spanish). Retrieved "se calcula que sólo el 77% de las industrias del país cumple con la norma de RILES existente" 19. ^ "Mapocho urbano limpio: El río soñado" (PDF). Retrieved "Proyecto Mapocho Urbano Limpio" 20. ^ Fundación Futuro. "Proyecto Mapocho" (in Spanish) ^ Comisión Regional Metropolitana del Medio Ambiente. "Ruidos molestos en Santiago" (in Spanish). Retrieved "cerca de un 70% de la población santiaguina está expuesta a serias interferencias de su sueño por ruido que excede 65 db" 22. ^ ^ ^ Pedro Oyola. "the role of monitoring in air quality management" ^ ^ a b c Se consideran en total las comunas de la Provincia de Santiago, más Padre Hurtado, Pirque, Puente Alto y San Bernardo. Estas cifras no son equivalentes a la de la ciudad de Santiago pues excluyen ciertas áreas fuera de dichas comunas e incluyen algunas zonas rurales; sin embargo, representa a un 95,4% de la población total del área metropolitana. 27. ^ INE. "Chile, proyecciones de población al 30 de junio ( ): Región Metropolitana de Santiago" (XLS). alcomusuarios-13tok.xls. Retrieved ^ Icarito. "Geografía humana de Chile: La región más poblada". La Tercera. Retrieved ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ [1] Transantiago Info / 34. ^ [2] Chilean Railways Information 35. ^ [3] Terminal de buses Santiago 36. ^ ^ ^ Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile (2004), Boletín de Políticas Públicas: Una autoridad metropolitana para Santiago 39. ^ Alexander Galetovic; Pablo Jordán (Summer 2008). "Santiago: Dónde estamos?, Hacia dónde vamos?" (in Spanish) (PDF). Estudios Públicos ^ Emporis: Gran Torre Costanera 41. ^ Torta para dos Hasta cuando? en

24 42. ^ INE, Chile, 2002 Census 43. ^ "Twin cities of Riga". Riga City Council. Retrieved ^ "Sister Cities of Manila" City Government of Manila. Retrieved

25 Transandine Railway The Transandine Railway (in Spanish: Ferrocarril Trasandino) was a 1,000 mm (3 ft 3⅜ in) metre gauge combined rack (Abt system ) and adhesion railway which operated between Mendoza in Argentina across the Andes mountain range via the Uspallata Pass to Santa Rosa de Los Andes in Chile, a distance of 248 km. The railway has been out of service since 1984, and has been partly dismantled. It is now being reconstructed. Due to the lack of concrete actions to restore this link, the most recent estimations are that the line could be restored around October, However, as of October 2007, there is no indication of any restorative work underway. [1][2] Ferrocarril Trasandino Section with rack Info Termini Mendoza Santa Rosa de Los Andes Operation Opened 1910 Puente del Inca Station Contents 1 History o Characteristics References Bibliography See also 5 External links History Closed 1984 The Transandine Railway was first projected in However, the construction of the line was the work of Juan and Mateo Clark, Chilean brothers of British descent, who were successful entrepreneurs in Valparaiso and in 1871 had built the first telegraph service across the Andes, between Mendoza in Argentina and Santiago in Chile. In 1874 the Chilean government granted them the concession for the construction of the rail link across a similar route. Due to financial problems their company, Ferrocarril Transandino Clark, did not begin work on the construction in Los Andes until The section between Mendoza and Uspallata was opened on 22 February 1891 and extended to Rio Blanco on 1 May 1892, to Punta de Vacas on 17 November 1893, to Las Cuevas on 22 April On the Chilean side the section from Santa Rosa de Los Andes to Hermanos Clark was opened in 1906 and extended to Portillo in February By 1910, when the entire line was first opened to traffic, the company had been taken over by the British-owned Argentine Transandine Railway Company. [3].

26 Technical Line length No. of tracks Minimum radius of curvature Electrification Highest elevation Maximum incline 8% Rack system The line followed roughly the ancient route taken by travellers and mule-trains crossing the Andes between Chile and Argentina and connected the broad gauge, 5 ft 6 in (1,676 mm), railway networks of the two countries, rising to a height of almost 3,200 metres at Las Cuevas where the track entered the Cumbre tunnel, about 3.2 km long, on the international border. Nine sections of rack were laid in the last 40 km of track on the Argentine approach to the tunnel, ranging from 1.2 km to 4.8 km in length, with a maximum gradient of 1 in 17 (5.88%). On the Chilean side there were seven sections of rack in just 24 km, of which one section was 16 km long with an average gradient of 1 in 13 (7.69%). Sections of the line were protected by snowsheds and tunnels. Characteristics Railway companies: The Transandine completed a 1408 km rail link between the Argentine capital of Buenos Aires with the Chilean port of Valparaiso, and provided the first rail route linking the southern Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. This journey involved the use of services operated by the following five railway companies: Buenos Aires and Pacific Railway: Buenos Aires (Retiro terminus) to Villa Mercedes (1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in)) (689 km). Argentine Great Western Railway: Villa Mercedes to Mendoza (1,676 mm gauge) (354 km). Argentine Transandine Railway: Mendoza to the international border (Las Cuevas, Argentina) (1,000 mm (3 ft 3⅜ in) ) (159 km). Chilean Transandine: International border (Las Cuevas, Arg) to Santa Rosa de Los Andes (1,000 mm gauge) (73 km). Chilean State Railway: Santa Rosa de Los Andes to Valparaíso (1,676 mm gauge) 134 km). Additional information: 248 km (154 mi) Single track with passing loops 100 m (328.1 ft) 3000 V DC Overhead line 3,176 m (10,420 ft) Abt Passenger services from Buenos Aires to Valparaiso took about 36 hours in total, including changes of train in Mendoza and Los Andes, required because of the break-of-gauge at these points. Previously the 5630 km journey by sea from Buenos Aires to Valparaiso, around Cape Horn, had taken eleven days. The Chilean Transandine railway was originally worked by Kitson-Meyer s rack and adhesion locomotives, two examples of which survive in Chile. [4] The line was electrified in 1927 with Swiss-built electric locomotives. A glacial flood in 1934 destroyed 124 km of the Argentine section, which was later rebuilt. When the entire Argentine railway network was nationalised in 1948, the Transandine Railway became part of the state-owned company Ferrocarril General San Martín.

27 During tensions between Chile and Argentina in , all international railway use of the Transandine Railway was suspended. However, road traffic including buses, automobiles, and similar vehicles was conducted through the railway's "Cumbre" tunnel: since the railway tunnel was not wide enough for twoway vehicle transit, groups of vehicles were controlled and ran alternately from the Chilean and Argentine sides of the tunnel. With the normalization of relations between the two countries, railway passenger service through the tunnel was resumed for a short period ending in The last freight train using the tunnel was in Transandine Railway Route Diagram 0 km Mendoza (alt. 767 m) 13 km Paso de los Andes (alt. 935 m) 24 km Blanco Encalada (alt m) 40 km Cacheuta (alt m) 55 km Potrerillos (alt m) 69 km Guido (alt m) Legend In 2006, both the Argentine and Chilean governments agreed to refurbish the railway and make it functional by the year 2010, at an estimated total cost of US$460 million. [5] However, progress has been limited, although travellers in April 2008 saw some activity on the Chilean side, including ballast renewal at the Aconcagua power station and labourers in action at Santa Rosa de Los Andes. In October 2008, a road trip from Mendoza to the Chilean border at Las Cuevas showed that the line is in a very neglected state but is by no means beyond repair. The rails are still in place, at least wherever the track can be seen from the road, but in many cases there are rocks and other debris on the track. In some places there is significant avalanche debris covering the track completely. In other places recent improvements to the main road have left behind construction debris on the track. In most cases the bridges are in excellent condition, some even showing signs of a recent coat of paint, in stark contrast to the state of the track itself. At Puente de Los Incas hundreds of tourists walk across the tracks every 92 km Uspallata (alt m) day to view the natural bridge. If it ever reopens, this line could easily be listed as one of the most spectacular railway journeys on earth. 117 km 130 km 140 km 159 km 174 km 180 km Rio Blanco (alt m) Zanjón Amarillo (alt m) Punta de Vacas (alt m) Puente del Inca (alt m) Las Cuevas (alt m) Cumbre Tunnel (3.2 km long) Los Caracoles (alt. 3176m)

28 References Transandine Railway Route Diagram Legend ^ Volvió el ferrocarril a Mendoza(Spanish) ^ Reconstruction in Spanish ^ Wade-Matthews, Max (1999). The World's Great Railway Journeys. Anness Publishing Inc. ISBN ^ ntiagomuseum.htm ^ En julio se licitará tren Los Andes - Mendoza accessdate= (Spanish) [edit] Bibliography H.R.Stones, British Railways in Argentina , P.E.Waters & Associates, Bromley, Kent, England (1993). W.S.Barclay, The First Transandine Railway, Santa Rosa de Los Andes (alt. 814 m) Geographical Journal, Vol.36, No.5, (1910). H.R.Stones, International Rail Routes Over the Andes, Railway Magazine, Vol.105, No.699, July 1959, pp Santiago Marín Vicuña, Los hermanos Clark, Balcells & Co., Santiago de Chile (1929), [edit] See also Central Trans-Andean Railway [edit] External links Ficha de Proyecto 185 km 196 km 209 km 214 km 225 km 238 km 248 km El Portillo (alt m) El Ferrocarril Trasandino Los Andes - Mendoza Museo Ferrocarril Transandino Revisiting the Transandine Railway Se construye el tren Los Andes - Mendoza Los Andes-Mendoza: tren trasandino se licitará en julio próximo Hermanos Clark (ex-el Juncal) (alt m) Guardia Vieja (alt m) Rio Blanco (alt m) Salto del Soldado (alt m) San Pablo (alt. 957 m) Railway Companies in Argentina British-owned Argentine Great Western Argentine North Eastern Argentine North Western Argentine Transandine Railway Company Bahía Blanca & North Western Buenos Aires & Campana Buenos Aires & Ensenada Port Buenos Aires Great Southern Buenos Aires Midland Buenos Aires Northern Buenos Aires & Pacific Buenos Aires & Rosario Buenos Aires

29 & San Fernando Buenos Aires Western Central Argentine Central of Chubut Córdoba Central Córdoba North Western Córdoba & Rosario East Argentine Entre Ríos La Boca and Barracas Railway Rafaela Steam Tramway Santa Fe & Córdoba Great Southern Santa Fe Western Villa María & Rufino French-owned State-owned Pre-1948 State-owned Post-1948 Privatised Post-1992 Compañía General en la Provincia de Buenos Aires Provincial de Santa Fe Rosario y Puerto Belgrano San Cristobal a Tucumán Andino Argentino del Norte Central de Buenos Aires Central Entrerriano Central Norte Oeste Patagónicos Primer Entrerriano Provincial de Buenos Aires Provincial del Puerto de La Plata al Meridiano V Provincial de Santa Fe Rural de la Provincia de Buenos Aires Tranvia Rural FEMESA Ferrocarriles Argentinos Domingo Faustino Sarmiento General Bartolomé Mitre General Manuel Belgrano General Roca General San Martín General Urquiza Nacional Provincia de Buenos Aires ALL Central ALL Mesopotámico América Latina Logística Austral Fueguino Belgrano Cargas Buenos Aires al Pacifico San Martin Chaco Córdoba Central Ferrobaires Ferrocentral Ferroexpreso Pampeano Ferrosur Roca Ferrovías Mediterráneos Mesopotámico General Urquiza Metropolitano Metrovías Nuevo Central Argentino Patagónico Trenes de Buenos Aires Tren de la Costa Tren a las Nubes Trenes Especiales Argentinos Tucumán UEPFP UGOFE Viejo Expreso Patagónico

30 History of Cuba Map of the West Indies, Mexico and "New Spain" with Cuba in the center drawn by Herman Moll in independence. Cuba, the largest of the Caribbean islands, was inhabited by Indigenous peoples when Christopher Columbus sighted the island during his first voyage of discovery on 27 October 1492, and claimed it for Spain. Cuba subsequently became a Spanish colony to be ruled by the Spanish governor in Havana, though in 1762 this city was briefly held by Britain before being returned in exchange for Florida. A series of rebellions during the 19th century failed to end Spanish rule, but increased tensions between Spain and the United States, resulting in the Spanish-American War, finally led to Spanish withdrawal, and in 1902, Cuba gained formal American trade dominated Cuba during the first half of the 20th century, aided by US government policy measures assuring influence over the island. In 1959 dictator Fulgencio Batista was ousted in a revolution led by Fidel Castro). (Cuba-United States relations) quickly froze while the island turned to the Soviet Union, which kept the economy afloat in spite of the US embargo against Cuba. After the dissolution of the east-west-confrontation Cuba remains as one of the only Communist countries in the world. In his book "A History of Cuba and its relations with The United States" historian Philip S. Foner writes that Cuba's history "has a significance out of proportion to its size. The story of Cuba's struggle for liberation from four-hundred years of Spanish domination is one of the great epics in history. The struggle for over half a century to change its status from a theoretically independent state, dominated by American imperialism, into a truly independent country is equally inspiring." [1] Guanajatabeyes, Taíno and Ciboney cultures The earliest inhabitants of Cuba were the Guanajatabey people, [2][3] who migrated to the island from the forests of the South American mainland as long ago as 5300 BCE. [4] The Guanajatabeyes, who numbered about 170,000, were hunters, gatherers, and farmers. They were to cultivate cohiba (tobacco), a crop upon which the island's economy would one day depend. Spanish conquistador Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar later observed that the Guanajatabeyes were "without houses or towns and eating only the meat they are able to find in the forests as well as turtles and fish." [5] Though the Guanajatabeyes are now considered to be a distinct population, early anthropologists and historians mistakenly believed that they were the Ciboney people who occupied areas throughout the Antilles islands of the Caribbean. [6] More recently, researchers have speculated that the Guanajatabeyes may have migrated from the south of the United States, evidenced by similarities of artifacts found in both regions. [5] Some

31 studies ascribe a role to these original inhabitants in the extinction of the islands' megafauna, including condors, giant owls, and eventually ground sloths. [7][8][9] Further evidence suggests that the Guanajatabeyes were driven to the west of the island by the arrival of two subsequent waves of migrants, the Taíno and Ciboney. These groups are sometimes referred to as neo-taíno nations. [2] The new arrivals had migrated north along the Caribbean island chain from the Orinoco delta in Venezuela. These two groups were prehistoric cultures in a time period during which humans created tools from stone, yet they were familiar with gold (caona) and copper alloys (guanín). The Taíno and Ciboney were a part of a cultural group commonly called the Arawak, which extended far into South America. Initially the new arrivals inhabited the eastern area of Baracoa before expanding across the island. Traveling Dominican clergyman and writer Bartolome de las Casas estimated that the Cuban population of the neo-taíno people had reached 200,000 by the time of the late fifteenth century. The Taíno cultivated the yuca root, harvested According to Las Casas, they had "everything they needed for living; they had many crops, well arranged". [10] Conquest of Cuba Early Spanish colonization The first sighting of a Spanish boat approaching the island was on 28 October 1492, probably at Baracoa on the eastern point of the island. [2] Christopher Columbus, on his first voyage to the Americas, sailed south from what is now The Bahamas to explore the northeast coast of Cuba and the northern coast of Hispaniola. Columbus discovered the island believing it to be a peninsula of the Asian mainland. [11][12] Contents [hide] 1 Guanajatabeyes, Taíno and Ciboney cultures 2 Conquest of Cuba o 2.1 Early Spanish colonization o 2.2 Arrival of African slaves o 2.3 Sugar plantations 3 Cuba under attack 4 The 19th century: Years of upheaval o 4.1 Reform, autonomy and separatist movements o 4.2 Antislavery and independence movements o 4.3 The possibility of annexation by the USA o 4.4 The independence struggle resumed 5 The War of 1895 o 5.1 Changes o 5.2 The Maine incident 6 The Spanish-American War / The Cuban War Theatre 7 The first US Occupation / Platt Amendment o 7.1 Political changes o 7.2 Economical changes 8 Cuba in the early 20th century o 8.1 After World War I o 8.2 The 1940 Constitution 9 The Cuban Revolution 10 Castro's Cuba o 10.1 Politics o 10.2 Break with the United States o 10.3 Bay of Pigs invasion o 10.4 The Cuban Missile Crisis o 10.5 Economy o 10.6 Military Build-Up o 10.7 Repressions o 10.8 Emigration o 10.9 Cuban Involvement in Third World Conflicts o Cooperation between Cuban and Soviet Intellegence Services 11 Cuba after the Soviet Union 12 See also 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links During a second voyage in 1494, Columbus passed along the south coast of the island, landing at various inlets including what was to become Guantánamo Bay. With the Papal Bull of 1493, Pope Alexander VI commanded Spain to conquer, colonize and convert the Pagans of the New

32 World to Catholicism. [13] On arrival, Columbus observed the Taíno dwellings, describing them as looking like tents in a camp. All were of palm branches, beautifully constructed. [14] The Spanish began to create permanent settlements on the island of Hispaniola, east of Cuba, soon after Columbus's arrival in the Caribbean, but it wasn't until 1509 that the coast of Cuba was fully mapped by Sebastián de Ocampo. [15] In 1511, Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar set out with three ships and an army of 300 men from Hispaniola to form the first Spanish settlement in Cuba, with orders from Spain to conquer the island. The settlement was at Baracoa, but the new settlers were to be greeted with stiff resistance from the local Taíno population. The Taínos were initially organized by Havana Bay, c cacique (chieftain) Hatuey, who had himself relocated from Hispaniola to escape the brutalities of Spanish rule on that island. After a prolonged guerrilla campaign, Hatuey and successive chieftains were captured and burnt alive, and within three years the Spanish had gained control of the island. In 1514, a settlement was founded in what was to become Havana. Clergyman Bartolomé de Las Casas observed a number of massacres initiated by the invaders as the Spanish swept over the island, notably the massacre near Manzanillo of the inhabitants of Caonao. According to his account, some three thousand villagers had traveled to Manzanillo to greet the Spanish with loaves, fishes and other foodstuffs and were "without provocation, butchered". [16] The surviving indigenous groups fled to the mountains or the small surrounding islands before being captured and forced into reservations. One such reservation was Guanabacoa, which is today a suburb of Havana. [17] In 1513, Ferdinand II of Aragon issued a decree establishing the encomienda land settlement system that was to be incorporated throughout the Spanish Americas. Velázquez, who had become Governor of Cuba relocating from Baracoa to Santiago de Cuba, was given the task of apportioning both the land and the indigenous Cubans to groups throughout the new colony. The scheme was not a success, however, as the Cubans either succumbed to diseases brought from Spain such as measles and smallpox, or simply refused to work preferring to slip away into the mountains. [2] Desperate for labor to toil the new agricultural settlements, the Conquistadors sought slaves from surrounding islands and the continental mainland. But these new arrivals followed the indigenous Cubans by also dispersing into the wilderness or suffering a similar fate at the hands of disease. [2] Despite the difficult relations between the local Cubans and the new Europeans, some cooperation was in evidence. The Spanish were shown by the Native Cubans how to A monument to Taíno chieftain Hatuey, Baracoa, Cuba nurture tobacco and consume it in the form of cigars. There were also many unions between the largely male Spanish colonists and indigenous women. Their children were called mestizos, but the Native Cubans called them Guajiro, which translates as "one of us". Although modern day studies have revealed traces of Taíno DNA in individuals throughout Cuba, [18] the population was effectively destroyed as a culture and civilization after The local Indian population left their mark on the language and placenames of the island, however. The name of Cuba itself and Havana were derived from neo-taino dialect, and Indian words such as Tobacco, Hurricane and Canoe continue to be used today. [17]

33 Arrival of African slaves The Spanish established sugar and tobacco as Cuba's primary products, and the island soon supplanted Hispaniola as the prime Spanish base in the Caribbean. [19] Further field labor was required. African slaves were then imported to work the plantations as field labor. However, restrictive Spanish trade laws made it difficult for Cubans to keep up with the 17th and 18th century advances in processing sugar cane pioneered in British Barbados and French Saint Domingue (Haiti). Spain also restricted Cuba's access to the slave trade, which was dominated by the British, French, and Dutch. One important turning point came in the Seven Years' War, when the British conquered the port of Havana and introduced thousands of slaves in a ten month period. Another key event was the Haitian Revolution in nearby Saint-Domingue, from 1791 to Thousands of French refugees, fleeing the slave rebellion in Saint Domingue, brought slaves and expertise in sugar refining and coffee growing into eastern Cuba in the 1790 and early 1800s. In the 1800s, Cuban sugar plantations became the most important world producer of sugar, thanks to the expansion of slavery and a relentless focus on improving the island's sugar technology. Use of modern refining techniques was especially important because the British abolished the slave trade in 1807 and, after 1815, began forcing other countries to follow suit. Cubans were torn between the profits generated by sugar and a repugnance for slavery, which they saw as morally, politically, and racially dangerous to their society. By the end of the nineteenth century, slavery was abolished. However, leading up to the abolition of slavery, Cuba gained great prosperity from its sugar trade. Originally, the Spanish had ordered regulations on trade with Cuba, which kept the island from becoming a dominant sugar producer. The Spanish were interested in keeping their trade routes and slave trade routes protected. Nevertheless, Cuba's vast size and abundance of natural resources made it an ideal place for becoming a booming sugar producer. When Spain opened the Cuban trade ports, it quickly became a popular place. New technology allowed a much more effective and efficient means of producing sugar. They began to use water mills, enclosed furnaces, and steam engines to produce a higher quality of sugar at a much more efficient pace than elsewhere in the Caribbean. The boom in Cuba's sugar industry in the nineteenth century made it necessary for Cuba to improve its means of transportation. Planters needed safe and efficient ways to transport the sugar from the plantations to the ports, in order to maximize their returns. Many new roads were built, and old roads were quickly repaired. Railroads were built early and changed the way that perishable sugar cane (within one or two days after the cane is cut easily crystallizable sucrose sugar has "inverted" to turn into far less recoverable glucose and fructose sugars) is collected and allowing more rapid and effective sugar transportation. It was now possible for plantations all over this large island to have their sugar shipped quickly and easily. The prosperity seen from the boom in sugar production is a major reason that Cuban ethnicity became further enriched by new influx of Spanish migrants. Many Spaniards immigrated to Cuba, calling it a place of refuge. Sugar plantations Cuba failed to prosper before the 1760s due to Spanish trade regulations. Spain had set up a monopoly in the Caribbean and their primary objective was to protect this. They did not allow the islands to trade with any foreign ships. Spain was primarily interested in the Caribbean for its gold. The Spanish crown thought that if the colonies traded with other countries it would not itself benefit from it. This slowed the growth of the Spanish Caribbean. This effect was particularly bad in Cuba because Spain kept a tight grasp on it. It held great strategic importance in the Caribbean. As soon as Spain opened Cuba's ports up to foreign ships, a great sugar boom began that lasted until the 1880s. The Island was perfect for growing sugar. It is dominated by rolling plains, with rich soil, and adequate rainfall. It is the largest island in the Caribbean, its relatively

34 low mountains and large plains are suitable for roads, and railroads, and it has the best ports in the area. By 1860, Cuba was devoted to growing sugar. The country had to import all other necessary goods. They were dependent on the United States who bought 82 percent of the sugar. Cubans resented the economic policy Spain implemented in Cuba, which was to help Spain and hurt Cuba. In 1820, Spain abolished the slave trade, hurting the Cuban economy even more and forcing planters to buy more expensive, illegal, and troublesome slaves (as demonstrated by the events surrounding the ship Amistad). [20] Cuba under attack The British fleet closing in on Havana in 1762 Cuba had long been a target of buccaneers, pirates and French corsairs seeking Spain's new world riches. Repeated raids meant that defences were bolstered throughout the island during the 16th century and Havana was furnished with the Castillo de los Tres Reyes Magos del Morro (El Morro fortress) to deter potential invaders which included English privateer Francis Drake, who sailed within sight of Havana harbour but did not disembark on the island. [21] Havana's inability to resist invaders was dramatically exposed in 1628, when a Dutch fleet led by Piet Heyn plundered the Spanish fleet in the city's harbor. [22] In 1662, on the eastern part of the island, English admiral and pirate Christopher Myngs captured and briefly occupied Santiago de Cuba in an effort to open up Cuba's protected trade with neighbouring Jamaica. [22] Nearly a century later, English were to invade in earnest taking Guantánamo Bay during the War of Jenkins' Ear with Spain. Edward Vernon, the British Admiral who devised the scheme, saw his 4,000 occupying troops capitulate to local guerilla resistance, and more critically, debilitating disease, forcing him to withdraw his fleet to British owned El Morro fortress in Havana, built in 1589 Jamaica. [23] Seven years later, in 1748, tensions between the three dominant colonial powers; Britain, France and Spain, were transported to the Caribbean. A skirmish between a British squadron and a Spanish squadron off the coast of Cuba became known as the Battle of Havana. [23] The Seven Years' War, which erupted in 1754 in three continents, eventually arrived at the Spanish Caribbean. Spain's alliance with the French pitched them in direct conflict with the British, and in 1762 an expedition set out from Portsmouth of 5 warships and 4000 troops to capture Cuba. The English arrived on 6 June and by August had Havana under siege. [24] When Havana surrendered, British Admiral of the fleet George Keppel, the 3rd Earl of Albemarle, entered the city as conquering new governor, taking control of the whole western part of the island. The arrival of the British immediately opened up trade with their North American and Caribbean colonies, causing a rapid transformation of Cuban society. Food, horses and other goods flooded into the city, and thousands of slaves from West Africa were transported to the island to work on the under manned sugar plantations. [24] Though Havana, which had become the third largest city in the new world, was to enter an era of sustained development and closening ties with North America, the British occupation was not to last. Pressure from London by sugar merchants fearing a decline in sugar prices forced a series of negotiations with the Spanish over colonial territories. Less than a year after Havana was seized, the Peace of Paris was signed by the three warring powers thus ending the Seven Years' War. The treaty gave Britain Florida in

35 exchange for Cuba on the recommendation of the French, who advised that declining the offer could result in Spain losing Mexico and much of the South American mainland to the British. [24] The 19th century: Years of upheaval In the early 19th century three different currents characterizing the political struggles of that century took shape: reformism, annexation and independence. In addition to that there were spontaneous and isolated actions carried out from time to time and growing in organization, adding a current of abolitionism. The declaration of independence by the 13 British colonies of North America and the victory of the French Revolution of 1789 as well as the revolt of black slaves in Haiti influenced early Cuban liberation movements. One of the first, headed by the free Black, Nicolás Morales, and aimed at the equality between "mulattos and whites" and the abolition of sales taxes and other burdens that oppress the poor, was discovered in 1795 in Bayamo and the conspirators were jailed. Reform, autonomy and separatist movements As a result of the political upheavals caused by the Peninsular War (Iberian Peninsula) and the removal of Ferdinand VII from the throne, the first separatist rebellion emerged among the Creole aristocracy in 1809 and One of its leaders, Joaquín Infante drafted Cuba's first constitution considering the island a sovereign state, presuming the rule of the countries' wealthy, maintaining slavery as long as it was necessary for agriculture, establishing a social classification based on skin colour and declaring Catholicism the official religion. This conspiracy also failed and the main leaders were sentenced to prison and deported to Spain. [25] In 1812, a mixed race abolitionist conspiracy arose, organized by José Antonio Aponte, a free black carpenter in Havana. He and others were executed. [26] The main reason for the lack of support was that the vast majority of Creoles, especially the plantation owners, rejected any kind of separatism, considering Spain's power essential to maintain a slavery system and to prevent a the Cádiz Cortes, which began deliberations in The Spanish Constitution of 1812 and the legislation passed by the Cortes created a number of liberal political and commercial policies, which were welcomed in Cuba but also curtailed a number of previous liberal political and commercial liberties. Between 1810 and 1814 the island elected six representatives to the Cortes, in addition to forming a locally-elected Provincial Deputation. [27] Nevertheless, the liberal regime and the Constitution proved to be ephemeral: they were suppressed by Ferdinand VII when he returned to the throne in Therefore, by the end of the decade some Cubans were inspired by the successes of Simón Bolívar despite the fact that the Spanish Constitution was restored in Numerous secret societies emerged, of which the most important was the so-called "Soles y Rayos Bolívar", founded in 1821 and led by José Francisco Lemus. Its aim was to establish the free Republic of Cubanacán, and the society had branches in five districts of the island. In 1823 the leaders were arrested and condemned to exile. In the same year in Spain, Ferdinand VII, with French help and the approval of the Quintuple Alliance, managed to abolish constitutional rule yet again and reestablish absolutism. As a result, in Cuba the national militia established by the Constitution and a potential instrument for liberal agitation was dissolved, a permanent executive military commission under the orders of the governor was created, newspapers were closed, elected provincial representatives were removed and other liberties suppressed. This suppression and the success of independence in the former Spanish colonies on the mainland lead to a rise of Cuban nationalism and a number of independence conspiracies took place during the 1820's and 1830's, but all failed. Among others there were the "Expedición de los Trece" (Expedition of the Thirteen) in 1826, the "Gran Legión del Aguila Negra" (Great Legion of the Black Eagle) in 1829, the "Cadena Triangular" (Triangular Chain) and "Soles de la Libertad" (Suns of Liberty) in Leading national figures in these years were Félix Varela and Cuba's first revolutionary poet, José María Heredia. [28] The US also opposed possible agreements between Spain and England.

36 Antislavery and independence movements In 1826, the first armed uprising for independence took place in Puerto Príncipe (Camagüey Province), led by Francisco de Agüero and Andrés Manuel Sánchez. Agüero (white) and Sánchez (mulato, of mixed African and European ancestry) were executed, becoming the first martyrs of Cuban independence. [29] Among others there were the "Expedición de los Trece" (Expedition of the Thirteen) in 1826, the "Gran Legión del Aguila Negra" (Great Legion of the Black Eagle) in 1829, the "Cadena Triangular" (Triangular Chain) and "Soles de la Libertad" (Suns of Liberty) in Leading national figures in these years were Félix Varela and Cuba's first revolutionary poet, José María Heredia. [30] The 1830s saw a surge of the reformist movement, whose main leader was José Antonio Saco, standing out for his criticism of Spanish despotism and slave trade. Nevertheless, this surge brought no fruit; instead, Cubans remained deprived of the right to send representatives to the Spanish parliament and Madrid stepped up repression. Spain had been under pressure to end trade of slaves. In 1817 it signed a first treaty to which it did not adhere. With the abolishment of slavery altogether in their colonies the British forced Spain to sign another treaty in With this background Black revolts in Cuba increased and were put down with massive killings and executions. One of the most significant was the Conspiración de La Escalera (Ladder Conspiracy), which started March 1843 and continued to The conspiracy took its name from a torture method, blacks being tied to a ladder and whipped until they confessed or died. It included free Blacks and slaves as well as white intellectuals and professionals. It is estimated that 300 Blacks and mulattos died from torture, 78 were executed, over 600 were imprisoned and over 400 expelled from the island. [31][32] (See comments in new translation of Villaverde's "Cecilia Valdés".) Among the executed was one of Cuba's greatest poets, Gabriel de la Concepción Valdés, now commonly known as "Placido". [33] José Antonio Saco one of Cuba's foremost thinkers was expelled from Cuba. [34] Following from the rebellion Ten Years' War, all slavery was abolished by 1884, making it the second to last country in the Western Hemisphere to abolish slavery (Brazil was the last). Instead of Blacks, slave traders looked for others sources of cheap labour, such as Chinese colonists and Indians from Yucatan. The possibility of annexation by the USA Black unrest and British pressure to abolish slavery motivated many Creoles to advocate Cuba's annexation to the United States, where slavery was still legal. Other Cubans supported the idea because they longed for what they considered higher development and democratic freedom. Annexation of Cuba was repeatedly supported by the US. In 1805 President Thomas Jefferson considered possessing Cuba for strategic reasons, sending secret agents to the island to negotiate with Governor Someruelos. In April 1823 US Secretary of State John Quincy Adams discussed the rules of political gravitation, in a theory often referred to as the "ripe fruit theory". Adams wrote, There are laws of political as well as physical gravitation; and if an apple severed by its native tree cannot choose but fall to the ground, Cuba, forcibly disjoined from its own unnatural connection with Spain, and incapable of self-support, can gravitate only towards the North American Union which by the same law of nature, cannot cast her off its bosom. [35] Adams described Cuba as incapable and described its separation from Spain as inevitable. He specified the islands gravitation towards North America rather than Europe. As he explained that, the transfer of Cuba to Great Britain would be an event unpropitious to the interest of this Union. [36] Adams voiced concern that a country outside of North America would attempt to occupy Cuba upon its separation from Spain. He wrote, The question both of our right and our power to prevent it, if necessary, by force, already obtrudes itself upon our councils, and the administration is called upon, in the

37 performance of its duties to the nation, at least to use all the means with the competency to guard against and forefend it. [37] On December second of that year US president James Monroe specifically addressed Cuba and other European colonies in his proclamation of the Monroe Doctrine. Cuba located in the Western Hemisphere just 94 miles (151 km) from the US city Key West was of interest to the doctrine s founders as they warned European forces to leave "America for the Americans". [38] The most outstanding attempts in support of annexation were made by Spanish Army General Narciso López, who prepared four expeditions to Cuba in the US. The first two in 1848 and 1849 already failed before departure due to US-opposition. The third one, made up of some 600 men, managed to land on Cuba and take the central city of Cárdenas. Lacking popular support, this expedition failed. His fourth expedition landed in Pinar del Río province with around 400 men in August 1851; the invaders were defeated by Spanish troops and López was executed. The independence struggle resumed See also: Little War (Cuba) In the 1860s Cuba had two more liberal minded governors, Serrano and Dulce, who even encouraged the creation of a Reformist Party, despite the fact that political parties were forbidden. But a reactionary governor, Francisco Lersundi, followed, who suppressed all liberties granted by the previous ones and maintaining a pro-slavery regime with all its rigour. [39] On 10 October 1868, landowner Carlos Manuel de Céspedes made the "Grito de Yara", the "Cry of Yara", declaring Cuban independence and freedom for his slaves. This began the "Ten Years' War" which lasted from 1868 to The War of 1895 Changes See also: Cuban War of Independence In the years of the so-called Rewarding Truce, lasting for 17 years from the end of the Ten Years War in 1878 there were fundamental social changes in Cuban society. With the abolition of slavery in October 1886 former slaves joined the ranks of farmers and urban working class. Most wealthy Cubans lost their properties and many of them joined the urban middle class. The number of sugar mills dropped and efficiency increased with only companies and the most powerful plantation owners owning them. The numbers of campesinos and tenant farmers rose considerably. It is the period when US capital began flowing into Cuba, mostly into the sugar and tobacco business and mining. By 1895 investments reached 50 million US dollars. Although Cuba remained Spanish politically, economically it started to depend on the United States. [40] Although the conditions were very difficult, these changes entailed the rise of labour movements, the first organisation created in 1878 being the Cigar Makers Guild, followed by the Central Board of Artisans in 1879 and many more across the island. [41] After his second deportation to Spain in 1878, José Martí moved to the United States in 1881 were he took up mobilizing the support of the Cuban exile community, especially in Ybor City in the Tampa area and Key West, Florida, for a revolution and independence from Spain, but also lobbying to oppose US annexation of Cuba, which some American and Cuban politicians desired. After deliberations with patriotic clubs across the US, the Antilles and Latin America "El Partido Revolucionario Cubano" (The Cuban Revolutionary Party) with the purpose of gaining independence for both Cuba and Puerto Rico was officially proclaimed on April 10, Martí was elected Delegate, the highest party position. By the end of 1894 the basic conditions for launching the revolution were set. [42] Martí s impatience to start the revolution for independence was affected by his growing fear that the imperialist forces in the United States would succeed in annexing Cuba before the revolution

38 could liberate the island from Spain. [43] A new trend of aggressive US influence, evident by Secretary of State James G. Blaine s expressed ideals that all of Central and South America would some day fall to the US That rich island, Blaine wrote, on 1 December 1881, the key to the Gulf of Mexico, is, though in the hands of Spain, a part of the American commercial system If ever ceasing to be Spanish, Cuba must necessarily become American and not fall under any other European domination. [44] Blaine s vision did not allow the existence of an independent Cuba. Martí noticed with alarm the movement to annex Hawaii, viewing it as establishing a pattern for Cuba [43] On 25 December 1895 three ships loaded with fighters and weapons, the Lagonda, the Almadis and the Baracoa set sail for Cuba from Fernandina Beach, Florida, loaded with weapons and supplies that had been difficult and costly to obtain. Two of the ships were seized by US authorities in early January, who also alerted the Spanish government, but the proceedings went ahead. Not to be dissuaded, on 25 March Martí presented the Proclamation of Montecristi (Manifesto de Montecristi) which outlined the policy for Cuba s war of independence: [44] the war was to be waged by blacks and whites alike; participation of all blacks was crucial for victory; Spaniards who did not object to the war effort should be spared, private rural properties should not be damaged; and the revolution should bring new economic life to Cuba. The insurrection began on 24 February 1895 with uprisings all across the island. In Oriente the most important ones took place in Santiago, Guantánamo, Jiguaní, San Luis, El Cobre, El Caney, Alto Songo, Bayate and Baire. The uprisings in the central part of the island, such as Ibarra, Jagüey Grande and Aguada suffered from poor co-ordination and failed; the leaders were captured, some of them deported and some executed. In the province of Havana the insurrection was discovered before it got off and the leaders detained. Thus, the insurgents further west in Pinar del Río were ordered to wait. Martí, on his way to Cuba, proclaimed the Manifesto de Montecristi in Santo Domingo, outlining the policy for Cuba s war of independence: the war was to be waged by blacks and whites alike; participation of all blacks was crucial for victory; Spaniards who did not object to the war effort should be spared, private rural properties should not be damaged; and the revolution should bring new economic life to Cuba. [44][45] On April 1 and 11, 1895, the main Mambi leaders landed on two expeditions in Oriente: Major Antonio Maceo and 22 members near Baracoa and Martí, Máximo Gomez and 4 other members in Playitas. Around that time, Spanish forces in Cuba numbered about 80,000,of which, 20,000 were regular troops, and 60,000 were Spanish and Cuban volunteers. The latter were a locally enlisted force that took care of most of the guard and police duties on the island. Wealthy landowners would volunteer a number of their slaves to serve in this force, which was under local control and not under official military command. By December, 98,412 regular troops had been sent to the island, and the number of volunteers increased to 63,000 men. By the end of 1897, there were 240,000 regulars and 60,000 irregulars on the island. The revolutionaries were far outnumbered. [44] The Mambises were named after the Negro Spanish officer, Juan Ethninius Mamby who joined the Dominicans in the fight for independence in The Spanish soldiers referred to the insurgents as the men of Mamby, and Mambies. When Cuba s first war of independence (known as the Ten Year War) broke out in 1868, some of the same soldiers were assigned to the island, importing what had, by then, become a derogatory Spanish slur. The Cubans adopted the name with pride. After the Ten-Year War, possession of weapons by private individuals had been prohibited. Thus, from the very beginning of the war, one of the most serious problems for the rebels was the acquisition of suitable weapons. This lack of arms led to the guerrilla-style war using the environment, the element of surprise, a fast horse and a machete. Most of the weapons were acquired in raids on the Spaniards. Between 11 June 1895 and 30 November 1897 out of sixty attempts to bring weapons and supplies to the rebels from outside the country, only one

39 succeeded through the protection of the British. Twenty-eight were prevented already within USterritory; five were intercepted by the US Navy, four by the Spanish Navy; two were wrecked; one was driven back to port by storm; the fate of another is unknown. [44] Martí was killed only shortly after his landing on 19 May 1895 at Dos Rios, but Máximo Gomez and Antonio Maceo fought on, taking the war to all parts of Oriente. By the end of June all of Camagüey was at war. Continuing west, they were met by 1868 war veterans, Polish internationalist, General Carlos Roloff and Serafín Sánchez in Las Villas, adding weapons, men and experience. In mid-september representatives of the five Liberation Army Corps assembled in Jimaguayú, Camagüey to approve the Jimaguayú Constitution, establishing a central government, which grouped the executive and legislative powers into one entity named Government Council, headed by Salvador Cisneros and Bartolomé Masó. After some time of consolidation in the three eastern provinces the liberation armies headed for Camagüey and then Matanzas, outmanoeuvring and deceiving the Spanish Army several times, defeating the Spanish General Arsenio Martínez Campos, himself the victor of the Ten Year War, and killing his most trusted general at Peralejo. Campos tried the same strategy he had employed in the Ten Year War, constructing a broad belt across the island, called the trocha, about 80 kilometres (50 mi) long and 200 metres (660 ft) wide. This defense line was to limit rebel activities to the eastern provinces. The belt consisted of a railroad, from Jucaro in the south to Moron in the north, on which to move armoured cars. Along this railroad, at various points there were fortifications, and at intervals of 12 metres (39 ft) of posts and 400 metres (1,300 ft) of barbed wire. In addition, booby traps were placed at locations most likely to be attacked. For the rebels it was essential to bring the war to the western provinces (Matanzas, Havana and Pinar del Rio) where the island's government and wealth was located. The Ten Year War failed because it had not managed to proceed beyond the eastern provinces. [44] In a successful cavalry campaign, overcoming the trochas they invaded every province. Surrounding all larger cities and well fortified towns they arrived at the westernmost tip of the island on 22 January 1896, exactly three months after the invasion near Baraguá. [46][47] Campos was replaced by General Valeriano Weyler y Nicolau (nicknamed the "butcher") who reacted to these successes by introducing terror methods: periodic executions, mass exile, and destruction of farms and crops. These methods reached their height on October 21, 1896, when he ordered all countryside residents and their livestock to gather in various fortified areas and towns occupied by his troops within 8 days. Hundreds of thousands of people had to leave their homes creating appalling and inhumane conditions in the crowded towns and cities. It is estimated that this measure caused the death of at least one third of Cuba s rural population. [48] The forced relocation was maintained until March [44] Starting in the early 80 Spain had also suppressing an independence movement in the Philippines, which was intensifying and Spain was now fighting two wars, which were putting a heavy burden on its economy. But, it turned down offers in secret negotiations by the US in 1896, closely following the war, to buy Cuba from Spain. Maceo was killed on 7 December 1896 in Havana province while returning from the west. [49] As the war went on, the major obstacle to Cuban success was weapons supply. Although weapons and funding came from within the US, the supply operation violated American laws, which were enforced by the US Coast Guard; of seventy-one re-supply missions only twenty-seven got through, five were stopped by the Spanish but thirty-three by the US Coast Guard. [50] In 1897 the liberation army maintained a privileged position in Camagüey and Oriente, where the Spanish only controlled a few cities. Spanish Liberal leader Praxedes Sagasta admitted in May 1897: After having sent 200,000 men and shed so much blood, we don t own more land on the island than what our soldiers are stepping on. [51] The rebel force of 3,000 defeated the Spanish in various encounters, such as the battle of La Reforma or the surrender of Las Tunas on 30 August

40 and the Spaniards were kept on the defensive. Las Tunas had been guarded by over 1,000 wellarmed-and-supplied men. As stipulated at the Jimaguayú Assembly two years earlier, a second Constituent Assembly met in La Yaya, Camagüey on 10 October The newly adopted constitution supplied for a military command subordinated to civilian rule. The government was confirmed, naming Bartolomé Masó President and Dr. Domingo Méndez Capote Vice President. Madrid decided to change its policy towards Cuba, replaced Weyler, drew up a colonial constitution for Cuba and Puerto Rico and installed a new government in Havana. But with half the country out of its control and the other half in arms it was powerless and rejected by the rebels. The Maine incident Wreckage of the Maine, 1898 The Cuban struggle for independence had captured the American imagination for years and newspapers had been agitating for intervention with sensational stories of Spanish atrocities against the native Cuban population, intentionally sensationalized and exaggerated. Americans believed that Cuba's battle with Spain resembled America's Revolutionary War. This continued even after Spain replaced Weyler and changed its policies and American public opinion was very much in favour of intervening in favour of the Cubans. [52] In January 1898, a riot by Cuban Spanish loyalists against the new autonomous government broke out in Havana leading to the destruction of the printing presses of four local newspapers for publishing articles critical of Spanish Army atrocities. The US Consul-General cabled Washington with fears for the lives of Americans living in Havana. In response the battleship USS Maine was sent to Havana in the last week of January. On 15 February 1898 the Maine was rocked by an explosion, killing 268 of the crew and sinking the ship in the harbour. The cause of the explosion has not been clearly established to this day. In an attempt to appease the US the colonial government took two steps that had been demanded by President William McKinley: it ended the forced relocation and offered negotiations with the independence fighters. But the truce was rejected by the rebels. The Spanish-American War / The Cuban War Theatre Main article: Spanish-American War The explosion of the Maine sparked a wave of indignation in the US. Newspaper owners such as William R. Hearst leapt to the conclusion that Spanish officials in Cuba were to blame, and they widely publicized the conspiracy although Spain could have had no interest in getting the US involved in the conflict. [53] Yellow journalism fuelled American anger by publishing "atrocities" committed by Spain in Cuba. Hearst, when informed by Frederic Remington, whom he had hired to furnish illustrations for his newspaper, that conditions in Cuba were not bad enough to warrant hostilities, allegedly replied, "You furnish the pictures and I'll furnish the war." [54] McKinley, Speaker of the House Thomas Brackett Reed, and the business community opposed the growing

41 public demand for war, which was lashed to fury by yellow journalism. The American cry of the hour became, Remember the Maine, To Hell with Spain! The decisive event was probably the speech of Senator Redfield Proctor delivered on 17 March, analyzing the situation and concluding that war was the only answer. The business and religious communities switched sides, leaving McKinley and Reed almost alone in their opposition to the war. [55] Faced with a revved up, war-ready population, and all the editorial encouragement the two competitors could muster, the US jumped at the opportunity to get involved and showcase its new steam-powered Navy. [44] On 11 April McKinley asked Congress for authority to send American troops to Cuba for the purpose of ending the civil war there. On 19 April Congress passed joint resolutions (by a vote of 311 to 6 in the House and 42 to 35 in the Senate) supporting Cuban independence and disclaiming any intention to annex Cuba, demanding Spanish withdrawal, and authorizing the president to use as much military force as he thought necessary to help Cuban patriots gain independence from Spain. This was adopted by resolution of Congress and included from Senator Henry Teller the Teller Amendment, which passed unanimously, stipulating that the island of Cuba is, and by right should be, free and independent. [53] The amendment disclaimed any intention on the part of the US to exercise jurisdiction or control over Cuba for other than pacification reasons, and confirmed that the armed forces would be removed once the war is over. Senate and Congress passed the amendment on 19 April, McKinley signed the joint resolution on 20 April and the ultimatum was forwarded to Spain. War was declared on 20/21 April It's been suggested that a major reason for the US war against Spain was the fierce competition emerging between Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal. Joseph E. Wisan wrote in an essay titled "The Cuban Crisis As Reflected In The New York Press, published in American Imperialism in 1898: In the opinion of the writer, the Spanish-American War would not have occurred had not the appearance of Hearst in New York journalism precipitated a bitter battle for newspaper circulation. It has also been argued that the main reason the U.S. entered the war was the failed secret attempt, in 1896, to purchase Cuba from a weaker, war-depleted Spain. [44] Further information: Propaganda of the Spanish American War Hostilities started hours after the declaration of war when a US contingent under Admiral William T. Sampson blockaded several Cuban ports. The Americans decided to invade Cuba and to start in Oriente where the Cubans had almost absolute control and were able to co-operate, e.g. by establishing a beachhead and protecting the US landing in Daiquiri. The first US objective was to capture the city of Santiago de Cuba in order to destroy Linares' army and Cervera's fleet. To reach Santiago they had to pass through concentrated Spanish defences in the San Juan Hills and a small town in El Caney. Between 22 and 24 June the Americans landed under General William R. Shafter at Daiquirí and Siboney, east of Santiago, and established a base. The port of Santiago became the main target of naval operations. The US fleet attacking Santiago needed shelter from the summer hurricane season. Thus nearby Guantánamo Bay with its excellent harbour was chosen for this purpose and attacked on 6 June (1898 invasion of Guantánamo Bay). The Battle of Santiago de Cuba, on 3 July 1898, was the largest naval engagement during the Spanish-American War resulting in the destruction of the Spanish Caribbean Squadron (Flota de Ultramar). Resistance in Santiago consolidated around Fort Canosa, [56] all the while major battles between Spaniards and Americans took place at Las Guasimas (Battle of Las Guasimas) on 24 June El Caney Battle of El Caney and San Juan Hill Battle of San Juan Hill on 1 July 1898 outside of Santiago [57] after which the American advance ground to a halt. Spanish troops successfully defended Fort Canosa, allowing them to stabilize their line and bar the entry to Santiago. The Americans and Cubans forcibly began a bloody, strangling siege of the city [58] which eventually surrendered on 16 July after the defeat of the Spanish Caribbean Squadron. Thus, Oriente was under control of Americans and the Cubans, but US General Nelson A. Miles would not allow

42 Cuban troops to enter Santiago, claiming that he wanted to prevent clashes between Cubans and Spaniards. Thus, Cuban General Calixto Carcía, head of the mambi forces in the Eastern department, ordered his troops to hold their respective areas and resigned, writing a letter of protest to General Shafter. [53] After losing the Philippines and Puerto Rico, which had also been invaded by the US, and with no hope of holding on to Cuba, Spain sued for peace on 17 July [59] On 12 August the US and Spain signed a protocol of Peace in which Spain agreed to relinquish all claim of sovereignty over and title of Cuba. [60] On 10 December 1898 the US and Spain signed the Treaty of Paris, recognizing Cuban independence [61] Although the Cubans had participated in the liberation efforts, the US prevented Cuba from participating in the Paris peace talks and signing the treaty. The treaty set no time limit for US occupation and the Isle of Pines was excluded from Cuba. [62] Although the treaty officially granted Cuba's independence, US General William R. Shafter refused to allow Cuban General Calixto García and his rebel forces to participate in the surrender ceremonies in Santiago de Cuba. The first US Occupation / Platt Amendment After the Spanish troops left the island in December 1898, the government of Cuba was handed over to the United States on 1 January The first governor was General John R. Brooke. Unlike Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines, the United States did not annex Cuba because of the restrictions imposed in the Teller Amendment. [63] Political changes The US administration was undecided on Cuba s future status. Once it had been pried away from the Spaniards it was to be assured that it moved and remained in the US sphere. How this was to be achieved was a matter of intense discussion and annexation was an option, not only on the mainland but also in Cuba. McKinley spoke about the links that should exist between the two nations. [64] Brooke set up a civilian government, also placed US governors in seven newly created departments and named civilian governors in the provinces as well as mayors and representatives in municipalities. Many Spanish colonial government officials were kept in their posts. People were ordered to disarm and, ignoring the Mambi Army, Brooke created the Rural Guard and municipal police corps at the service of the occupation forces. Judicial powers and courts remained legally based on the same codes of the Spanish government. Tomás Estrada Palma, successor of Martí as delegate of the Cuban Revolutionary Party, dissolved the party a few days after the signing of the Paris Treaty in December 1898, claiming that the objectives of the party had been met. The revolutionary Assembly of Representatives was disregarded and also dissolved. Thus, the three representative institutions of the national liberation movement disappeared. [65] Economical changes Already before the US officially took over the government, it had cut tariffs on US goods entering Cuba without granting the same rights to Cuban goods going to the US. [66] Government payments had to be made in US dollars. [67] In spite of the Foraker Amendment, prohibiting the US occupation government from granting privileges and concessions to US investors, the Cuban economy, facilitated by the occupation government, was soon dominated by US capital. [68] The growth of US sugar estates was so quick that in 1905 nearly 10% of Cuba s total land area belonged to US citizens. By 1902 US companies controlled 80% of Cuba s ore exports and owned most of the sugar and cigarette factories. [69]

43 The US Army began a massive public health program to fight endemic diseases, mainly yellow fever, and an education system was organized at all levels, increasing the number of primary schools fourfold. Voices soon began to be heard, demanding a Constituent Assembly. [70] In December 1899 the US War Secretary assured that the occupation was temporary, that municipal elections would be held, that a Constituent Assembly would be set up, followed by general elections and that sovereignty would be handed to Cubans. Brooke was replaced by General Leonard Wood to oversee the transition. Parties were created, including the Cuban National Party, the Federal Republican Party of Las Villas, the Republican Party of Havana and the Democratic Union Party. The first elections for mayors, treasurers and attorneys of the country s 110 municipalities for a one-year-term took place on 16 June 1900 but balloting was limited to literate Cubans older than 21 and with properties worth more than 250 US dollars. Only members of the dissolved Liberation Army were exempt from these conditions. Thus, the number of about 418,000 male citizens over 21 was reduced to about 151, ,000 women were totally excluded. The same elections were held one year later, again for a one-year-term. Elections for 31 delegates to a Constituent Assembly were held on 15 September 1900 with the same balloting restrictions. In all three elections pro-independence candidates including a large number of mambi delegates won the overwhelming majority. [71] The Constitution was drawn up from November 1900 to February 1901 and then passed by the Assembly. It established the republican form of government, proclaimed internationally recognized individual rights and liberties, freedom of religion, separation between Church and State and the composition, structure and functions of state powers. On 2 March 1901 the US-Congress passed the Army Appropriations Act stipulating the conditions for the withdrawal of United States troops remaining in Cuba since the Spanish-American War. As a rider this act included the Platt Amendment, which defined the terms of Cuban-US relations until It replaced the earlier Teller Amendment. The amendment provided for a number of rules heavily infringing on Cuba s sovereignty: Cuba would not transfer Cuban land to any power other than the United States. Cuba would contract no foreign debt without guarantees that the interest could be served from ordinary revenues. The right to US intervention in Cuban affairs and military occupation when the US authorities considered that the life, properties and rights of US citizens were in danger, Cuba was prohibited from negotiating treaties with any country other than the United States "which will impair or to impair the independence of Cuba". Cuba was prohibited to "permit any foreign power or powers to obtain... lodgement in or control over any portion" of Cuba. The Isle of Pines (now called Isla de la Juventud) was deemed outside the boundaries of Cuba until the title to it was adjusted in a future treaty. The sale or lease to the United States of "lands necessary for coaling or naval stations at certain specified points to be agreed upon." The amendment ceded to the United States the naval base in Cuba (Guantánamo Bay) and granted the right to use a number of other navel bases as coal stations. As a precondition to Cuba s independence the US demanded that this amendment be approved fully and without changes by the Constituent Assembly as an appendix to the new constitution. Faced with this alternative the appendix was approved after heated debating with a margin of 4 votes. Governor Wood admitted: Little or no independence had been left to Cuba with the Platt Amendment and the only thing appropriate was to seek annexation [71]

44 In the following presidential elections on 31 December 1901 Tomás Estrada Palma, a US citizen still living in the United States, was the only candidate. His adversary, General Barolomé Masó, withdrew his candidacy in protest against US favoritism and the manipulation of the political machine by Palma s followers. Palma was elected to be the Republic s first President and only returned to Cuba four months after the election. US occupation officially ended when Palma took office on 20 May [72] [Cuba in the early 20th century In 1902, the United States handed over control to a Cuban government that as a condition of the transfer had included in its constitution provisions implementing the requirements of the Platt Amendment, which among other things gave the United States the right to intervene militarily in Cuba. Havana and Varadero became tourist resorts, adorned with casinos and strip-clubs. [citation needed] The Cuban population gradually enacted civil rights anti-discrimination legislation that [citation needed] ordered minimum employment quotas for Cubans. President Tomás Estrada Palma was elected in 1902, and Cuba was declared independent, though Guantanamo Bay was leased to the United States as part of the Platt Amendment. The status of the Isle of Pines as Cuban territory was left undefined until 1925 when the United States finally recognized Cuban sovereignty over the island. Estrada Palma, a frugal man, governed successfully for his four year term; yet when he tried to extend his time in office, a revolt ensued. In 1906, the United States representative William Howard Taft, notably with the personal diplomacy of Frederick Funston, negotiated an end of the successful revolt led by able young general Enrique Loynaz del Castillo, [73] who had served under Antonio Maceo in the final war of independence. Estrada Palma resigned. The United States Governor Charles Magoon assumed temporary control until [74] In this period in the area of Manzanillo, Agustín Martín Veloz, Blas Roca, and Francisco (Paquito) Rosales founded the embryonic Cuban Communist Party. [75] For three decades, the country was led by former War of Independence leaders, who after being elected did not serve more than two constitutional terms. The Cuban presidential succession was as follows: José Miguel Gómez ( ); Mario Garcia Menocal ( ); Alfredo Zayas ( ). [76] In World War I, Cuba declared war on Imperial Germany on 7 April 1917, the day after the US entered the war. Despite being unable to send troops to fight in Europe, Cuba played a significant role as a base to protect the West Indies from U-Boat attacks. A draft law was instituted, and 25,000 Cuban troops raised, but the war ended before they could be sent into action. After World War I President Gerardo Machado was elected by popular vote in 1925, but he was constitutionally barred from reelection. Machado, who determined to modernize Cuba, set in motion several massive civil works projects such as the Central Highway, but at the end of his constitutional term held on to power. The United States, despite the Platt Amendment, decided not to interfere militarily. The communists of the PCC did very little to resist Machado in his dictator phase; however, practically everybody else did. In the late 1920s and early 1930s a number of Cuban action groups, including some Mambí, staged a series of uprisings that either failed or did not affect the capital. After much complex rebellion, Machado was asked to leave by the Cuban Army and senior Cuban civil leaders in After Machado was deposed there was a confused short interregnum. About six months later still, in September 1933, there was a successful mutiny by enlisted soldiers and non-commissioned officers, taking the lower ranks of the Cuban Army to power. A key figure in the process was Fulgencio Batista, an army sergeant holding a key post as a telegraph officer. Batista, with his straight Taíno hair and very dark skin, often lightened in later photographs, was known as "El Mulato Lindo". He was the first and only mulatto leader in Cuban history. [77][78]

45 The 1940 Constitution President Carlos Prío Socarrás (left), with US president Harry S. Truman in Washington, In 1940, Cuba had free and fair elections. [79][80] Batista, endorsed by Communists, [81] won the election. Communists attacked the anti-batista opposition, saying that Ramón Grau and others were "fascists", "reactionaries", and "Trotskyists". [81] The 1940 Constitution, which Julia E. Sweig describes as extraordinarily progressivist, was adopted by Batista administration. [79][80] Batista was voted out of office in 1944 elections. Batista was succeeded by Dr. Ramón Grau San Martín in 1944, a populist physician, who had briefly held the presidency in the 1933 revolutionary process. President Grau made a deal with labor union to continue Batista's pro-labour policies. [81] Grau's administration coincided with the end of World War II, and he inherited an economic boom as sugar production and prices rose. He inaugurated a program of public works and school construction. Social security benefits were increased, and economic development and agricultural production were encouraged. But increased prosperity brought increased corruption. Nepotism and favoritism flourished, and urban violence, a legacy of the early 1930s, reappeared now with tragic proportions. [82][81] The country was also steadily gaining a reputation as a base for organized crime, with the Havana Conference of 1946 seeing leading Mafia mobsters descend upon the city. [83] Grau was followed by Carlos Prío Socarrás, also elected democratically, but whose government was tainted by increasing corruption and violent incidents among political factions. Around the same time Fidel Castro had become a public figure at the University of Havana. Eduardo Chibás was the leader of the Partido Ortodoxo (Orthodox Party), a liberal democratic group, who was widely expected to win in 1952 on an anticorruption platform. Chibás committed suicide before he could run for the presidency, and the opposition was left without its major leader. Taking advantage of the opportunity, Batista, who was running for president in the 1952 elections, but was only expected to get a small minority of votes, seized power in an almost bloodless coup three months before the election was to take place. President Prío did nothing to stop the coup, and was forced to leave the island. Due to the corruption of the past two administrations, the general public reaction to the coup was somewhat accepting at first. However, Batista soon encountered stiff opposition when he temporarily suspended the balloting and the constitution, and attempted to rule by decree. Elections were held in 1953 and Batista was elected. Opposition parties mounted a blistering campaign, and continued to do so, using the Cuban free press during all of Batista's tenure in office. Although Batista was intent on lining his pockets, Cuba did flourish economically during his regime. Cuba's wages were among the world's highest. [84] According to International Labor Organization, the average industrial salary in Cuba was the world's 8th highest in The average agricultural wages were higher than in Denmark, West Germany, Belgium, or France. [84][85] Although a third of the population still lived in poverty, Cuba was one of the five most developed countries in Latin America. [86] Only 44% of the population was rural. [87] Gross domestic product per capita was already about equal to Italy and significantly higher than that of countries such as Japan, although 1/6 of the US. [84][88] United Nations described the economy with "one feature of the Cuban social structure is a large middle class". [88] Eight-hour day had been established in 1933, long before other countries. Cuba had a months's paid holiday, nine days' sick leave with pay, six weeks' holiday before and after childbirth. [89]

46 Cuba had Latin America's highest per capita consumption rates of meat, vegetables, cereals, automobiles, telephones and radios. [89][85][90]:186 Televisions per capita was the fifth highest in the world. Despite small size, it had the world's 8th highest number of radio stations (160). According to the United Nations, Cubans read 58 daily newspapers during the late 1950s, only behind three much more populous countries: Brazil, Argentina and Mexico. [91] People migrated to Havana at fast pace. Havana was the world's fourth most expensive city. [79] Havana had more cinemas than New York. [86] Cuba had one of the highest numbers of doctors per capita - more than in the United Kingdom. The mortality rate was the third lowest in the world. According to the World Health Organization, the island had the lowest infant mortality rate of Latin America and the 13th lowest in the world - better than in France, Belgium, West Germany, Israel, Japan, Austria, Italy, Spain, and Portugal. [92][85][93] Cuba had the highest rates of education spending in Latin America. [85] Cuba had the 4th highest literacy in the region at almost 80% according to the United Nations, higher than in Spain. [92][91][93] Economy could not always keep up with demand. Cuba had already the highest telephone penetration in Latin America - but thousands were still waiting, which cause frustration. [87] However, United States was the frame of reference, not Latin America. [79][87] Cubans travelled to America, read American newspapers, listened to American radio, watched American television, and were attracted to American culture. [87] Middle class Cubans dreamed of American economy and the gap between Cuba and the US increasingly frustrated many in the mid [79] The middle class became increasingly dissatisfied with the administration, while labour unions supported Batista until the very end. [79][81] There were large income disparities that were a result of the fact that Cuba's unionized workers enjoyed perhaps the largest privileges in Latin America. [94] Cuban labour unions had established limitations on mechanization and the bans on dismissals. [89] The labour union privileges were obtained in large measure "at the cost of the unemployed and the peasants". [94] Cuba's labour regulations caused economic stagnation. Hugh Thomas asserts that "militant unions succeded in maintaining the position of unionized workers and, consequently, made it difficult for capital to improve efficiency." [95] Between 1933 and 1958, Cuba increased economic regulation enormously. [81] The regulation led to declining investment. [81] World Bank also complained that the Batista administration raised tax burden without assessing its impact. Unemployment was large. Many graduates could not find jobs. [81] Cuban gross domestic product grew at only 1% annual rate during [87] The Cuban Revolution Main article: Cuban Revolution Fidel Castro, a young lawyer from a rich family, who was running for a seat in the Chamber of Representatives for the Partido Ortodoxo, circulated a petition to depose Batista's government on the grounds that it had illegitimately suspended the electoral process. However, the petition was not acted upon by the courts. On 26 July 1953 Castro led a historic attack on the Moncada Barracks near Santiago de Cuba, but failed. Many soldiers were killed by Castro's forces. Castro was captured, tried and sentenced to 15 years in prison. However, he was released by the Batista government in 1956, when amnesty was given to many political prisoners, including the ones that assaulted the Moncada barracks. Castro subsequently went into exile in Mexico where he met Ernesto "Che" Guevara. While in Mexico, he organized the 26th of July Movement with the goal of overthrowing Batista. A group of over 80 men sailed to Cuba on board the yacht Granma, landing in the eastern part of the island in December Despite a pre-landing rising in Santiago by Frank Pais and his followers of the urban pro-castro movement, most of Castro's men were promptly killed, dispersed or taken prisoner by Batista's forces.

47 Castro managed to escape to the Sierra Maestra mountains with about effectives, aided by the urban and rural opposition, including Celia Sanchez and the bandits of Cresencio Perez's family, he began a guerrilla campaign against the regime. Castro's main forces supported by numerous poorly armed escopeteros, and with support from the well armed fighters of the Frank Pais urban organization who at times went to the mountains the rebel army grew more and more effective. The country was soon driven to chaos conducted in the cities by diverse groups of the anti-batista resistance and notably a bloodily crushed rising by the Batista Navy personnel in Cienfuegos. At the same time, rival guerrilla groups in the Escambray Mountains also grew more and more effective. Castro attempted to arrange a general strike in 1958, but did not get support [90][page needed] from Communists or labor unions. United States imposed trade restrictions on the Batista administration and sent an envoy which attempted to persuade Batista to leave the country voluntarily. [79] The middle class was dissatisfied with the unemployment and wanted to restore the 1940 constitution. Batista fled on 1 January Castro took over. Within months of taking control, Castro moved to consolidate power by brutally marginalizing other resistance groups and figures and imprisoning and executing opponents and former supporters. As the revolution became more radical and continued its persecution of those who did not agree with its direction, hundreds of thousands of Cubans fled the island. Castro's Cuba Politics Fidel Castro quickly purged political opponents from the administration. Loyalty to Castro became the primary criteria for all appointments. [96] Groups such as labour unions were made [90][page needed] illegal. By the end of 1960, all opposition newspaper had been closed down and all radio and television stations were in state control. [90]:189 Teachers and professors were purged. [90]:189 The Communist Party strengthened its one-party rule, with Castro as the supreme leader. [90]:189 Moderates were arrested. [90]:189 Fidel's brother Raul Castro became the army chief. [90]:189 In September 1960, the neighborhood watch systems known as committees for the defense of the revolution (CDR) were created. [90]:189 In July 1961, two years after the 1959 Revolution, the Integrated Revolutionary Organizations (IRO) was formed by the merger of Fidel Castro's 26th of July Movement, the Popular Socialist Party led by Blas Roca and the Revolutionary Directory March 13th led by Faure Chomón. On March 26, 1962 the IRO became the United Party of the Cuban Socialist Revolution (PURSC) which, in turn, became the Communist Party of Cuba on October 3, 1965 with Castro as First Secretary. The Communist party remains the only recognized political party in Cuba. Other parties, though not illegal, are unable to campaign or conduct any activities on the island that could be deemed counter-revolutionary. Break with the United States The US recognized the Castro government on 7 January only six days after Batista fled Cuba. President Eisenhower sent a new ambassador, Philip Bonsal, to replace Earl Smith, who had been close to Batista. The Eisenhower administration, in agreement with the US media and the Congress (Republicans and Democrats alike), did this with the assumption that Cuba must remain in the US sphere of influence. If Castro accepted these parameters, he would be allowed to stay in power. Otherwise he would be overthrown. [97] Among the opponents of Batista there were many who wanted to accommodate the US. Castro belonged to a faction who, to the astonishment of Eisenhower and many North Americans, was repulsed by US domination and paternalism. Castro did not forgive the US supply of arms to

48 Batista during the revolution. On 5 June 1958, he wrote: The Americans are going to pay dearly for what they are doing. When the war is over, I ll start a much longer and bigger war of my own: the war I m going to fight against them. That will be my true destiny. [98] (The US had stopped supplies to Batista in March 1958, but left its Military Advisory Group in Cuba [99] ). Thus, Castro had no intention to bow to the US. Even though he did not have a clear blueprint of the Cuba he wanted to create, Castro dreamed of a sweeping revolution that would uproot his country s oppressive socioeconomic structure and of a Cuba that would be free of the United States. [100] Only six months after Castro seized power, the Eisenhower administration began to plot his ouster. The United Kingdom was persuaded to cancel the sale of Hawker Hunter fighter aircraft to Cuba. At the same meeting Roy Rubottom, Assistant Secretary of State for Inter-American Affairs, summarized the evolution of Cuba United States relations since January: "The period from January to March might be characterized as the honeymoon period of the Castro government. In April a downward trend in US-Cuban relations had been evident...in June we had reached the decision that it was not possible to achieve our objectives with Castro in power and had agreed to undertake the program referred to by Mr. Merchant. In July and August we had been busy drawing up a program to replace Castro. However some US companies reported to us during this time that they were making some progress in negotiations, a factor that caused us to slow the implementation of our program. The hope expressed by these companies did not materialize. October was a period of clarification On 31 October in agreement with Central Intelligence Agency, the Department had recommended to the President approval of a program along the lines referred to by Mr. Merchant. The approved program authorized us to support elements in Cuba opposed to the Castro government while making Castro s downfall seem to be the result of his own mistakes." [101] It was probably as part of this program that Cuban exiles mounted sea borne raids against Cuba from US territory and that unidentified planes attacked economic targets on the island, leading the US to warn Washington that the population was becoming aroused against the United States. [102][103] In January 1960, CIA Chief Allen Dulles proposed to sabotage sugar refineries on Cuba. Eisenhower considered such undertakings timely and felt that more ambitious programs should be implemented. In his view it was probably now the time to move against Castro in a positive and aggressive way which went beyond pure harassment. He asked the CIA to develop an enlarged program which was presented in March [104] This program led to the invasion in the Bay of Pigs. [105][106][107][108] In February 1960, the French ship La Coubre was blown up in Havana harbor as it unloaded munitions, killing dozens. Relations between the United States and Cuba deteriorated rapidly as the Cuban government, in reaction to the refusal of Royal Dutch Shell, Standard Oil and Texaco to refine petroleum from the Soviet Union in Cuban refineries under their control, took control of those refineries in July The Eisenhower administration promoted a boycott of Cuba by oil companies, to which Cuba responded by nationalizing the refineries in August Both sides continued to escalate the dispute. Cuba expropriated more US-owned properties, notably those belonging to the International Telephone and Telegraph Company (ITT) and the United Fruit Company. In the Castro government s first agrarian reform law, on 17 May 1959, it sought to limit the size of land holdings, and to distribute that land to small farmers in "Vital Minimum" tracts. The US broke diplomatic relations on 3 January 1961 and imposed the US embargo against Cuba on 3 February The Organization of American States, under pressure from the United States, suspended Cuba's membership in the body on 22 January 1962, and the US Government banned all US-Cuban trade a couple of weeks later on 7 February. The Kennedy administration extended this on 8 February 1963 making travel, financial and commercial transactions by US citizens to Cuba illegal. [109] In April 2009 Barack Obama expressed his intention to relax the existing travel restrictions by making it legal for Americans to travel to Cuba.

49 The embargo is still in effect as of 2008, although some humanitarian trade in food and medicines is now allowed. At first, the embargo did not extend to other countries and Cuba traded with most European, Asian and Latin American countries and especially Canada. But now the United States pressures other nations and US companies with foreign subsidiaries to restrict trade with Cuba. Also, the Helms-Burton Act of 1996 makes it very difficult for companies doing business with Cuba to also do business in the United States, forcing internationals to choose between the two. Bay of Pigs invasion Main article: Bay of Pigs Invasion The Bay of Pigs Invasion (known as La Batalla de Girón in Cuba), was an unsuccessful attempt by a U.S.-trained force of Cuban exiles to invade southern Cuba with support from U.S. government armed forces to overthrow the Cuban government of Fidel Castro. The plan was launched in April 1961, less than three months after John F. Kennedy assumed the presidency in the United States. The Cuban armed forces, trained and equipped by Eastern Bloc nations, defeated the exile combatants in three days. Bad Cuban-American relations were exacerbated the following year by the Cuban Missile Crisis. The Cuban Missile Crisis Main article: Cuban missile crisis Tensions between the two governments peaked again during the October 1962 Cuban missile crisis. The United States had a much larger arsenal of long-range nuclear weapons than the Soviet Union, as well as medium-range ballistic missiles (MRBMs) in Turkey, whereas the Soviet Union had a large stockpile of medium-range nuclear weapons which were primarily located in Europe. Cuba agreed to let the Soviets secretly place SS-4 Sandal and SS-5 Skean MRBMs on their territory. Reports from inside Cuba to exile sources questioned the need for large amounts of ice going to rural areas, which led to the discovery of the missiles, confirmed by Lockheed U-2 photos. The United States responded by establishing a cordon in international waters to stop Soviet ships from bringing in more missiles (designated a quarantine rather than a blockade to avoid issues with international law). At the same time, Castro was getting a little too extreme for the liking of Moscow, so at the last moment the Soviets called back their ships. In addition, they agreed to remove the missiles already there in exchange for an agreement that the United States would not invade Cuba. Only after the fall of the Soviet Union was it revealed that another part of the agreement was the removal of US missiles from Turkey. It also turned out that some submarines that the US Navy blocked were carrying nuclear missiles and that communication with Moscow was tenuous, effectively leaving the decision of firing the missiles at the discretion of the captains of those submarines. In addition, following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Russian government revealed that FROGs (Free Rocket Over Ground) armed with nuclear warheads and Ilyushin Il-28 Beagle bombers armed with nuclear bombs had also been deployed in Cuba. Economy Che Guevara's economic policies ruined the economy until he was sent to Africa in [110] Fidel Castro admitted the failures in a 1970 speech. [110] Military Build-Up In the 1961 New Year's Day parade, the Communist administration exhibited Soviet tanks and other weapons. [96] The Revolution, by 1982, had created the second largest armed forces in Latin America, second only to Brazil, though it was thought not to have the ability to invade another nation (apart from perhaps small Caribbean nations). [111]

50 Repressions Military Units to Aid Production or UMAP s (Unidades Militares para la Ayuda de Producción) (forced labor concentration camps) were established in 1965 as a way to eliminate alleged "bourgeois" and "counter-revolutionary" values in the Cuban population. In July 1968 the name "UMAP" was erased and paperwork associated with the UMAP was destroyed. The camps continued as "Military Units". [112] By 1970s the standard of living was "extremely spartan" and discontent was rife. [110] Castro changed economic policies in the first half of 1970s. [110] In the 1970s unemployment reappeared as problem. The solution was criminalize unemployment with 1971 Anti-Loafing Law; unemployed would be put into jail. [90]:194 One alternative was to go fight Soviet-supported wars in Africa. [90]:194 In any given year, there were about 20,000 dissidents held and tortured under inhuman prison conditions. [90]:194 Homosexuals were imprisoned in internment camps in the 1960s, where they were subject to medical-political "reeducation". [113] The Black Book of Communism estimates that 15,000-17,000 people were executed. [114] Emigration Main article: Cuban exile The establishment of a socialist system in Cuba led to the fleeing of many hundreds of thousands of upper- and middle-class Cubans to the United States and other countries since Castro's rise to power. By 1961, thousands of Cubans had fled Cuba for the United States. On 22 March an exile council was formed. [79] After defeating the Communist regime, the council planned to form a provisional government in which José Miró Cardona (who had become a noted leader in the civil opposition to President Fulgencio Batista) would have served as the temporary president until elections. From 1959 through 1993, some 1.2 million Cubans (about 10% of the current population) left the island for the United States, [115] often by sea in small boats and fragile rafts. In the early years a number of those who could claim dual Spanish-Cuban citizenship left for Spain. Over time a number of Cuban Jews were allowed to emigrate to Israel after quiet negotiations; the majority of the 10,000 or so Jews who were in Cuba in 1959 have left. After the collapse of the Soviet Union many Cubans now reside in a diverse number of countries, some ending up in countries of the European Union. A large number of Cubans live in Mexico and Canada. One major exception to the embargo was made on 6 November 1965 when Cuba and the United States formally agreed to start an airlift for Cubans who wanted to go to the United States. The first of these so-called Freedom Flights left Cuba on 1 December 1965 and by 1971 over 250,000 Cubans had flown to the United States. In 1980, another 125,000 came to US during six-months period in the Mariel boat lift, some of them criminals and people with psychiatric diagnoses. It was discovered that the Cuban government was using the event to rid Cuba of the unwanted segments of its society. Currently, there is an immigration lottery allowing 20,000 Cubans seeking political asylum to go to the United States legally every year. The closest points between Key West and Cuba are at a distance of ninety-four statue miles apart. [116] The ocean separating the two destinations is known for its changing currents and high concentrations of sharks. Volusia County of Florida neighbors the Atlantic Ocean and is considered the "Shark Capital of the World". [117] Nonetheless, a thousand or more Cuban natives take the risk of traveling by small raft or boat to Key West, the southern most part of the continental US. Cuban Involvement in Third World Conflicts

51 From the very beginning the Cuban Revolution defined itself as internationalist and focused on the whole world. Thus, out of this idealism and also as a strategy for survival, already one year after the victory of revolution on Cuba the country took on civil and military assignments in the southern hemisphere. Although still a third world country itself Cuba supported African, Central American and Asian countries in the field of military, health and education. These overseas adventures not only irritated the USA but quite often were a major headache for the Kremlin. [118] The Sandinista insurgency in Nicaragua which lead to the demise of the Somoza-Dictatorship in 1979, was openly supported by Cuba. Quite the contrary was the case on the African continent, where Cuba garnered a number of successes in supporting 17 liberation movements or leftist governments, e. g. Ethiopia, Guinea- Bissau and Mozambique. Among these countries Angola takes an exceptional position. Fidel Castro was a friend of the Marxist-Leninist dictator Mengistu Haile Mariam, whose Marxist- Leninist regime murdered millions during the Red Terror and was later convicted of genocide and crimes against humanity. Castro backed Mengistu Haile Mariam even when the latter had a war with the Somalian Marxist-Leninist dictator Siad Barre. [119][120] Castro described said to Erich Honecker, communist dictator of East Germany, that Siad Barre was "above all a chauvinist". [119] Already in 1961 in its first mission Cuba supported the FLN in Algeria against France. [121] Shortly after Algerian independence Morocco started a border dispute in October 1963 in which Cuba sent troops to help Algeria (see: Sand War ). From a Memorandum of 20 October 1963 by Major Raúl Castro it can be seen, that great importance was attached to the decent behaviour of the troops and good relations giving strict instructions on conduct. [122] In 1965 Cuba supported a rebellion of adherents of Lumumba (Simba Rebellion) in Congo- Leopoldville (today Democratic Republic of the Congo). [123] Among the insurgents was also Laurent-Désiré Kabila who, 30 years later, would overthrow long-time dictator Mobutu. This secret Cuban mission turned out to be a complete failure. [124] In the 1970s and 1980s Cuba stepped up its military presence abroad, especially in Africa. It had up to 50,000 men stationed in Angola, 24,000 in Ethiopia and hundreds in other countries. Cuban forces played a key role in the Ogaden War 1977/78 between Ethiopia and Somalia and kept a substantial garrison stationed in Ethiopia. In the Mozambican Civil War beginning in 1977 and in Congo-Brazzaville (today Republic of the Congo) Cubans acted as advisors. Congo-Brazzaville acted as a supply base for the Angola mission. [125] Cuba's involvement in Angola began in the 1960s when relations were established with the leftist Movement for the Popular Liberation of Angola (MPLA). The MPLA was one of three organisations struggling to liberate Angola from Portugal, the other two being UNITA and the FNLA. In August and October 1975, South African Defence Forces (SADF) invaded Angola in support of the UNITA and FNLA. On 5 November 1975, without consulting the USSR, the Cuban government opted for an all out intervention with combat troops (Operation Carlota) in support of the MPLA. [126][127] In , South Africa again sent military forces to Angola to stop an advance of Angolan government forces (FAPLA) against UNITA leading to the Battle of Cuito Cuanavale, and again, without consulting the USSR, Cuba stepped in. Cuba directly participated in the negotiations between Angola and South Africa. On 22 December 1988 Angola, Cuba and South Africa signed the Tripartite Accord in New York arranging for the retreat of South Africa, the withdrawal of Cuban troops within 30 months and the implementation of the 10-year old UN Security Council Resolution 435 for the independence of Namibia. The Cuban intervention, for a short time, turned Cuba into a global player in the midst of the Cold War. It ended with the independence of Namibia and sounded the bell for the decline of the Apartheid regime in South Africa. The withdrawal of the Cubans ended 13 years of military presence in Angola. At the same time they removed their troops from Pointe Noire Republic of the Congo and Ethiopia. [128][129]

52 Cooperation between Cuban and Soviet Intellegence Services As early as September 1959, Valdim Kotchergin (or Kochergin), a KGB agent, was seen in Cuba. [130][131] Jorge Luis Vasquez, a Cuban who was imprisoned in East Germany, states that the Stasi trained the personnel of the Cuban Interior Ministry(MINIT). [132] The relationship between the Soviet Union's KGB and the Cuban Intelligence Directorate was complex and marked by times of extremely close cooperation and times of extreme competition. The Soviet Union saw the new revolutionary government in Cuba as an excellent proxy agent in areas of the world where Soviet involvement was not popular on a local level. Nikolai Leninov, the KGB Chief in Mexico City, was one of the first Soviet officials to recognize Fidel Castro's potential as a revolutionary and urged the Soviet Union to strengthen ties with the new Cuban leader. The USSR saw Cuba as having far more appeal with new revolutionary movements, western intellectuals, and members of the New Left with Cuba's perceived David and Goliath struggle against US imperialism. Shortly after the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1963, 1,500 DI agents, including Che Guevara, were invited to the USSR for intensive training in intelligence operations. Cuba after the Soviet Union See also: Special Period Starting from the mid-1980s and the collapse of Soviet Union, [133] Cuba experienced a crisis referred to as the "Special Period". In 2008, Fidel Castro transferred power to his brother, Raúl Castro. Cuba remains one of the few socialist states in the world. Although contacts between Cubans and foreign visitors were made legal in 1997, [134][135] extensive censorship has isolated it from the rest of the world. When the Soviet Union broke up in late 1991, a major boost to Cuba's economy was lost, leaving it essentially paralyzed because of the economy's narrow basis, focused on just a few products with just a few buyers. Also, supplies (including oil) almost dried up. Over 80% of Cuba's trade was lost and living conditions worsened. A "Special Period in Peacetime" was declared, which included cutbacks on transport and electricity and even food rationing. In response, the United States tightened up its trade embargo, hoping it would lead to Castro's downfall. But Castro tapped into a pre-revolutionary source of income and opened the country to tourism, entering into several joint ventures with foreign companies for hotel, agricultural and industrial projects. As a result, the use of US dollars was legalized in 1994, with special stores being opened which only sold in dollars. There were two separate economies, dollar-economy and the peso-economy, creating a social split in the island because those in the dollar-economy made much more money (as in the tourist-industry). However, in October 2004, the Cuban government announced an end to this policy: from November US dollars would no longer be legal tender in Cuba, but would instead be exchanged for convertible pesos (since April 2005 at the exchange rate of $1.08) with a 10% tax payable to the state on the exchange of US dollars cash though not on other forms of exchange. A Canadian Medical Association Journal paper states that "The famine in Cuba during the Special Period was caused by political and economic factors similar to the ones that caused a famine in North Korea in the mid-1990s. Both countries were run by authoritarian regimes that denied ordinary people the food to which they were entitled when the public food distribution collapsed; priority was given to the elite classes and the military." [136] The government did not accept American donations of food, medicines and cash until [136] Cubans had to resort to eating anything they could find. In the Havana zoo, the peacocks, the buffalo and even the rhea were reported to have disappeared. [137] Cuban domestic cats disappeared from streets to dinner tables. [137]

53 Extreme shortages of food and other goods as well as electrical blackouts led to a brief period of unrest, including numerous anti-government protests and widespread increases in crime. In response, the Cuban Communist party government formed hundreds of rapid-action brigades to confront protesters. According to the Communist Party daily, Granma, "delinquents and antisocial elements who try to create disorder and an atmosphere of mistrust and impunity in our society will receive a crushing reply from the people." The Tugboat massacre in July 1994 was a massacre of fleeing Cubans. [138] Thousands of Cubans protested in Havana and chanted "Libertad!" during the Maleconazo uprising on August 5th, The regime's security forces dispersed them soon. [139] A paper published in the Journal of Democracy states this was the closest that the Cuban opposition could come to asserting itself decisively. [139] In 1997, a group led by Vladimiro Roca, a decorated veteran of the Angolan war and the son of the founder of the Cuban Communist Party, sent a petition, entitled La Patria es de Todos ("the homeland belongs to all") to the Cuban general assembly requesting democratic and human rights reforms. As a result, Roca and his three associates were sentenced to jail, from which they were eventually released. In 2001, a group of activists collected thousands of signatures for the Varela Project, a petition requesting a referendum on the island's political process was openly supported by former US president Jimmy Carter during his historic 2002 visit to Cuba. The petition gathered sufficient signatures, but was rejected on an alleged technicality. Instead, a plebiscite was held in which it was formally proclaimed that Castro's brand of socialism would be perpetual. In 2003, Castro cracked down on independent journalists and other dissidents, which became known as the "Black Spring". [140][141][142][143] The government imprisoned 75 dissident thinkers, including 29 journalists, [140] librarians, human rights activists and democracy activists. In 2006 Fidel Castro took ill and moved out of the public light and into a hospital, and in 2007 Raul Castro became Acting President. In a letter dated 18 February 2008, Castro announced that he would not accept the positions of president and commander in chief at the 24 February 2008 National Assembly meetings, saying "I will not aspire nor accept I repeat I will not aspire or accept the post of President of the Council of State and Commander in Chief." See Fidel Castro. See also Cuba portal Timeline of Cuban history Spanish colonization of the Americas References 1. ^ Foner, Philip S., A History of Cuba and its relations with The United States, Vol. 1., ^ a b c d e Gott, Richard Cuba: A new history, Yale University Press: 2004, Chapter ^ Inhabitants: Webster's Quotations, Facts and Phrases, p ^ Creating the Guanahatabey (Ciboney): the modern genesis of an extinct culture William F. Keegan (Volume 63, Number 239, June 1989) 5. ^ a b The First Cubans: J.A. Sierra 6. ^ ROUSE, Irving, Handbook of South American Indians, pp

54 7. ^ Order Strigiformes: Animal Diversity Web, Danielle Cholewiak. "The largest owl known to have existed comes from the Pleistocene in Cuba; Ornimegalonyx oteroi was larger than a meter tall with the most powerful claws of all owls" 8. ^ Cuban Ground Sloth Megalocnus rodens: Allen, G. M. Extinct and Vanishing Mammals of the Western Hemisphere. "The groundloth was never observed by Europeans; fossils contemporary with indigenous artifacts and introduced rat fossils indicate survival into colonial era, possibly until 16th Century" 9. ^ William Suárez, The Neotropical Ornithological Society, cuba is cool PDF. 10. ^ Historia de las Indias, vol 3 Biblioteca Ayacucho, Caracus, 1986, pp ^ Carla Rahn Phillips (1993), The Worlds of Christopher Columbus (reprint, illustrated ed.), Cambridge University Press, p. 205, ISBN , ^ Thomas Suarez (1999), Early Mapping of Southeast Asia, Tuttle Publishing, p. 109, ISBN , ^ Bakewell, Peter. A History of Latin America. Blackwell Publishers, pp ^ Willis Fletcher Johnson, The History of Cuba Volume 1, New York, 1920 p ^ Historia de la Construcción Naval en Cuba 16. ^ Las Casas, A Short Account, p ^ a b Thomas, Hugh: Cuba: The Pursuit of Freedom 2nd edition. p ^ Cuban Site Casts Light on an Extinct People Anthony DePalma, The New York Times, 5 July ^ Peter Bakewell. A History of Latin America. Bakewell books. p ^, ^ Gott, Richard: Cuba, A A new history, Yale University Press: 2004, p ^ a b Gott, Richard: Cuba, A A new history, Yale University Press: 2004, p ^ a b Gott, Richard: Cuba, A new history, Yale University Press: 2004, p ^ a b c Thomas, Hugh: Cuba: The Pursuit of Freedom 2nd edition. Chapter One 25. ^ Cantón Navarro, José and Juan Jacomino. History of Cuba: The Challenge of the Yoke and the Star: Biography of a People. Havana, Editoral SI-MAR, 1998, p. 35, ISBN ^ Cuba, coconutxchange.com, December 24, 2003, 6, retrieved ^ Rieu-Millan, Marie Laure. Los diputados americanos en las Cortes de Cádiz: Igualdad o independencia. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1990, 41. ISBN ^ Navarro, José Cantón: History of Cuba, La Habana, 1998, p , ISBN ^ Cuba, coconutxchange.com, 24 December 2003, 6, retrieved ^ Cantón Navarro, José. History of Cuba, p ^ Cantón Navarro, José. History of Cuba. La Habana, 1998, p. 40, ISBN ^ Gabriel de la Concepción Valdés Plácido, afrocubaweb.com, retrieved ^ (in Spanish) Gabriel de la Concepción Valdés Plácido ( ), damisela.com, retrieved ^ (in Spanish) Algo más que un sabio maestro, Cubanet Independente, 18 June 2003, retrieved ^ Worthington, Chauncey Ford: Writings of John Quincy Adams vol. VII, Boston, MA, 2001, p372" 36. ^ Worthington, Chauncey Ford: Writings of John Quincy Adams vol. VII, Boston, MA, 2001, p373" 37. ^ "Worthington, Chauncey Ford: Writings of John Quincy Adams vol. VII, Boston, MA, 2001, p379"

55 38. ^ "Díez de Medina, Raul: Autopsy of the Monroe doctrine The strange story of inter- American relations, New York, NY, 1934, p ^ Cantón Navarro, José. History of Cuba, p ^ Cantón Navarro, José. History of Cuba, p ^ Cantón Navarro, José. History of Cuba, p ^ Cantón Navarro, José. History of Cuba, p ^ a b Foner, Philip: The Spanish-Cuban-American War and the Birth of American Imperialism quoted in: ^ a b c d e f g h i Spanish-Cuban-American War - History of Cuba 45. ^ Cantón Navarro, José. History of Cuba, p ^ Spanish American War Chronology, spanamwar.com, retrieved ^ Cantón Navarro, José. History of Cuba, p ^ Canalejas, José in Cantón Navarro, José. History of Cuba, p ^ The Death Of Cuban General Antonio Maceo, spanamwar.com, Contributed by Larry Daley, retrieved ^ French Ensor Chadwick, The Role of US Coast Guard before entry of US in the war, spanamwar.com, Contributed by Larry Daley, retrieved ^ Cantón Navarro, José. History of Cuba, p ^ PBS, Crucible of Empire: The Spanish-American War, pbs.org, retrieved ^ a b c Cantón Navarro, José. History of Cuba, p ^ W. Joseph Campbell (summer 2000). "Not likely sent: The Remington-Hearst "telegrams"". Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly ^ Offner 1992 pp ; Michelle Bray Davis and Rollin W. Quimby, "Senator Proctor's Cuban Speech: Speculations on a Cause of the Spanish-American War", Quarterly Journal of Speech (2): ISSN ^ Daley#, L El Fortin Canosa en la Cuba del in Los Ultimos Dias del Comienzo. Ensayos sobre la Guerra Hispano-Cubana-Estadounidense. B. E. Aguirre and E. Espina eds. RiL Editores, Santiago de Chile pp ^ The Battles at El Caney and San Juan Hills at HomeOfHeroes.com. 58. ^ Daley 2000, pp ^ The Spanish American War Centennial Website!, spanamwar.com, retrieved ^ Protocol of Peace Embodying the Terms of a Basis for the Establishment of Peace Between the Two Countries, Washington, D.C., U.S.A., 12 August 1898, retrieved ^ Treaty of Peace Between the United States and Spain, The Avalon project at Yale law School, 10 December 1898, retrieved ^ Cantón Navarro, José. History of Cuba, p ^ The Teller Amendment, East Tennessee State University, 1898, retrieved ^ Cantón Navarro, José. History of Cuba, p ^ Cantón Navarro, José. History of Cuba, p ^ Cantón Navarro, José. History of Cuba, p ^ Cantón Navarro, José. History of Cuba, p ^ Cantón Navarro, José. History of Cuba, p ^ Cantón Navarro, José. History of Cuba, p ^ Cantón Navarro, José. History of Cuba, p ^ a b Cantón Navarro, José. History of Cuba, p ^ Cantón Navarro, José. History of Cuba, p ^ A Biography of General Enrique Loynaz del Castillo, spanamwar.com, Contributed by Larry Daley, retrieved

56 74. ^ Charles Magoon ( ), library.thinkquest.org, retrieved ^ Manzanillo, cnctv.cubasi.cu, retrieved ^ Alfredo Zayas, latinamericanstudies.org, retrieved ^ Argote-Freyre, Frank Fulgencio Batista: Volume 1, From revolutionary to strongman. Rutgers University Press, New Jersey. ISBN ^ Chester, Edmund A A Sergeant named Batista. Holt, ASIN B0007DPO1U 79. ^ a b c d e f g h Leslie Bethell (1993). Cuba. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN ^ a b Julia E. Sweig (2004). Inside the Cuban Revolution. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. ISBN ^ a b c d e f g h Jorge I. Domínguez. Cuba. 82. ^ ^ Havana Conference 84. ^ a b c Servando Gonzalez. The Secret Fidel Castro. 85. ^ a b c d "Cuba Before Fidel Castro" ^ a b "The Cuban revolution at 50: Heroic myth and prosaic failure". The Economist. 30 December ^ a b c d e Thomas G. Paterson. Contesting Castro. 88. ^ a b "Andy Garcia's Thought Crime". DA804216B ^ a b c "Cuba: The Unnecessary Revolution" ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Paul H. Lewis. Authoritarian regimes in Latin America. 91. ^ a b "Cuba facts issue 43". December tm. 92. ^ a b Kirby Smith and Hugo Llorens. "Renaissance and decay: A comparison of socioeconomic indicators in pre-castro and current-day Cuba" (PDF). Retrieved ^ a b "Still Stuck on Castro - How the press handled a tyrant's farewell" ^ a b Eric N. Baklanoff. "Cuba on the eve of the socialist transition: A reassessment of the backwardness-stagnation thesis" (PDF). Cuba in Transition. Retrieved ^ Hugh Thomas. Cuba, The Pursuit of Freedom. p. 1173). 96. ^ a b Clifford L. Staten. The history of Cuba. 97. ^ Gleijeses, Piero: Conflicting Missions, Havana, Washington and Africa, , The University of North Carolina Press, 2002, p ^ Castro to Celia Sanches, 5 June 1958 in Franqui: Diary, p ^ Paterson in: Contesting Castro, p ^ Quotations from Unofficial Visit of Prime Minister Castro of Cuba to Washington A Tentative Evaluation, enclosed in Herter to Eisenhower, April 23, 1959, jfrus , 6:483, and Special NIE in: The Situation in the Caribbean through 1959, 30 June 1959, p. 3, NSA 101. ^ NSC meeting, 14 January 1960, FRUS , 6: ^ Braddock to SecState, Havana, 1 February 1960, FRUS , 6: ^ Gleijeses, Piero in: Conflicting Missions, Havana, Washington and Africa, , The University of North Carolina Press, 2002, pp ^ Gray (Eisenhower s special assistant for national security affairs) to Wilson (assistant director, DDEL), 3 December 1974, p. 1, Gray Papers, box 2, DDEL.

57 105. ^ Kornbluh: Bay of Pigs ^ Blight and Kornbluh in: Politics 107. ^ Vandenbroucke in: Perilous Options, p ^ Bissell: Reflections, pp ^ Priestland, Jane (editor) 2003 British Archives on Cuba: Cuba under Castro Archival Publications International Limited, 2003, London ISBN ^ a b c d Leslie Bethell. The Cambridge History of Latin America ^ "CUBAN ARMED FORCES AND THE SOVIET MILITARY PRESENCE" (PDF). Retrieved ^ Agustín Blázquezwith the collaboration of Jaums Sutton. "UMAP: Castro's genocide plan" ^ Katherine Hirschfeld. Health, politics, and revolution in Cuba since ^ Black Book of Communism. p ^ US Census Press Releases 116. ^ ^ Shark Facts 118. ^ Jim Lobe ^ a b Odd Arne Westad. The global Cold War ^ Samuel M. Makinda. Superpower diplomacy in the Horn of Africa ^ Gleijeses, Piero: Conflicting Missions: Havana, Washington, and Africa, (The University of North Carolina Press) 122. ^ (Document from the Centro de Informacion de la Defensa de las Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias, CIDFAR, [Information Centre of the Revolutionary Armed Forces]) 123. ^ Gleijeses, Piero: Conflicting Missions: Havana, Washington, and Africa, (The University of North Carolina Press) 124. ^ Ernesto Che Guevara: "The African Dream" The Diaries of the Revolutionary War in the Congo. With an Introduction by Richard Gott (New York: Grove Press, 2001) 125. ^ Gleijeses, Piero: Conflicting Missions: Havana, Washington, and Africa, (The University of North Carolina Press) 126. ^ Gleijeses, Piero: Conflicting Missions: Havana, Washington, and Africa, (The University of North Carolina Press) 127. ^ Une Odyssee Africaine (France, 2006, 59mn) directed by: Jihan El Tahri 128. ^ Une Odyssee Africaine (France, 2006, 59mn) directed by: Jihan El Tahri 129. ^ Cuba (11/07) 130. ^ (British Foreign Office. Chancery American Department, Foreign Office, London 2 September 1959 (2181/59) to British Embassy Havana classified as restricted Released 2000 by among British Foreign Office papers FOREIGN OFFICES FILES FOR CUBA Part 1: Revolution in Cuba in our letter 1011/59 May 6 we mentioned that a Russian workers' delegation had been invited to participate in the May Day celebrations here, but had been delayed. The interpreter with the party, which arrived later and stayed in Cuba a few days, was called Vadim Kotchergin although he was at the time using what he subsequently claimed was his mother's name of Liston (?). He remained in the background, and did not attract any attention ^ El campo de entrenamiento "Punto Cero" donde el Partido Comunista de Cuba (PCC) adiestra a terroristas nacionales e internacionales, Cuban

58 American Foundation, retrieved (English title: The training camp "Point Zero" where the Communist Party of Cuba (PCC) trained national and international terrorists)... Los coroneles soviéticos de la KGB Vadim Kochergin y Victor Simonov (ascendido a general en 1970) fueron entrenadores en "Punto Cero" desde finales de los años 60 del siglo pasado. Uno de los" graduados" por Simonov en este campo de entrenamiento es Ilich Ramírez Sánchez, más conocido como "Carlos El Chacal". Otro "alumno" de esta instalación del terror es el mexicano Rafael Sebastián Guillén, alias "subcomandante Marcos", quien se "graduó" en "Punto Cero" a principio de los años ^ Levitin, Michael (4 November 2007) ( [dead link] Scholar search ), La Stasi entrenó a la Seguridad cubana, Nuevo Herald, ^ Jorge F. Pérez-López. Cuba's second economy ^ Rennie, David. Cuba 'apartheid' as Castro pulls in the tourists, The Daily Telegraph, 08/06/ ^ Corbett, Ben (2004). This Is Cuba: An Outlaw Culture Survives. Westview Press. p. 33. ISBN ^ a b "Health consequences of Cuba's Special Period". Canadian Medical Association Journal ^ a b "Parrot diplomacy". The Economist. 24 July ^ Maria C. Werlau. "Cuba: The Tugboat Massacre of July 13, 1994" (PDF). Retrieved ^ a b Carl Gershman and Orlando Gutierrez. "Can Cuba Change?". Journal of Democracy January 2009, Volume 20, Number ^ a b Carlos Lauria, Monica Campbell, and María Salazar (18 March 2008). "Cuba's Long Black Spring". The Committee To Protect Journalists ^ "Black Spring of 2003: A former Cuban prisoner speaks". The Committee to Protect Journalists ^ "Three years after "black spring" the independent press refuses to remain in the dark". The Reporters Without Borders ^ "Cuba - No surrender by independent journalists, five years on from black spring " (PDF). The Reporters Without Borders. March Retrieved Further reading Castillo Ramos, Ruben 1956 Muerto Edesio, El rey de la Sierra Maestra (Edesio the king of Sierra Maestra Is Dead ), Bohemia XLVIII No. 9 (12 August 1956) pp and 87 Aviva Chomsky, Barry Carr, and Pamela Maria Smorkaloff (Eds.) The Cuba Reader: History, Culture, Politics (2004) De Paz Sánchez, Manuel Antonio (en colaboración con José Fernández y Nelson López) El bandolerismo en Cuba ( ). Presencia canaria y protesta rural, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, two, 2 vols. Franklin, Jame. Cuba and the United States: A Chronological History, Ocean Press, Gleijeses, Piero. Conflicting Missions: Havana, Washington, and Africa, U. of North Carolina Press, pp.

59 Richard Gott. Cuba: A New History (2004) Hernández, Rafael and Coatsworth, John H., ed. Culturas Encontradas: Cuba y los Estados Unidos Harvard U. Press, pp. Hernández, José M. Cuba and the United States: Intervention and Militarism, U. of Texas Press, pp. Johnson, Willis Fletcher, The History of Cuba, New York : B.F. Buck & Company, Inc., 1920 Kirk, John M. and McKenna, Peter. Canada-Cuba Relations: The Other Good Neighbor Policy. U. Press of Florida, pp. McPherson, Alan. Yankee No! Anti-Americanism in U.S.-Latin American Relations. Harvard U. Press, pp. Morley, Morris H. and McGillian, Chris. Unfinished Business: America and Cuba after the Cold War, Cambridge U. Press, pp. Offner, John L. An Unwanted War: The Diplomacy of the United States and Spain over Cuba, U. of North Carolina Press, pp. Paterson, Thomas G. Contesting Castro: The United States and the Triumph of the Cuban Revolution. Oxford U. Press, pp. Pérez, Louis A., Jr. The War of 1898: The United States and Cuba in History and Historiography. U. of North Carolina Press pp. Pérez, Louis A. Cuba and the United States: Ties of Singular Intimacy. U. of Georgia Press, pp. Perez, Louis A Lords of the Mountain: Social Banditry and Peasant Protest in Cuba, (Pitt Latin American Series) Univ of Pittsburgh Press ISBN Schwab, Peter. Cuba: Confronting the U.S. Embargo New York: St. Martin's, pp. Staten, Clifford L. The History of Cuba (Palgrave Essential Histories) (2005), brief Thomas, Hugh. Cuba or the Pursuit of Freedom (rev ed. 1998) ISBN Tone, John Lawrence. War and Genocide in Cuba, (2006) Walker, Daniel E. No More, No More: Slavery and Cultural Resistance in Havana and New Orleans U. of Minnesota Press, pp. Whitney, Robert W., State and Revolution in Cuba: Mass Mobilization and Political Change, , Chapel Hill and London: University of North Carolina Press, ISBN Zeuske, Michael, Insel der Extreme. Kuba im 20. Jahrhundert (Island of Extremes. Cuba in the 20th Century), Zürich: Rotpunktverlag, 2004 ISBN Zeuske, Schwarze Karibik. Sklaven, Sklavereikulturen und Emanzipation {Black Caribbean. Slaves, Slavery Cultures and Emnacipation}, Zuerich: Rotpunktverlag, 2004 ISBN External links History of Cuba - World History Database History of Cuba Timeline 1908 Catholic Encyclopedia entry on Cuba History of Cuba Online guide's History of Cuba Reflecting on Cuba's Bloody History by Peter Coyote, San Francisco Chronicle, 4 March 2009 Deena Stryker Photographs of Cuba, Duke University Libraries Digital Collections

60 History of Havana Havana La Habana El Capitolio and Great Theatre of Havana Havana (Spanish: 1La Habana (help info), IPA: [la aβana], officially Ciudad de La Habana, [3] ) is the capital city, major port, and leading commercial centre of Cuba. The city is one of the 14 Cuban provinces. The city/province has 2.4 million inhabitants, and the urban area over 3.7 million, making Havana the largest city in both Cuba and the Caribbean region. [4] The city extends mostly westward and southward from the bay, which is entered through a narrow inlet and which divides into three main harbours: Marimelena, Guanabacoa, and Atarés. The sluggish Almendares River traverses the city from south to north, entering the Straits of Florida a few miles west of the bay. In 1959 the city halted its growth, and since then has suffered a net loss of living units, despite its population increase. Coat of arms Nickname(s): Ciudad de las Columnas (Spanish) " City of Columns " King Philip II of Spain granted Havana the title of City in 1592 and a royal decree in 1634 recognized its importance by officially designated as the "Key to the New World and Rampart of the West Indies". [5] Havana's coat of arms carries this inscription. The Spaniards began building fortifications, and in 1553 they transferred the governor's residence to Havana from Santiago de Cuba on the eastern end of the island, thus making Havana the de facto capital. The importance of harbour fortifications was early recognized as English, French, and Dutch sea marauders attacked the city in the 16th century. [6] The sinking of the U.S. battleship Maine in Havana's harbor in 1898 was the immediate cause of the Spanish-American War. [7]

61 Position of Havana in Cuba Coordinates: N W N W Country Province Founded Municipalities Cuba Ciudad de La Habana 1515 a 15[show] Government - Mayor Juan Contino Aslán (PCC) Area Present day Havana is the center of the Cuban government, and various ministries and headquarters of businesses are based there. History The founding of Havana The current Havana area and its natural bay were first visited by Europeans during Sebastián de Ocampo's circumnavigation of the island in [8] Shortly thereafter, in 1510, the first Spanish colonists arrived from Hispaniola and began the conquest of Cuba. - City km 2 (278.4 sq mi) Conquistador Diego Velázquez Elevation 59 m (194 ft) de Cuéllar founded Havana on August 25, 1515 on the southern Population (2005 & 2006 est) [1][2] coast of the island, near the - City 2,400,300 present town of Surgidero de - Density 3,053.5/km 2 (7,908.5/sq mi) Batabanó. Between 1514 and 1519, the city had at least two - Urban 2,700,200 different establishments. All - Metro 3,710,100 attempts to found a city on Time zone EST (UTC-5) Cuba's south coast failed. The city's location was adjacent to a - Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4) superb harbor at the entrance to Postal code 10xxx-19xxx the Gulf of Mexico, and with easy Area code(s) (+53) 7 access to the Gulf Stream, the main ocean current that a Founded on the present site was founded in navigators followed when traveling from the Americas to Europe. This location led to Havana s early development as the principal port of Spain's New World colonies. An early map of Cuba drawn in 1514 places the town at the mouth of the river Onicaxinal, also on the south coast of Cuba. Another establishment was La Chorrera, today in the neighborhood of Puentes Grandes, next to the Almendares River. The final establishment, commemorated by El Templete, was the sixth town founded by the Spanish on the island, called San Cristobal de la Habana by Pánfilo de Narváez: the name combines San Cristóbal, patron saint of Havana, and Habana, of obscure origin, possibly derived from Habaguanex, a native American chief who controlled that area, as mentioned by Diego Velasquez in his report to the king of Spain. A legend relates that Habana was the name of Habaguanex's beautiful daughter, [9] but no known historical source corroborates this version. Havana moved to its current location next to what was then called Puerto de Carenas (literally, "Careening Bay"), in The quality of this natural bay, which now hosts Havana's harbor, warranted this change of location. Bartolomé de las Casas wrote: Contents [hide]

62 ...one of the ships, or both, had the need of careening, which is to renew or mend the parts that travel under the water, and to put tar and wax in them, and entered the port we now call Havana, and there they careened so the port was called de Carenas. This bay is very good and can host many ships, which I visited few years after the Discovery... few are in Spain, or elsewhere in the world, that are their equal... [8] Shortly after the founding of Cuba's first cities, the island served as little more than a base for the Conquista of other lands. Hernán Cortés organized his expedition to Mexico from the island. Cuba, during the first years of the Discovery, provided no immediate wealth to the conquistadores, as it was poor in gold, silver and precious stones, and many of its settlers moved to the more promising lands of Mexico and South America that were being discovered and colonized at the time. The legends of Eldorado and the Seven Cities of Gold attracted many adventurers from Spain, and also from the adjacent colonies, leaving Havana and the rest of Cuba largely unpopulated. 1 History o 1.1 The founding of Havana o 1.2 Pirates and La Flota o th-19th centuries o 1.4 Republican period and Postrevolution 2 Geography o 2.1 Climate 3 City layout o 3.1 Architecture o 3.2 Landmarks 4 Coat of Arms 5 Culture 6 Economy o 6.1 Industry o 6.2 Tourism o 6.3 Commerce and finance 7 Transportation o 7.1 Transport 8 Administration o 8.1 Government o 8.2 Municipios 9 Demographics 10 Infrastructure o 10.1 Education o 10.2 Health o 10.3 Services 11 Sports 12 Notable people born in Havana 13 International relations o 13.1 Sister Cities 14 References o 14.1 Notes o 14.2 Sources 15 External links Pirates and La Flota Havana was originally a trading port, and suffered regular attacks by buccaneers, pirates, and French Paseo del Prado corsairs. The first attack and resultant burning of the city was by the French corsair Jacques de Sores in The pirate took Havana easily, plundering the city and burning much of it to the ground. De Sores left without obtaining the enormous wealth he was hoping to find in Havana. Such attacks convinced the Spanish Crown to fund the construction of the first fortresses in the main cities not only to counteract the pirates and corsairs, but also to exert more control over commerce with the West Indies, and to limit the extensive contrabando (black market) that had arisen due to the trade restrictions imposed by the Casa de Contratación of Seville (the crown-controlled trading house that held a monopoly on New World trade).

63 San Carlos de la Cabaña Fortress To counteract pirate attacks on galleon convoys headed for Spain while loaded with New World treasures, the Spanish crown decided to protect its ships by concentrating them in one large fleet, which would traverse the Atlantic Ocean as a group. A single merchant fleet could more easily be protected by the Spanish Armada. Following Real Fuerza Fortress a royal decree in 1561, all ships headed for Spain were required to assemble this fleet in the Havana Bay. Ships arrived from May through August, waiting for the best weather conditions, and together, the fleet departed Havana for Spain by September. This naturally boosted commerce and development of the El Morro Fortress adjacent city of Havana (a humble villa at the time). Goods traded in Havana included gold, silver, alpaca wool from the Andes, emeralds from Colombia, mahoganies from Cuba and Guatemala, leather from the Guajira, spices, sticks of dye from Campeche, corn, manioc, and cocoa. Ships from all over the New World carried products first to Havana, in order to be taken by the fleet to Spain. The thousands of ships gathered in the city's bay also fueled Havana's agriculture and manufacture, since they had to be supplied with food, water, and other products needed to traverse the ocean. In 1563, the Capitán General (the Spanish Governor of the island) moved his residence from Santiago de Cuba to Havana, by reason of that city's newly gained wealth and importance, thus unofficially sanctioning its status as capital of the island. On December 20, 1592, King Philip II of Spain granted Havana the title of City. Later on, the city would be officially designated as "Key to the New World and Rampart of the West Indies" by the Spanish crown. In the meantime, efforts to build or improve the defensive infrastructures of the city continued. The San Salvador de la Punta castle guarded the west entrance of the bay, while the Castillo de los Tres Reyes Magos del Morro guarded the eastern entrance. The Castillo de la Real Fuerza defended the city's center, and doubled as the Governor's residence until a more comfortable palace was built. Two other defensive towers, La Chorrera and San Lázaro were also built in this period. 17th-19th centuries Havana expanded greatly in the 17th century. New buildings were constructed from the most abundant materials of the island, mainly wood, combining various Iberian architectural styles, as well as borrowing profusely from Canarian characteristics. During this period the city also built civic monuments and religious constructions. The convent of St Augustin, El Morro Castle, the chapel of the Humilladero, the fountain of Dorotea de la Luna in La Chorrera, the church of the Holy Angel, the hospital of San Lazaro, the monastery of Santa Teresa and the convent of San Felipe Neri were all completed in this era. In 1649 a fatal epidemic brought from Cartagena in Colombia, affected a third of the population of Havana. On November 30, 1665, Queen Mariana of Austria, widow of King Philip IV of Spain, ratified the heraldic shield of Cuba, which took as its symbolic motifs the first three castles of Havana: the Real Fuerza, the Tres Santos Reyes Magos del Morro and San Salvador de la Punta. The shield also displayed a symbolic golden key to represent the title "Key to the Gulf". On 1674, the works for the City Walls were started, as part of the fortification efforts. They would be completed by 1740.

64 By the middle of the 18th century Havana had more than seventy thousand inhabitants, and was the third largest city in the Americas, ranking behind Lima and Mexico City but ahead of Boston and New York. [10] The city was captured by the British during the Seven Years' War. The episode began on June 6, 1762, when at dawn, a British fleet, comprising more than 50 ships and a combined force of over 11,000 men of the Royal Navy and Army, sailed into Cuban waters and made an amphibious landing east of Havana. [11] The invaders seized the heights known as La Cabaña on the east side of the harbor and commenced a bombardment of nearby El Morro Castle, as well as the city itself. After a two month siege, [12] El Morro was attacked and taken on 30 July The city formally surrendered on 13 August. [11] It was subsequently governed by Sir George Keppel on behalf of Great Britain. Although the British only lost 560 men to combat injuries during the siege, more than half their forces ultimately died due to illness, yellow fever in particular. The British immediately opened up trade with their North American and Caribbean colonies, causing a rapid transformation of Cuban society. Food, horses and other goods flooded into the city, and thousands of slaves from West Africa were transported to the island to work on the undermanned sugar plantations. [12] Though Havana, which had become the third largest city in the new world, was to enter an era of sustained development and strengthening ties with North America, the British occupation was not to last. Pressure from London by sugar merchants fearing a decline in sugar prices forced a series of negotiations with the Spanish over colonial territories. Less than a year after Havana was seized, the Peace of Paris was signed by the three warring powers thus ending the Seven Years' War. The treaty gave Britain Florida in exchange for Cuba on the recommendation of the French, who advised that declining the offer could result in Spain losing Mexico and much of the South American mainland to the British. [12] Paseo del Prado leading to Parque Central After regaining the city, the Spanish transformed Havana into the most heavily fortified city in the Americas. Construction began on what was to become the Fortress of San Carlos de la Cabaña, the biggest Spanish fortification in the New World. The work extended for eleven years and was enormously costly, but on completion the fort was considered an unassailable bastion and essential to Havana's defence. It was provided with a large number of cannons forged in Barcelona. Other fortifications were constructed, as well: the castle of Atarés defended the Shipyard in the inner bay, while the castle of El Príncipe guarded the city from the west. Several cannon batteries located along the bay's canal (among them the San Nazario and Doce Apóstoles batteries) ensured that no place in the harbor remained undefended. The Havana cathedral was constructed in 1748 as a Jesuit church, and converted in 1777 into the Parroquial Mayor church, after the Suppression of the Jesuits in Spanish territory in In 1788, it formally became a Cathedral. Between 1789 and 1790 Cuba was apportioned into an individual diocese by the Roman Catholic Church. On January 15, 1796, the remains of Christopher Columbus were transported to the island from Santo Domingo. They rested here until 1898, when they were transferred to Seville's Cathedral, after Spain's loss of Cuba.

65 Havana's shipyard (named El Arsenal) was extremely active, thanks to the lumber resources available in the vicinity of the city. The Santísima Trinidad was the largest warship of her time. Launched in 1769, she was about 62 meters long, had three decks and 120 cannons. She was later upgraded to as many as 144 cannons and four decks. She sank following the Battle of Trafalgar in This ship cost pesos fuertes of the time, which gives an idea of the importance of the Arsenal, by comparing its cost to the 26 million pesos fuertes and 109 ships produced during the Arsenal's existence. [13] As trade between Caribbean and North American states increased in the early 19th century, Havana became a flourishing and fashionable city. Havana's theaters featured the most distinguished actors of the age, and prosperity amongst the burgeoning middle-class led to expensive new classical mansions being erected. During this period Havana became known as the Paris of the Antilles. The 19th century opened with the arrival in Havana of Alexander von Humboldt, who was impressed by the vitality of the port. In 1837, the first railroad was constructed, a 51 km stretch between Havana and Bejucal, which was used for transporting sugar from the valley of Guinness to the harbor. With this, Cuba became the fifth country in the world to have a railroad, and the first Spanish-speaking country. Throughout the century, Havana was enriched by the construction of additional cultural facilities, such as the Tacon Teatre, one of the most luxurious in the world, the Artistic and Literary Liceo (Lyceum) and the theater Coliseo. In 1863, the city walls were knocked down so that the metropolis could be enlarged. At the end of the century, the well-off classes moved to the quarter of Vedado. Later, they emigrated towards Miramar, and today, evermore to the west, they have settled in Siboney. At the end of the 19th century, Havana witnessed the final moments of Spanish colonialism in America, which ended definitively when the United States warship Maine was sunk in its port, giving that country the pretext to invade the island. The 20th century began with Havana, and therefore Cuba, under occupation by the USA. In 1906 the Bank of Nova Scotia opened the first branch in Havana. By 1931 it had three branches in Havana. Republican period and Post-revolution During the Republican Period, from 1902 to 1959, the city saw a new era of development. All endeavors of industry and Centro Habana district commerce grew very rapidly. Cuba recovered from the devastation of war to become a well-off country, with the third largest middle class in the hemisphere, and Havana, the Capital of the country, became know as the Paris of the Caribbean. Construction was an important industry. Apartment buildings to accommodate the new middle class, as well as mansions for the Cuban tycoons, were built at a fast pace. Numerous luxury hotels, casinos and nightclubs were constructed during the 1930s to serve Havana's burgeoning tourist industry, strongly rivaling Miami. In the thirties, Museo de la Revolución organized crime characters were not unaware of Havana's nightclub and casino life, and they made their inroads in the city. Santo Trafficante, Jr. took the roulette wheel at the Sans Souci, Meyer Lansky directed the Hotel Habana Riviera, Lucky Luciano, the Hotel Nacional Casino, and the Havana Hilton owned by the Hospitality Workers Retirement Fund was Latin America's tallest, largest hotel. At the time Havana became an exotic capital of appeal and numerous activities ranging from marinas, grand prix car racing, musical shows and parks. The spectacular development and opportunity offered by Cuba in general and

66 Havana in particular, made the island a magnet for immigration. Cuba received millions of immigrants from all corners of the world during the Republic. It received so many Spaniards, that today it is estimated that one quarter of the Cuban population descends from Spanish immigrants. Havana achieved the title of being the Latin American city with the biggest middle class population per-capita simultaneously accompanied by gambling and corruption where gangsters and stars were known to mix socially. During this era, Havana was generally producing more revenue than Las Vegas, Nevada. A gallery of black and white portraits from the era still adorn the walls of the bar at the Hotel National, including pictures of Frank Sinatra with Ava Gardner, Marlene Dietrich and Gary Cooper. In 1958, about 300,000 American tourists visited the city. One of the most well-known visitors and resident to the area was the American author Ernest Hemingway ( ), who quoted "in terms of beauty, only Venice and Paris surpassed Havana", Hemingway wrote several of his famous novels in Cuba and lived there the last 22 years of his life. [14] Havana had 135 cinemas at that time more than Paris or New York City. [15][16] After the revolution of 1959, the communists (who had denied being communist up to that point) promised to improve social services, public housing, and official buildings; nevertheless, shortages that affected Cuba after Castro's abrupt expropriation of all private property and industry under a strong communist model backed by the Soviet Union followed by the U.S. embargo, hit Havana especially hard. As a result, today much of Havana is in a dilapidated state. By , the Cuban government had nationalized all privately owned business entities in Cuba, down to "certain kinds of small retail forms of commerce" (law No [17] ). Most of these laws and economic restrictions still remain today. Havana and Cuba in general transformed from an immigrant receiver, to one the largest emigration generators in the world. Today almost 15% of the total Cuban population lives abroad, even despite the fact that free travel is banned by the regime. There was a severe economic downturn after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and with it the end of the billions of dollars in subsidies the Soviet Union gave the Cuban government, with many believing Havana's soviet backed regime would soon vanish, as it happened to the Soviet satellite states of Eastern Europe. However, contrary to the soviet satellite states of Eastern Europe, Havana's communist regime prevailed during the 1990s in big part because the international community didn't apply the same significant level of isolation and pressure, if any. The worsening situation has been illustrated by the favorite joke in the summer of Soon after Fidel Castro came to power, the signs in the Havana Zoo were changed from "don't feed the animals" to "don't eat the animal's food". During the Special Period, the signs begged visitors not to eat the animals. [18][19] Indeed, the peacocks, the buffalo and even the rhea reportedly disappeared from the Havana zoo. [19] After 50 years of prohibition, the socialist government increasingly turned to tourism for new financial revenue, and has allowed foreign investors to build new hotels and develop hospitality industry. Paradoxically, while foreign investment is welcome, Cubans are forbidden to participate. The Cuban population is only allowed to work as cooks, gardeners and taxi-drivers, but not to become owners or investors of any property. For these reason among others, tourism industry in during the socialist revolution has failed to generate the projected revenues. At its peak, tourists coming from Canada and Western European nations, generated approximately 2 billion dollars annually according to National Geographic, but that amount has fallen sharply since then. An effort has also gone into rebuilding Old Havana for tourist purposes and a number of streets and squares have been rehabilitated. [20] But Old Havana is a large city, and the restoration efforts concentrate in all but less than 10% of its area. Sadly, not only Old Havana, but the city as a whole, looks today as a victim of intense bombardment, and is crumbling down very rapidly. For a city of 2.5 million people, there is not a single hardware store that sells construction materials to the population. For a Havana resident among the hardest finds is a hammer and a box of nails.

67 Geography The city extends mostly westward and southward from the bay, which is entered through a narrow inlet and which divides into three main harbours: Marimelena, Guanabacoa, and Atarés. The sluggish Almendares River traverses the city from south to north, entering the Straits of Florida a few miles west of the bay. The low hills on which the city lies rise gently from the deep blue waters of the straits. A noteworthy elevation is the 200-foot- (60-metre-) high limestone ridge that slopes up from the east and culminates in the heights of La Cabaña and El Morro, the sites of colonial fortifications overlooking the bay. Another notable rise is the hill to the west that is occupied by the University of Havana and the Prince's Castle. Climate Havana, like much of Cuba, enjoys a pleasant year-round tropical climate that is tempered by the island's position in the belt of the trade winds and by the warm offshore currents. Average temperatures range from 72 F (22 C) in January and February to 82 F (28 C) in August. The temperature seldom drops below 50 F (10 C). The lowest temperature was 33 F (1 C) in Santiago de Las Vegas, Boyeros. The lowest recorded temperature in Cuba was 32 F (0 C) in Bainoa, Havana province. Rainfall is heaviest in June and October and lightest from December through April, averaging 46 inches (1.2 m)illimetres) annually. Hurricanes occasionally strike the island, but they ordinarily hit the south coast, and damage in Havana is normally less than elsewhere in the country. On the night of July 8-9, 2005, the eastern suburbs of the city took a direct hit from Hurricane Dennis, with 100 mph (160 km/h) winds. The storm whipped fierce 10-foot (3.0 m) waves over Havana's seawall, and its winds tore apart pieces of some of the city's crumbling colonial buildings. Chunks of concrete fell from the city's colonial buildings. At least 5,000 homes were damaged in Havana's surrounding province. [21] Three months later, in October 2005, the coastal regions suffered severe flooding following Hurricane Wilma. The table below lists temperature averages throughout the year: Weather data for Havana, Cuba Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Average high F ( C) Average low F ( C) 78 (26) 65 (18) 79 (26) 65 (18) 81 (27) 67 (19) 83 (28) 69 (21) Precipitatio n inches (63.5 (68.6 (45.7 (mm) ) ) ) Source: weather.com [22] City layout 2.10 (53.3 ) 85 (29) 72 (22) 3.90 (99.1 ) 86 (30) 74 (23) 7.20 (182.9 ) 90 (32) 75 (24) 4.20 (106.7 ) 88 (31) 75 (24) 3.90 (99.1 ) 87 (31) 74 (23) 5.70 (144.8 ) 84 (29) 73 (23) 7.10 (180.3 ) 81 (27) 70 (21) 3.50 (88.9 ) 79 (26) 67 (19) 2.30 (58.4 ) Contemporary Havana can essentially be described as three cities in one: Old Havana, Vedado, and the newer suburban districts. Old Havana, with its narrow streets and overhanging balconies, is the traditional centre of part of Havana's commerce, industry, and entertainment, as well as being a residential area. To the north and west a newer section, centred on the uptown area known as Vedado, has become the rival of Old Havana for commercial activity and nightlife. Centro Habana, sometimes described as part of Vedado, is mainly a shopping district that lies between Vedado and Old Havana. The Capitolio Nacional marks the beginning of Centro Habana, a working class

68 neighborhood. [23] Chinatown and the Real Fabrica de Tabacos Partagás, one of Cuba's oldest cigar factories is located in the area. [24] A third Havana is that of the more affluent residential and industrial districts that spread out mostly to the west. Among these is Marianao, one of the newer parts of the city, dating mainly from the 1920s. Some of the suburban exclusivity was lost after the revolution, many of the suburban homes having been nationalized by the Cuban government to serve as schools, hospitals, and government offices. Several private country clubs were converted to public recreational centres. Miramar located west of Vedado along the coast, remains Havana's exclusive area; mansions, foreign embassies, diplomatic residences, upscale shops, and facilities for wealthy foreigners are common in the area. [25] The International School of Havana is located in the Miramar neighborhood. In the 1980s many parts of Old Havana, including the Plaza de Armas, became part of a projected 35-year multimillion-dollar restoration project. The government sought to instil in Cubans an appreciation of their past and also to make Havana more enticing to tourists in accordance with the government's effort to boost tourism and thus increase foreign exchange. In the past ten years, with the assistance of foreign aid and under the support of local city historian Eusebio Leal Spengler, large parts of Habana Vieja have been renovated. The city is moving forward with their renovations, with most of the major plazas (Plaza Vieja, Plaza de la Catedral, Plaza de San Francisco and Plaza de Armas) and major tourist streets (Obispo and Mercaderes) near completion. Architecture Neo-classical Havana is unique due to its unrivalled rhythmic arcades built largely by Spanish immigrants. Many interior patios remain similar to designs in Seville, Cadiz and Granada. Neo-classicism affected all new buildings in Havana and can be seen all over the city. Many urban features were introduced into the city at the time including Gas public lighting in 1848 and the railroad in In the second half of the 18th century, sugar and coffee production increased rapidly, which became essential in the development of Havana's most prominent architectural style. Many wealthy Habaneros took their inspiration from the French; this can be seen within the interiors of upper class houses such as the Aldama Palace built in This is considered the most important neoclassical residential building in Cuba and typifies the design of many houses of this period with portales of neoclassical columns facing open spaces or courtyards. In 1925 Jean-Claude Nicolas Forestier, the head of urban planning in Paris moved to Havana for five years to collaborate with architects and landscape designers. In the master planning of the city his aim was to create a harmonic balance between the classical built form and the tropical landscape. He embraced and connected the city s road networks while accentuating prominent landmarks. His influence has left a huge mark on Havana although many of his ideas were cut short by the great depression in During the first decades of the 20th century Havana expanded more rapidly than at any time during its history. Great wealth prompted architectural styles to be influenced from abroad. The peak of Neoclassicism came with the construction of the Vedado district (begun in1859). This whole neighbourhood is littered with set back wellproportioned buildings. Colonial and Baroque Great riches were brought from the colonialists into and through Havana as it was a key transshipment point between the new world and old world. As a result Havana was the most heavily fortified city in the Americas. Most examples of early architecture can be seen in military fortifications such as La Fortaleza de San Carlos de la Cabana ( ) designed by Juan Antonelli and the Castillo del Morro ( ). This sits at the entrance of Havana Bay and

69 provides an insight into the supremacy and wealth at that time. Old Havana was also protected by a defensive wall begun in 1674 but had already overgrown its boundaries when it was completed in 1767, becoming the new neighbourhood of Centro Habana. Great Theatre of Havana The influence from different styles and cultures can be seen in Havana's colonial architecture, with a diverse range of Moorish, Spanish, Italian, Greek and Roman. The Convento de Santa Clara ( th century) is a good example of early Spanish influenced architecture. Its great hall resembles an inverted ship and shows the skill of early craftsmen. The Havana cathedral ( ) dominating the Plaza de la Catedral (1749) is the best example of Cuban Baroque. Surrounding it are the former palaces of the Count de Casa-Bayona ( ) Marquis de Arcos (1746) and the Marquis de Aguas Claras ( ). Art Nouveau, Art Deco and Eclectic At the turn of the 20th century Havana, along with Buenos Aires, was the grandest and most important Latin American city in terms of architecture. This boom period known as vacas gordas (fat cows) demonstrates huge examples of buildings from the international influences of art nouveau, art deco and eclectic. Its suburbs developed to what we see today as Miramar, Marianao, Vedado and Playa. The lush Lonja del Comercio and wealthy Miramar was set out on the American street grid pattern and became a home to diplomats and foreigners. The railway terminal (1912) and the University of Havana, ( ) and the Capitolio ( ) are a good example of the art nouveau style. The Capitolio dome was at 62 meters the highest point in the city and an example of the influence and wealth deriving from the USA at the time. The Lopez Serrano building built in 1932 by Ricardo Mira was the first tall building in Cuba and inspired by the Rockefeller Center in New York. Its design influence can be seen in many buildings in Miami and Los Angeles. El Capitolio The Edificio Bacardi (1930) is one of Havana's grandest buildings and its best example of Art Deco. Located on a small knoll overlooking the entrance to Havana Bay, is the art-deco style Hotel Nacional de Cuba; originally built in through a joint agreement with the Cuban government and U.S.-based bank. Modernism Havana, like Las Vegas in the 40s and 50s developed from marketing itself as a destination for gambling and holidays in the sun. Many high-rise office buildings, and apartment complexes, along with some hotels built in the 1950s dramatically altered the skyline. Modernism, therefore, transformed much of the city and should be noted for its individual buildings of high quality rather than its larger key buildings. Examples of the latter are Habana Libre (1958), which before the revolution was the Havana Hilton Hotel and La Rampa movie theater (1955). Famous architects such as Walter Gropius, Richard Neutra and Oscar Niemeyer all passed through the city while strong influences can be seen in Havana at this time from Le Corbusier and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe.

70 "President's avenue" in modern Havana many other post-1959 projects never materialized. Landmarks The Edificio Focsa (1956) represents Havana's economic dominance at the time. This 35-story complex was conceived and based on Corbusian ideas of a selfcontained city within a city. It contained 400 apartments, garages, a school, a supermarket, and restaurant on the top floor. This was the tallest concrete structure in the world at the time (using no steel frame) and the ultimate symbol of luxury and excess. The Havana Riviera Hotel (1957) designed by Irving Feldman, a twenty-one-story, 440-room edifice, towering above the Malecon in Havana was another angular and futuristic building build on the Vedado area impressive for its era. When it opened, the Riviera was the largest purpose-built casino-hotel in Cuba or anywhere in the world, outside Las Vegas (the Havana Hilton (1958) surpassed its size a year later). It was owned by the Caja de Retiro Gastronómico (Hospitality Workers retirement Fund) to equal the comfort and contemporary luxury of any Las Vegas hotel of the era. Jose Luis Sert had also designed an artificial island off the Malecón whose construction was planned to take place in the 1960s. It was to incorporate huge modern towers, hotels, casinos, and shopping centers which would cater for the city's growing tourism. This like Fortaleza San Carlos de la Cabaña, a fortress located on the east side of the Havana bay, La Cabaña is the most impressive fortress from colonial times, particularly its walls constructed (at the same time as El Morro) at the end of the 18th century. El Capitolio Nacional, built in 1929 as the Senate and House of Representatives, this colossal building is recognizable by its dome which dominates the city's skyline. Inside stands the third "Malecon" avenue in Havana largest indoor statue in the world, La Estatua de la República. Nowadays, the Cuban Academy of Sciences headquarters and the Museo Nacional de Historia Natural (the National Museum of Natural History) has its venue within the building and contains the largest natural history collection in the country. Castillo de los Tres Reyes Magos del Morro is a picturesque fortress guarding the entrance to Havana bay, constructed because of the threat to the harbor from pirates. Castillo San Salvador de la Punta, a small fortress built in the 16th century, at the western entry point to the Havana harbour, it played a crucial role in the defence of Havana during the first centuries of colonisation. The fortress still houses some twenty old guns and other military antiques. El Cristo de La Habana, Havana's statue of Christ blesses the city from the other side of the bay, much like the famous Cristo Redentor in Rio de Janeiro. Carved from marble by Jilma Madera, it was erected in 1958 on a platform which makes a good spot from which to watch old Havana and the harbor.

71 The Great Theatre of Havana, famous particularly for the acclaimed National Ballet of Cuba, it sometimes hosts performances by the National Opera. The theater is also known as concert hall, Garcia Lorca, the biggest in Cuba. Hotel Nacional de Cuba, Art Deco National Hotel. El Malecón Habanero, the avenue that runs beside the seawall built along the northern shore of Havana, from Habana Vieja to the Almendares River, it forms the southern boundary of Old Havana, Centro Habana and Vedado. Museo de la Revolución, located in the former Presidential Palace, with the yacht Granma on display behind the museum. Necrópolis Cristóbal Colón, a cemetery and open air museum, [26] it is one of the most famous cemeteries in Latin America, known for its beauty and magnificence. The cemetery was built in 1876 and has nearly one million tombs. Some of the gravestones are decorated with the works of sculptors of the calibre of Ramos Blancos, among others. Coat of Arms Main article: Seal of Havana Culture Havana, by far the leading cultural centre of the country, offers a wide variety of features that range from museums, palaces, public squares, avenues, churches, fortresses (including the largest fortified complex in the Americas dating from the 16th through 18th centuries), ballet and from art and musical festivals to exhibitions of technology. The restoration of Old Havana offered a number of new attractions, including a museum to house relics of the Cuban revolution. The government placed special emphasis on cultural activities, many of which are free or involve only a minimal charge. Parque Central cemetery of bookshops, markets, shops...". [16] Before the Communists, Havana cinema rivalled New York City and Paris. As Guillaume Carpentier put it in a Le Monde article, "with nationalisation, they closed one by one, for lack of maintenance, films or electricity... Havana, Cubans complain, is a cemetery of cinemas. It is also a Old Havana Main article: Old Havana Old Havana, (La Habana Vieja in Spanish), contains the core of the original city of Havana, it is the richest colonial set of Latin America. Havana Vieja was founded by the Spanish in 1519 in the natural harbor of the Bay of Havana. It became a stopping point for the treasure laden Spanish Galleons on the crossing between the New World and the Old World. In the 17th century it was one of the main shipbuilding centers. The city was built in baroque and neoclassic style. Many buildings have fallen in ruin but a number are being restored. The narrow streets of old Havana contain many buildings, accounting for perhaps as many as one-third of the approximately 3,000 buildings found in Old Havana. [27] Old Havana is the ancient city formed from the port, the official center and the Plaza de Armas. Alejo Carpentier called Old Havana the place "de las columnas" (of the columns). The Cuban government is taking many steps to preserve and to restore Old Havana, through the Office of the city historian, directed by Eusebio Leal. [28] Old Havana and its fortifications were added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in [29]

72 Chinatown Further information: Chinese Cuban Havana's Chinatown district. The paifang (arch) is located on Dragones street. Museum of the Revolution ballroom Havana's Chinatown (Barrio Chino), once Latin America's largest and most vibrant Chinatown incorporated into the city by the early part of the 20th century when hundreds of thousands of Chinese workers were brought in by Spanish settlers from Guangdong, Fujian, Hong Kong, and Macau during Ballet Nacional de Cuba during a performance in the Great Theater of Havana the following decades to replace and / or work alongside African slaves. After completing 8-year contracts or otherwise obtaining their freedom, many Chinese immigrants settled permanently in Havana. The Chinatown neighborhood was booming with Chinese restaurants, laundries, banks, pharmacies, theaters and several Chinese-language newspapers, the neighborhood comprised 44 square blocks during its prime. [30] The heart of Havana's chinatown is on el Cuchillo de Zanja (or The Zanja Canal). The strip is a pedestrian-only street adorned with many red lanterns, dancing red paper dragons and other Chinese cultural designs, there is a great number of restaurants that serve a full spectrum of Chinese dishes. The Chinatown district has two paifang, a large one located on Calle Dragones, the materials were donated in the late 90s by the People's Republic of China, [31] it has a well defined written welcoming sign in Chinese and Spanish. The smaller arch is located on Zanja strip. The Cuban's Chinese boom ended when Fidel Castro's 1959 revolution seized private businesses, sending tens of thousands of business-minded Chinese fleeing, mainly to the United States. Descendants are now making efforts to preserve and revive the culture. Museum of Fine Arts on Montserrate y Trocadero Only one of what were once four Chinese-language newspapers remains in Havana, Kwong Wah Po, written by Abel Fung, member of the Promotional Group of Chinatown. [32] The newspaper is not subject to state censorship. To tie in with the Revolution's economic reliance on tourism, attempts have recently been launched to attract revitalization investment for Chinatown from state-run enterprises of the People's Republic of China and overseas Chinese private investors, particularly Chinese Canadians. In addition, Chinatown is today the only area granted autonomy from many laws that govern the rest of Cuba. Restaurants, for example, are not state run nor are they subject to the laws of private restaurants in that they are allowed to have more than 12 seats as well as serve seafood. Visual arts

73 A small palace located on 17th Street and E, is the very well maintained neo-classical mansion of the Countess of Revilla de Camargo, today it is the Museum of Decorative Arts (Museo de Artes Decorativas), known as the small French Palace of Havana built between 1924 and 1927, it was designed in Paris by architects P. Virad and M. Destuque, inspired in French Renaissance. [33] A lavish display of 18th and 19th century European treasures that recall a time when Havana was known as the Paris of the Antilles, and many luxury goods, including porcelain from Worcester, Meissen and Sevres, were imported. [34] In the French room, a marble bust of Marie Antoinette smiles demurely, her graceful neck intact. There is another room full of Chinese screens, another one featuring English furniture and landspcape painting. For more than 40 decades the museum has been exhibiting more than 33,000 works dating from the reigns of Louis XV, Louis XVI, and Napoleon III; as well as XVI to XX Century Oriental pieces, among many other treasures. [35] The Museum has ten permanent exhibit halls with works that range from the XVI to the XX centuries. Among them are prominent porcelain articles from the factories in Sèvres and Chantilly, France; Meissen, Germany; and Wedgwood, England, as well as Chinese from the Kien Lung period and Japanese from the Imari. The furniture comes from Leonard Boudin, Simoneau, Jean Henri Riesener and several others. The National Museum of Fine Arts is a Fine Arts museum that exhibits Cuban art collections from the colonial times up to contemporary generation. There are two impressive buildings, one dedicated to Cuban Art and the Universal Art, in the former Asturian Center, [36] the former Fine Arts Museum built in 1954 is dedicated exclusively to housing Cuba Art collections. Several museums in Old Havana contain furniture, silverware, pottery, glass and other items from the colonial period. A great one of these is the Palace of the General Captains, where Spanish governors once lived. The Casa de Africa presents another aspect of Cuba's history, an impressive collection of Afro-Cuban religious artifacts. The Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes containing works by Rubens, Goya and Velazquez is now closed for renovations; it is open to public at a temporary location on Calle Trocadero until renovations are complete. Other museums includes Casa de los Árabes and the Casa de Asia with Middle and Far Eastern collections. Many of these small boutiques museums are in elegant old Spanish architecture houses with airy courtyards. The Museo de Finanzas is more than an empty vault where dictator Fulgencio Batista once stashed his loot. A few old bank-notes are displayed on the walls. Havana's Museo del Automobil has an impressive collection of vehicles dating back to a 1905 Cadillac. In the Automobile museum there is also a Rolls Royce which belonged to Batista, near the 1960 Chevrolet that Che Guevara drove. The Museum of the Revolution (Museo de la Revolución), designed in Havana by Cuban architect Maruri, and the Belgian Jean Beleu, who came up with an eclectic design, harmoniously combines Spanish, French and German architectural elements. The museum was the Presidential Palace, today, its displays and documents outline Cuba's history from the beginning of the neo-colonial period. As most museums of Havana are situated in Old Havana few of them could also be found in Vedado. In total, Havana has around 50 museums, including the Museum of Fine Art, the Revolution and Decorative Arts; the National Museum of Music; the Museum of Dance and Rum; the Cigar Museum; the Napoleonic, Colonial and Oricha Museums; the Museum of Antropology; the Ernest Hemingway Museum; the Jose Marti Monument; Museums of Natural Sciences, the City, Archeology Museum, and Gold-and Silverwork. Also the Aircraft, Parfume, Pharmaceutical, Sports, Numismatic and Weapons Museums. Performing arts After the sun sets, Havana's performing arts come to life. Facing the Central Park is the baroque Great Theatre of Havana, a prominent theatre built in It is now home of the National Ballet of Cuba and the International Ballet Festival of Havana, one of the oldest in the New World and remarkably was once the most technologically advanced in the world, thanks to the Italian scientist, Antonio Meucci. [37]

74 Meucci's ingenious spirit lives on in the theatre. Located in the Paseo de Prado in a building known as the Palacio del Centro Gallego. The façade of the building is adorned with a stone and marble statue. There are also sculptural pieces by Giuseppe Moretti, [38] representing allegories depicting benevolence, education, music and theatre. The principal theatre is the García Lorca Auditorium, with seats for 1,500 and balconies. Glories of its rich history; the Italian tenor Enrico Caruso sang, the Russian ballerina Anna Pavlova danced, and the French Sarah Bernhardt acted. Another grand theatre is the National Theater of Cuba, housed in a huge modern building, decorated with works by Cuban artists. There are two main theatre stages, the Avellaneda hall and the Covarrubias hall, as well as a smaller theatre workshop space on the ninth floor. The Karl Marx Theater is the venue has an enormous auditorium with seating capacity of 5500 people, and is generally used for big shows by stars from Cuba and abroad. The theatre is also a major concert venue for both local and international artists; singer-songwriters such as Carlos Varela, Silvio Rodríguez and Pablo Milanés, are just a few of the famous artists who have graced this particular stage. More recently, this was the scene of a concert by British pop group The Manic Street Preachers. Economy Industry Havana's economy first developed on the basis of its location, which made it one of the early great trade centres in the New World. Sugar and a flourishing slave trade first brought riches to the city, and later, after independence, it became a renowned resort. Despite efforts by Fidel Castro's government to spread Cuba's industrial activity to all parts of the island, Havana remains the centre of much of the nation's industry. The traditional sugar industry, upon which the island's Chinese cargo ship leaving the economy has been based for three centuries, is centred harbour elsewhere on the island and controls some three-fourths of the export economy. But light manufacturing facilities, meat-packing plants, and chemical and pharmaceutical operations are concentrated in Havana. Other food-processing industries are also important, along with shipbuilding, vehicle manufacturing, production of alcoholic beverages (particularly rum), textiles, and tobacco products, particularly the world-famous Habanos cigars. [39] Although the harbours of Cienfuegos and Matanzas, in particular, have been developed under the revolutionary government, Havana remains Cuba's primary port facility; 50% of Cuban imports and exports pass through Havana. The port also supports a considerable fishing industry. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the United States embargo against Cuba, Havana and the rest of Cuba suddenly plunged into its worst economic crisis since before the 1959 Revolution, the crisis was known officially as the Special Period in Time of Peace. The effects of the Special Period and consequent food shortages have had greatest repercussions in the city of Havana. In addition to the decline in food production needed to serve the capital, there is also a shortage of petroleum necessary to transport, refrigerate, and store food available from the rural agricultural sector. Havana has been designated as a priority in the National Food Program; urban gardening has figured critically among the many measures taken to enhance food security. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Cuba re-emphasized tourism as a major industry leading to its recovery. Tourism is now Havana and Cuba's primary economic source. [40] Tourism Before the Cuban Revolution and particularly from 1915 to tourism was one of Cuba s major sources of hard currency (behind only the sugar and tobacco industries). Havana, where a

75 kind of laissez-faire attitude in all things leisurely was the norm, was the Caribbean s most popular destination, particularly with US citizens, who sought to skirt the restrictions of prohibition America. Following a severe drop in the influx of tourists to the island (resulting, primarily, from the Great Depression, the end of prohibition in the United States and the outbreak of World War II), Havana began to welcome visitors in significant numbers again in the 1950s, when US organized crime secured control of much of the leisure and tourism industries in the country. This was a time when Cuba s foreign minister boasted that Havana spent as much on parties as any major capital in the world, when the island was the mob s most secure link in the drug-trafficking chain which culminated in the United States and when the country s justified reputation for sensuality and dolce vita pursuits earned it the appellation of the Latin Las Vegas. Meyer Lansky built the Hotel Riviera, Santo Trafficante came to own shares in the Sevilla and a casino was opened at the Hotel Plaza during this time. It was tourism s association to the world of gambling and prostitution which made the revolutionary government established in 1959 approach the entire sector as a social evil to be eradicated. Many bars and gambling venues were closed down following the revolution and a government body, the National Institute of the Tourism Industry, took over many facilities (traditionally available to wealthy) to make them accessible to the general public. With the deterioration of Cuba US relations and the imposition of a trade embargo on the island in 1961, tourism dropped drastically and did not return to anything close to its pre-revolution levels until The revolutionary government in general, and Fidel Castro in particular, initially opposed any considerable development of the tourism industry, linking the sphere to the debauchery and criminal activities of times past. In the late 1970s, however, Castro changed his stance and, in 1982, the Cuban government passed a foreign investment code which opened a number of sectors, tourism included, to foreign capital. Through the creation of firms open to such foreign investment (such as Cubanacan, established in 1987), Cuba began to attract capital for hotel development, managing to increase the number of tourists from 130,000 (in 1980) to 326,000 (by the end of that decade). As a result of the collapse of the Soviet Union and its Eastern European allies in 1989 and early 90s, Cuba was plunged into a severe economic crisis and saw itself in desperate need of foreign currency. The answer, again, was found in tourism, and the Cuban government spent considerable sums in the industry to attract visitors. Following heavy investment, by 1995, the industry had become Cuba s main source of income. Commerce and finance After the Revolution, Cuba's traditional capitalist, American dominated, free-enterprise system was replaced by a heavily socialized economic system. The majority of business in Cuba is in the hands of the state. In Havana Cuban-owned businesses and U.S.-owned businesses were nationalized and today most businesses operate solely under state control. In Old Havana and throughout Vedado there are a several small private businesses, such as shoe-repair shops or dressmaking facilities, but their number is steadily declining. Banking as well is also under state control, and the National Bank of Cuba, headquartered in Havana, is the control center of the Cuban economy. Its branches in some cases occupy buildings that were in pre-revolutionary times the offices of Cuban or foreign banks. Vedado is today Havana's financial district, the main banks, airline companies offices, shops, most businesses headquarters, numerous high-rise apartments and hotels, are located in the area. [41] In the late 1990s Vedado, located along the Caribbean waterfront, started to represent the principal commercial area. It was developed extensively between 1930 and 1960, when Havana developed as a major destination for U.S. tourists; high-rise hotels, casinos, restaurants,

76 and upscale commercial establishments, many reflecting the art deco style. [42] The University of Havana is located in Vedado. [Transportation Transport Further information: Transportation in Cuba José Martí International Airport Former EMT Valencia bus now serving in Havana Havana was renowned for an excellent network of public transportation by bus and taxi. A subway system modeled after that of New York City was even proposed in [43][44] In 1959, Havana's buses carried out over 29,000 daily bus trips across a dense layout of routes that connected the 600,000 inhabitants of Havana. After the Socialist Revolution, all business were confiscated, and public transport was assigned to the Ministerio del Transporte (MITRANS). In the Province of the City of Havana, Provincial Transport Authority functions are carried out by 11 divisions. But this bureaucratic, complex system of central control produces today only 8,000 trips per day, for a population that triples that of Public transport must be self-financing. Until 1994, general government funds from MITRANS (of around $US4 million per annum) were used to fund the Provincial Transport Directorate in the City of Havana budget. Public transport in Havana has always been able to cover operating expenses that are paid in Cuban Pesos through the fares. But there has been a constant problem with financing fuel, new vehicles and spare parts and other supplies which require hard currency like US dollars which led to a reduction in service provision. To address this, enterprises that generate hard currency (like the tourist taxis, tourist rental cars, and tourist cocotaxi elements of Panatrans and the Transmetro services that hire out buses and trucks to dollar-owning companies) cross subsidise the other services, in particular OM and MetroBus. In addition, a service planning team from the Regional Transit Authority of Paris (RATP) has been working to redefine the public transport network in the capital. The main aim of this project has been to rationalise the number of existing routes to match the actual passenger demand. The first of these new principal routes has already been put into place. Air British Ford Anglia in Havana Havana was the destination of the first international flight carried by a US airline: in 1927 Rickenbacker's Pan-American Airlines flew from Key West, Florida, to Havana. In 1946, a Cuban pioneer named Reinaldo Ramirez, started a route, the first from Latin America to Europe, that flew from Havana to Madrid, Spain. The ship was named "La Ruta de Colon", and the company name was "Aerovias Cubanas internacionales" Havana is served by José Martí International Airport. It lies about 11 km south of the city center, and is the main hub of Cubana de Aviación. José Martí International Airport is Cuba's main international and

77 domestic getaway, it is also hub of Aerogaviota and Aero Caribbean. The airport serves several million passengers each year, 80% of Cuba's international passengers along with Varadero's Airport, it handles flights from over 25 international airlines serving more than 60 worldwide destinations, mainly in Europe, North, Central and South America and over 3 national airlines serving 16 domestic destinations. Havana is also served by Playa Baracoa Airport which is small airport to the west of city used for some domestic flights, primarily Aerogaviota. Cuban passengers are required to obtain a permit from the authorities to leave the island, know as the White Card, and those Cubans living abroad are required a visa to enter their own country. Rail Havana has a network of suburban, interurban and long-distance rail lines, the only one in the Caribbean region. The railways are nationalised and run by the UFC (Union de Ferrocarriles de Cuba Union for Railways of Cuba). Rail service connects Havana from the Central Rail Station, La Coubre' and Casablanca stations to various Cuban provinces. Currently annual passenger volume is some 12 million, but demand is estimated at two-and-a-half to three times this value, with the busiest route being between Havana and Santiago de Cuba, some 836 km apart by rail. In 2000 the Union de Ferrocarriles de Cuba bought French first class airconditioned coaches. Fast trains line 1 and 2 between Havana (Central Station) and Santiago de Cuba use comfortable stainless-steel air-conditioned coaches bought from French Railways and now known as "el tren francés" (the French train). It runs daily at peak periods of the year (Summer season, Christmas & Easter), and on every second day at other times of the year. These coaches were originally used on the premier Trans Europ Express service between Paris, Brussels and Amsterdam before being replaced with high speed Thalys trains. They were shipped to the Cuban Railways System in It offers two classes of seating, basic leatherette "especial" and quite luxurious "primera especial". Metrobus route map Bus The Havana public buses are carried out by two divisions, Omnibus Metropolitanos (OM) and MetroBus. The Omnibus Metropolitanos division has one of the most used and largest urban bus fleets in the country, its fleet is widely diverse in new and old donated bus models, primerally well used Busscar Urbanuss manufactured by Mercedes-Benz with an additional new 255 purchased in [45] and the infamous camellos (camels), which are truck trailers ill-fitted for passenger transportation. The Cuban government will invest millions of dollars for the acquisition of 1,500 new Yutong urban buses and another 1,000 interprovincial buses in a 5 years period, which unfortunately will not cover the demand of transportation services. There are several interprovince bus services such as Astro, the regular National public transportation, Astro connects the capital city with all over the island, in 2005 Astro completely replaced its fleet with brand new Yutong buses. The Metrobus division are known as "camellos" (camels). The camellos operate the busiest routes and are trailers transformed into buses known as camels, so called for their two humps. It's a Cuban invention after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the Special Period began. The Metrobus division purchased seven articulated buses which are currently serving the M-5 camello line, covering a route from San Agustín in La Lisa municipality to Vedado. All camello trailers will be replaced by new articulated buses. Public transportation MetroBus (former camello) routes:

78 M-1 Alamar - Vedado via Fraternidad M-2 Fraternidad - Santiago de Las Vegas M-3 Alamar - Ciudad Deportiva M-4 Fraternidad - San Agustin via Marianao M-5 Vedado - San Agustin M-6 Calvario - Vedado M-7 Parque de la Fraternidad - Alberro via Cotorro Administration Government The 15 administrative divisions of Havana José Martí Memorial, Plaza de la Revolución metropolitan area. Havana is administered by a city council, with a mayor as chief administrative officer. The city is dependent upon the national government, however, for much of its budgetary and overall political direction. The national government is headquartered in Havana and plays an extremely visible role in the city's life. Moreover, the allembracing authority of many national institutions, including the Communist Party of Cuba (Partido Comunista de Cuba; PCC), the Revolutionary Armed Forces (Military of Cuba), the militia, and neighbourhood groups called the Committees for the Defense of the Revolution (CDRs), has led to a declining role for the city government, which, nevertheless, still provides such essential services as garbage collection and fire protection. The CDRs, which exist in virtually every street and apartment block, have two main functions: first, to actually defend the revolution against both external and internal opposition by keeping routine record of every resident's activities and, second, to handle routine tasks in maintaining neighborhoods. Havana city borders are contiguous with the Habana Province. Thus Havana functions as both a city and a province. There are two joint councils upon which city and provincial authorities meet one embraces municipal and provincial leaders on a national basis, the other, a Havana city and provincial council. Havana is divided into 15 constituent municipalities. Until 1976 there were six subdivisions, but in that year the city's borders were expanded to include the entire Municipios The city is divided into 15 municipios - municipalities or boroughs. (Numbers refer to map above). Municipality Population (2004) Area (km²) Population Density (/km²) Location Remarks 2Arroyo Naranjo 210, , N W N (10)

79 Boyeros 188, ,407 Centro Habana 158, ,538 Cerro 132, ,235 Cotorro 74, ,131 Diez de Octubre 227, ,941 Guanabacoa 112, W N W N W N W N W N W N W N W N W N W N W N W N W (1) (6) (8) (12) (9) (13) La Habana del Este 178, , N W N W (15) La Habana Vieja 95, ,077 La Lisa 131, ,451 Marianao 135, ,455 Playa 186, , N W N W N W N W N W N 82.4 W N W N W (7) (2) (4) (3) Plaza de la Revolución 161, , N W N W (5) Regla 44, ,937 San Miguel del Padrón 159, ,126 [show]map of all coordinates from Google N W N W N W N W (14) (11)

80 Map of all coordinates from Bing Source: Population from 2004 Census. [46] Area from 1976 municipal re-distribution. [47] Demographics Havana's rich cultural milieu included not only Spaniards from diverse regions of the Iberian Peninsula but other European peoples as well. In the era before Fidel Castro came to power, the city was economically and ethnically divided. On the one hand, there was the minority of the wealthy, educated elite, together with a strong middle class, and on the other was the workingclass majority. This division was largely based on ethnic background: whites tended to be more well-to-do, while blacks and mulattoes generally were poor. The economic structure did not provide much opportunity for blacks and mulattoes except in the more menial occupations. There was also little opportunity for them to obtain an education. Under the Castro government that came to power in 1959, this system changed. Educational and employment opportunities were made available to Cubans of all ethnic backgrounds; however, top positions and fields of study were usually reserved only to signed communist party members and record showed supporters, though this has lost some strictness in recent years. In housing, the government follows an official policy of no discrimination based on ethnic background, and independent observers tend to believe this policy has been more or less faithfully carried out. During the 18th, 19th and early part of the 20th century, large waves of Canarian, Catalan, and Galicians emigrated from the Iberian Peninsula to Havana. 2Galician people 2Canarian people 2Catalan people The Cuban government controls the movement of people into Havana on the grounds that the Havana metropolitan area (home to nearly 20% of the country's population) is overstretched in terms of land use, water, electricity, transportation, and other elements of the urban infrastructure. There is a population of internal migrants to Havana nicknamed "Palestinos" (Palestinians); these mostly hail from the eastern region of Oriente. [48] Havana has a significant minority of Chinese, before the revolution the Chinese population counted to over 200,000, [49] today Chinese born or ancestors could count up to 100,000. [50] Havana also shelters a non-cuban population of an unknown size, including Russians majorly living in Habana del Este that constantly emigrated during the Soviet era. There is a population of several thousand North African teen and pre-teen refugees. [51] Roman Catholics form the largest religious group in Havana. The Jewish community in Havana has reduced after the Revolution from once having embraced more than 15,000 Jews, [52] many of whom had fled Nazi persecution and subsequently left Cuba to Miami or returned to Israel after Castro took to power in The city once had five synagogues, but only three remain (one Orthodox, one Conservative and one Sephardic). In February 2007 the New York Times estimated that there were about 1,500 known Jews living in Havana. [53] Infrastructure

81 Education Further information: Education in Cuba The national government assumes all responsibility for education, and there are adequate primary, secondary, and vocational training schools throughout Havana. The vocational Cuban National Ballet School with 4,350 students is the biggest ballet school in the world and the most prestigious ballet school The University of Havana in Cuba, [54] directed by Ramona de Sáa. In 2002 with the expansion of the school, out of 52,000 students interested to join the school, 4,050 were selected. [55] All children receive an education. The schools are of varying quality and education is free and compulsory at all levels except higher learning, which is also free. The University of Havana, located in the Vedado section of Havana, was established in 1728 and was regarded as a leading institution of higher learning in the Western Hemisphere. Soon after the Revolution, the university, as well as all other educational institutions, were nationalized. Since then several other universities have opened, like the Polytechnic Institute "Joe Antonio Echeverria" where the vast majority of today's Cuban engineers are formed. Health Further information: Healthcare in Cuba Under the Cuban government all citizens are covered by the national health care plan. Administration of the health care system for the nation is centred largely in Havana. Hospitals in Havana are run by the national government, and citizens are assigned hospitals and clinics to which they may go for attention. During the 1980s Cuba began to attract worldwide attention for its treatment of heart diseases and eye problems, some of this treatment administered in Havana. There has long been now a high standard of health care in the city resulting from the Revolution. Services Utility services are under the control of several nationalized state enterprises that have developed since the Cuban revolution. Water, electricity, and sewage service are administered in this fashion. Electricity is supplied by generators that are fueled with oil. Much of the original power plant installations, which operated before the Revolutionary government assumed control, have become somewhat outdated. Electrical blackouts occurred, prompting the national government in 1986 to allocate the equivalent of $25,000,000 to modernize the electrical system. It is said that any part of Havana is within five minutes of a fire-fighting unit; the equipment is largely new. Sports Many Cubans are avid sports fans who particularly favour baseball. Havana's two baseball teams in the Cuban National Series are Industriales and Metropolitanos. The city has several large sports stadiums, the largest one is the Estadio Latinoamericano. Admission to sporting events is generally free, and impromptu games are played in neighborhoods throughout the city. Social clubs at the beaches provide facilities for water sports and include restaurants and dance halls. Havana was host to the 11th Pan American Games in Stadiums and facilities for this were built in the relatively unpopulated eastern suburbs. Havana was host to the 1992 IAAF World Cup in Athletics. Havana was a candidate to host the 2012 Summer Olympic Games, but was not shortlisted. Notable people born in Havana

82 See also Category:People from Havana (category) Roberto Goizueta, Coca-Cola Company CEO ( ) Felipe Poey, zoologist ( ) José Martí, poet, writer, nationalist leader ( ) Ernesto Lecuona, composer, performer ( ) Dulce María Loynaz, author ( ) Orestes López, musician ( ) Cundo Bermúdez, painter (1914-) Alicia Alonso, Prima Ballerina Assoluta (1920 ) María Antonieta Pons, actress, Rumba dancer ( ) Celia Cruz, singer ( ) Elena Burke, singer ( ) Alberto Korda, photographer, famous for his photo "Guerrillero Heróico" of Che Guevara ( ) Camilo Cienfuegos, revolutionary along with Fidel Castro and Che Guevara ( ) Ricardo Alarcón, politician, president of the National Assembly of Cuba (1937 ) Felix Baloy, vocalist with the Afro Cuban All Stars and others (1943-) Alex Ferrer, Judge on Judge Alex (1961-) David Fumero, actor (1972 ) Cristina Saralegui, journalist, talk show host (1948 ) Oswaldo Payá, political activist (1952 ) Alina Fernández, daughter and a critic of Fidel Castro (1956 ) Andy García, actor (1956 ) Elizabeth Caballero, International Opera Singer (1974 ) Maria Teresa, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg, grand ducal consort of Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg (1956 ) Gloria Estefan, singer (1957 ) (emigrated to the U.S. as a child) Carlos del Junco, musician (1958 ) Al Jourgensen, musician (1958-) César Évora, actor (1959 ) Alfredo Alonso, broadcasting executive (1960-) Juan Contino Aslán, politician, city mayor of Havana (1960-) Dave Lombardo, heavy metal drummer (1965 ) Felipe Pérez Roque, politician, foreign minister of Cuba (1965-) Humberto Padrón, film director (1967 ) Pedro Álvarez Castelló, painter, ( ) Rey Ruiz, musician (1970 ) Amarilis Savón, judoka (1974 ) Vyacheslav Kernozenko, Ukrainian football goalkeeper (1976 ) William Levy, actor (1979 ) Mario Cimarro, actor (1971-) Yotuel Romero, musician (1976 ) Michel Hernandez, MLB player for the Tampa Bay Rays, (1978-) Tony Fossas, MLB player for the Texas Rangers, Milwaukee Brewers, Boston Red Sox, St. Louis Cardinals, Seattle Mariners, Chicago Cubs, and the New York Yankees (1957-) George Lauzerique, MLB player for the Kansas City/Oakland Athletics and Milwaukee Brewers (1947-) Marcelino Lopez, MLB player for the Philadelphia Phillies, California Angels, Baltimore Orioles, Milwaukee Brewers, and the Cleveland Indians (1943-) Alex Sanchez, MLB player for the Milwaukee Brewers, Detroit Tigers, Tampa Bay Devil Rays, and the San Francisco Giants (1976-) Notes

83 1. ^ "Largest Cities in the Caribbean" ^ "Créditos" ^ (Spanish) ""Ciudad (con mayúscula) de La Habana, así se llama la provincia donde se encuentra ubicada la capital de Cuba."". Retrieved ^ (English) Latin America Population - Havana city population. 5. ^ (English) Capital city - capital of Spanish Cuba in ^ (English) Old Havana 7. ^ (English) Spanish-American War -Effects of the Press on Spanish-American Relations in ^ a b (Spanish) Historia de la Construcción Naval en Cuba 9. ^ (Spanish) Historia de la India Habana 10. ^ Thomas, Hugh: Cuba, A pursuit of freedom 2nd Edition p ^ a b Pocock, Tom: Battle for Empire: The very first world war Chapter Six 12. ^ a b c Thomas, Hugh: Cuba: The Pursuit of Freedom 2nd edition. Chapter One 13. ^ "Arquitextos - Periódico mensal de textos de arquitetura" ^ Ernest Hemingway life - Homing To The Stream: Ernest Hemingway in Cuba. 15. ^ "The Cuban revolution at 50: Heroic myth and prosaic failure". The Economist. December 30th Retrieved a b 16. ^ Theodore Dalrymple. "Cuba: A Cemetery of Hopes". D6D398A0A ^ Nigel Hunt. "Cuba Nationalization Laws". cuba heritage.org. Retrieved ^ Marjorie Sue Zatz. Producing Legality. a b 19. ^ "Parrot diplomacy". The Economist. July 24th Retrieved ^ Old Havana restoration - Success on the restoration program of Havana 21. ^ [1] Havana, Cuba's history with tropical systems 22. ^ "Average Weather for Havana, --Temperature and Precipitation". weather.com. XX0003?from=36hr_bottomnav_business. Retrieved ^ Centro Habana- Centro Habana guia turistica, Cuba 24. ^ Centro Habana 25. ^ Havana Miramar School 26. ^ Havana's magnificent necropolis tells a story of wealth and freedom 27. ^ [2]3,000 buildings found in Old Havana 28. ^ [3]Cuban Restoration Project Pins New Hopes on Old Havana 29. ^ Habana Vieja - UNESCO World Heritage List 30. ^ Havana's Chinatown - The once largest Chinatown in Latin America 31. ^ El Barrio Chino de la Habana - Havana's Chinatown (Spanish) 32. ^ Chinatown is fading with age in Cuba - Kwong Wah Po, only remaining Chinese newspaper in Cuba 33. ^ Museo de Artes Decorativos- José Gómez Mena, one of Cuba's wealthiest aristocrats, built this house in 1927 to hold his staggering collection of antique furniture, rugs, paintings and vases. 34. ^ (Spanish) Trabajadores Newspaper article- Las artes decorativas también tienen su Museo en La Habana. 35. ^ (Spanish) Paseos por La Habana-El museo guarda en su interior mobiliario antiguo, porcelana y ceramica, cristalerias, espejos, bronces y objetos ornamentales. 36. ^ (Spanish) Centro Asturiano de La Habana- Museo de Arte Universal. Centro Asturiano de La Habana (1927)

84 37. ^ Antonio Meucci. In Havana Meucci constructed a system for waters depuration and rebuilt the Gran Teatro, which had been almost entirely destroyed by a hurricane. 38. ^ (Spanish) Radio Havana-Cuba- Existen también piezas escultóricas en las cuatro cúpulas del techo realizadas por Giuseppe Moretti. 39. ^ The economy of Havana 40. ^ Tourism in Cuba during the Special Period 41. ^ Vedado (district, Havana, Cuba) - This part of the city, built largely in the 20th century, contains attractive homes, tall apartments, and offices along wide, tree-lined boulevards and avenues. 42. ^ Vedado- De una casa colonial a una mansión del Vedado 43. ^ 8A639EDE 44. ^ PA21&dq=havana+subway&source=bl&ots=LY- 5pkT9PV&sig=rHozJRiQMtMs_KsMvGNswIvsVAk&hl=en&ei=scpwSujNNaKltge3ibWbD A&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6 45. ^ "International transportation fair in Havana Business in excess of $100 million, Granma national newspaper note 46. ^ Atenas.cu (2004). "2004 Population trends, by Province and Municipality". Archived from the original on ABLA+No_3balance.htm. Retrieved (Spanish) 47. ^ Statoids (July 2003). "Municipios of Cuba". Retrieved ^ Castro s Cuba in Perspective 49. ^ Havana's Chinatown - Cuba's Chinese population before the Revolution 50. ^ CIA World Factbook. Cuba September 6, 2006.< 51. ^ "Sahrawi children inhumanely treated in Cuba, former Cuban official". MoroccoTimes.com. March Archived from the original on asp?idr=2&id= Retrieved ^ Present-Day Jewish Life in Cuba 53. ^ 1,500 Jews who live in Cuba; 1,100 reside in Havana, and the remaining 400 are spread among the provinces.in Cuba, Finding a Tiny Corner of Jewish Life. 54. ^ (Spanish) La Escuela Nacional de Ballet - La Escuela desarrolla una experiencia única en el mundo, enmarcada en la Batalla de Ideas. 55. ^ (Spanish) Escuela Nacional de Ballet - entre 52 mil alumnos interesados, los cuatro mil 50 que integrarían los talleres. 56. ^ Barcelona sister cities 57. ^ Beijing-International Sister Cities 58. ^ Invitation for fraternization of Havana and Belgrade 59. ^ Cusco Sister Cities 60. ^ City of Esfahan official website - Sister Cities 61. ^ Glasgow City Council - Twin cities of Glasgow 62. ^ Erdem, Selim Efe ( ). "İstanbul'a 49 kardeş" (in Turkish). Radikal. Retrieved "49 sister cities in 2003" 63. ^ "Hermanamientos y Acuerdos". February fc08a0c/?vgnextoid=c94731dd4d24b010VgnVCM100000d90ca8c0RCRD&vgnextchann el=4e98823d3a37a010vgnvcm100000d90ca8c0rcrd. Retrieved ^ "Sister Cities of Manila" City Government of Manila. Retrieved

85 65. ^ Sister Cities International (2007). "Cuba Directory". Archived from the original on Retrieved ^ Oaxaca Sister Cities - Relación de la ciudades hermanadas con la ciudad de Oaxaca 67. ^ Granma - En La Habana vicealcalde de la ciudad de Rotterdam [dead link] -La delegación visitante hará la entrega oficial de una donación de implementos deportivos, en momentos en que se celebra el aniversario 25 de las relaciones entre ambas urbes 68. ^ Saint Petersburg in figures - International and Interregional Ties 69. ^ Memoria Anual, Agosto 2002-Agosto ^ São Paulo's 40 Sister Cities 71. ^ Tehran, Havana named sister cities 72. ^ New Monument to Tijuana's sister cities - Inaugura el alcalde Kurt Honold monumento dedicado a ciudades hermanas de Tijuana Sources King, Charles Spencer (2009) Havana My Kind of Town. USA: CreateSpace. ISBN Havana: History and Architecture of a Romantic City. Alicia García Santana. Monacelli, October ISBN The Rough Guide to Cuba (3rd ed.). Rough Guides, May ISBN Barclay, Juliet (1993). Havana: Portrait of a City. London: Cassell. ISBN (2003 paperback edition). A comprehensive account of the history of Havana from the early 16th century to the end of the 19th century. Carpentier, Alejo. La ciudad de las columnas (The city of columns). A historical review of the city from one of the major authors in the iberoamerican literature, a native of this city. Cluster, Dick, & Rafael Hernández, History of Havana. New York: Palgrave-MacMillan, ISBN A social history of the city from 1519 to the present, coauthored by a Cuban writer and editor resident in Havana and an American novelist and writer of popular history. Eguren, Gustavo. La fidelísima Habana (The very faithful Havana). A fundamental illustrated book for those who wants to know the history of La Habana, includes chronicles, articles from natives and non natives, archives documents, and more. United Railways of Havana. Cuba: A Winter Paradise , , and editions. New York, 1908, 1912, 1914 and Maps, photos and descriptions of suburban and interurban electric lines. Electric Traction in Cuba. Tramway & Railway World (London), 1 April 1909, pp Map, photos and description of Havana Central Railroad. The Havana Central Railroad. Electrical World (New York), 15 April 1909, pp Text, 4 photos. Three-Car Storage Battery Train. Electric Railway Journal (New York), 28 September 1912, p Photo and description of Cuban battery cars. Berta Alfonso Gallol. Los Transportes Habaneros. Estudios Históricos. La Habana, The definitive survey (but no pictures or maps). Six Days in Havana by James A. Michener and John Kings. University of Texas Press; 1ST edition (1989). ISBN Interviews with close to 200 Cubans of widely assorted backgrounds and positions, and concerns how the country has progressed after 90 years of independence from Spain and under the 30-year leadership of Castro. One more interesting note about that edition of the New York Times: On page 5, there is a short blurb mentioning, "The plan for holding a Pan-American exhibition at Buffalo has been shelved for the present owing to the unsettled condition of the public mind consequent upon the Spanish-Cuban complications." President McKinley was assassinated at the Pan-American Exhibition when it was finally held in 1901.

86 External links Cuba portal Russian Havana on CubaWorld Havana photographs from the series '50 Portraits of Cuba, 50 Years On' - Sophia Spring( Central Havana Map Havana City Map Havana Travel Q & A Havana travel guide from Wikitravel Map of Havana. To zoom in, click on an area of the map. These are very large High resolution JPEG images (~1 Megabyte) Havana, an external wiki Fading Grandeur and Teeming Night Life Make Havana Hard to Resist by Victor Swoboda, CanWest, November 10, 2008 Searching for Cuba's Next Big Revolution by Spud Hilton, San Francisco Chronicle, April 19, 2009 Landmarks and attractions in Havana Landmarks Religious buildings Museums Theaters Attractions La Cabaña El Capitolio Castillo de la Real Fuerza Hotel Inglaterra Hotel Tryp Habana Libre Hotel Nacional de Cuba Hotel Habana Riviera Manzana de Gomez Meliá Cohiba Hotel Morro Castle San Salvador de la Punta Fortress Sevilla Hotel El Templete Cathedral of Havana Iglesia de Jesus de Miramar San Carlos and San Ambrosio Seminary Basilica Menor de San Francisco de Asis Colón Necrópolis José Martí Memorial Havana Museum of Decorative Arts Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes de La Habana Museum of the Revolution Amadeo Roldán Theater Gaia Great Theatre of Havana Hubert de Blanck Theater Karl Marx Theater National Theater of Cuba Guanabo Old Havana Tarara Tropicana Club University of Havana [ Provinces of Cuba Current Camagüey Ciego de Ávila Cienfuegos Ciudad de La Habana Granma Guantánamo Holguín Isla de la Juventud La Habana Las Tunas Matanzas Pinar del Río Sancti Spíritus Santiago de Cuba Villa Clara Historical Santa Clara (Las Villas) Camagüey (Puerto Principe) Oriente (Santiago de Cuba) Provincial capitals Bayamo Camagüey Ciego de Ávila Cienfuegos Guantánamo

87 Havana Holguín Victoria de Las Tunas Matanzas Pinar del Río Sancti Spíritus Santa Clara Santiago de Cuba Municipalities of Havana Arroyo Naranjo Boyeros Centro Habana Cerro Cotorro Diez de Octubre Guanabacoa La Habana del Este Old Havana La Lisa Marianao Playa Plaza de la Revolución Regla San Miguel del Padrón [Pan American Games host cities 1951: Buenos Aires 1955: Mexico City 1959: Chicago 1963: São Paulo 1967: Winnipeg 1971: Cali 1975: Mexico City 1979: San Juan 1983: Caracas 1987: Indianapolis 1991: Havana 1995: Mar del Plata 1999: Winnipeg 2003: Santo Domingo 2007: Rio de Janeiro 2011: Guadalajara [World Heritage Sites in Cuba Alejandro de Humboldt National Park Historic Centre of Camagüey Urban Historic Centre of Cienfuegos Archaeological Landscape of the First Coffee Plantations in the South-East of Cuba Desembarco del Granma National Park Old Havana and its Fortifications San Pedro de la Roca Castle, Santiago de Cuba Trinidad and the Valley de los Ingenios Viñales Valley Fidel Castro Fidel Castro At the José Martí Memorial 23rd President of Cuba

88 Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born August 13, 1926) is a Cuban politician, one of the primary leaders of the Cuban Revolution, the Prime Minister of Cuba from February 1959 to December 1976, and then the President of the Council of State of Cuba until his resignation from the office in February He is currently the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba. He was born into a wealthy family and acquired a law degree. While studying at Havana University, he began his political career and became a recognized figure in Cuban politics. [3] His political career continued with nationalist critiques of Fulgencio Batista, and of the United States' political and corporate influence in Cuba. He gained an ardent, but limited, following and also drew the attention of the authorities. [4] He eventually led the failed 1953 attack on the Moncada Barracks, after which he was captured, tried, incarcerated, and later released. He then traveled to to organize and train for an assault on Batista's Cuba. He and his fellow revolutionaries left Mexico for the East of Cuba in December Mexico [5][6] In office December 2, 1976 February 24, 2008 [1] First Vice President: Raúl Castro (Acting President after 31 July, 2006) Other Vice Presidents: Vice President Juan Almeida Bosque Abelardo Colome Ibarra Carlos Lage Davila Esteban Lazo Hernández José Machado Ventura Preceded by Osvaldo Dorticós Torrado Succeeded by Raúl Castro Prime Minister of Cuba In office February 16, 1959 December 2, 1976 Preceded by José Miró Cardona Succeeded by merged with office of President Castro came to power as a result of the Cuban revolution that overthrew the U.S.-backed [7] dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista, [8] and shortly thereafter became Prime Minister of Cuba. [9] In 1965 he became First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba and led the transformation of Cuba into a one-party socialist republic. In 1976 he became President of the Council of State as well as of the Council of Ministers. He also held the supreme military rank of Comandante en Jefe ("Commander in Chief") of the Cuban armed forces. Castro has been portrayed as a dictator in spite of his disapproval of dictatorships. Born Nationality Political party Spouse(s) Relations Children August 13, 1926 (age 83) Birán, Holguín Province, Cuba Cuban Communist Party of Cuba (1) Mirta Díaz-Balart Gutierrez (divorced 1955) (2) Dalia Soto del Valle Natalia Revuelta y Clews Fidel Angel Castro Diaz-Balart Alina Fernandez-Revuelta Alexis Castro-Soto Alejandro Castro-Soto Antonio Castro-Soto Angel Castro-Soto Alain Castro-Soto Jorge Angel Castro [2] Francisca Pupo [2]

89 Alma mater Profession Religion This is a Spanish name; the first family name is Castro and the second is Ruz. Following intestinal surgery from an undisclosed digestive illness believed to have been Signature diverticulitis, [10] Castro transferred his responsibilities to the First Vice-President, his younger brother Raúl Castro, on July 31, On February 19, 2008, five days before his mandate was to expire, he announced he would neither seek nor accept a new term as either president or commander-in-chief. [11][12] On February 24, 2008, the National Assembly elected Raúl Castro to succeed him as the President of Cuba. [1] Childhood and education Castro has two brothers, Ramón and Raúl, and four sisters, Angelita, Juanita, Enma, and Agustina, all of whom were born out of wedlock. He also has two half siblings, Lidia and Pedro Emilio who were raised by Ángel Castro's first wife. Fidel was not baptized until he was 8, also very uncommon, bringing embarrassment and ridicule from other children. [15][16] Ángel Castro finally dissolved his first marriage when Fidel was 15 and married Fidel s mother. Castro was formally recognized by his father when he was 17, when his surname was legally changed to Castro from Ruz, his mother s name. [15][16] Although accounts of his education differ, most sources agree that he was an intellectually gifted student, more interested in sports than in academics, and spent many years in private Catholic boarding schools, finishing high school at El Colegio de Belén, a Jesuit school in Havana in [17] While at Belén, Castro pitched on the school's baseball team. There are persistent rumors that Castro was scouted for various U.S. baseball teams, [18] but there is no evidence that this ever actually happened. [19] Political beginnings Colegio de Belen University of Havana Lawyer Self-defined as secular, formerly Roman Catholic In late 1945, Castro entered law school at the University of Havana. He became immediately embroiled in the political culture at the University, which was a reflection of the volatile politics in Cuba during that era. Since the fall of president Gerardo Machado in the 1930s, student politics had degenerated into a form of gangsterismo dominated by fractious action groups, and Castro, believing that the gangs posed a physical threat to his university aspirations, experienced what he later described as "a great moment of decision." [20] He returned to the university from a brief hiatus to involve himself fully in the various violent battles and disputes which surrounded university elections, and was to be implicated in a number of shootings linked to Rolando Masferrer's MSR action group. "To not return", said Castro later, "would be to give in to bullies, to abandon my beliefs". [20] Rivalries were so intense that Castro apparently collaborated in an attempt on Masferrer's life during this period, [20] while Masferrer, whose paramilitary group Les Tigres later became an instrument of state violence under Batista, [21] perennially hunted the younger student seeking violent retribution. [22]

90 In 1947, Castro joined the Partido Ortodoxo which had been newly formed by Eduardo Chibás. A charismatic figure, Chibás attracted many Cubans with his message of social justice, honest government, and political freedom. [23]. Chibás was running for president against the incumbent Ramón Grau San Martín who had allowed rampant corruption to flourish during his term. [citation needed] The Partido Ortodoxo publicly exposed corruption and demanded government and social reform. It aimed to instill a strong sense of national identity among Cubans, establish Cuban economic independence and freedom from the United States, and dismantle the power of the elite over Cuban politics. [citation needed] Though Chibás lost the election, Castro, considering Chibás his mentor, remained committed to his cause, working fervently on his behalf. In 1951, while running for president again, Chibás shot himself in the stomach during a radio broadcast. Castro was present and accompanied him to the hospital where he died. [17] During 1948, Castro was twice linked to political assassinations. [3] He was suspected of Manolo Castro's assassination that took place on February 22. [3] University policeman Oscar Fernandez was killed in front of his own home on June 6. Dying Oscar Fernandez and other witnesses identified Castro as the assassin. [3] The incident passed. [3] In 1948, Castro joined an anti-american demonstration trip to Bogotá, Colombia, paid by Argentinean army colonel and President Juan Perón. [3] Castro joined mob violence and property destruction, and later sought refuge in the Argentinean embassy. [3] Decision for revolution Contents 1 Childhood and education 2 Political beginnings o 2.1 Decision for revolution 3 Cuban Revolution o 3.1 Attack on Moncada Barracks o th of July Movement o 3.3 Operation Verano o 3.4 Battle of Yaguajay o 3.5 Collapse of the Batista regime o 3.6 New government o 3.7 Castro consolidates power 4 Years in power o 4.1 Bay of Pigs Invasion o 4.2 Cuban Missile Crisis o 4.3 Assassination attempts In 1948, Castro married Mirta Díaz Balart, a student from a wealthy Cuban family through which he was exposed to the lifestyle of the Cuban elite. Mirta's father gave tens of thousands to spend in a three-month honeymoon in New York. [24] Castro also received a $1,000 wedding gift from Fulgencio Batista, the ex-president who was a friend of both families. [3][24] Although Castro considered enrolling at Columbia University, a private university in Manhattan, he returned to Cuba to complete his degree. [3] Castro started to have money problems. He refused to go work and others had to pay the family's bills. [3][24] The relationship with his wife was also strained. In 1950 he graduated from law school with a Doctor of Laws degree and began practicing law in a small partnership in Havana. [24] By now he had become well known for his passionately nationalist views and his intense opposition to the United States. Castro spoke publicly against the United States involvement in defending South Korea in the Korean War. [3] o o 4.4 United States embargo 4.5 Foreign relations Soviet Union Other countries 5 Succession issues o 5.1 Illness and transfer of duties o 5.2 Rumors of Castro's health o 5.3 Retirement o 5.4 Succession 6 Religious beliefs 7 Public image 8 Family 9 Controversy and criticism 9.1 Human rights record 9.2 Allegations of mismanagement 9.3 Allegations of wealth o o o 10 Legacy 11 Ancestors of Fidel Castro 12 Authored works 13 See also 14 References and footnotes 15 External links

91 In 1951, Fidel Castro said to Batista "I don't see an important book here". When Batista asked which, Castro replied "Curzio Malaparte's The Technique of the Coup d'état". [24] According to Rafael Diaz-Ballart, Fidel Castro realized that Batista was not a "revolutionary" leader anymore, even though both looked at each other with admiration. [24] Increasingly interested in a career in politics, Castro had become a candidate for a seat in the Cuban parliament in the 1952 elections when former president, General Fulgencio Batista, ousted President Carlos Prío Socarrás in a coup d'état, cancelled the elections and assumed government as "provisional president". Batista was supported by establishment elements of Cuban society, powerful Cuban agencies, and labor unions. A letter written by the 12-year-old Castro to U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, expressing admiration and asking for a $10 bill. Castro writes, "If you like, give me a ten dollar bill green American, because never, I have not seen a ten dollar bill," signing the letter, "Thank you very much. Good by [sic]. Your friend, Fidel Castro." Castro now broke away from the Partido Ortodoxo to marshal legal arguments based on the Constitution of 1940 formally to charge Batista with violating the constitution. His petition, entitled Zarpazo, was denied by the Court of Constitutional Guarantees and he was not allowed a hearing. [25] This experience formed the foundation for Castro's opposition to the Batista government and convinced him that revolution was the only way to depose Batista. [26] Cuban Revolution Main article: Cuban revolution Attack on Moncada Barracks Main article: Moncada Barracks As discontent over the Batista coup grew, Castro abandoned his law practice and formed an underground organization of supporters, including his brother, Raúl, and Mario Chanes de Armas. Together they actively plotted to overthrow Batista. They collected guns and ammunition and finalized their plans for an armed attack on Moncada Barracks, Batista's largest garrison outside Santiago de Cuba. On the 26th of July, 1953, they attacked Moncada Barracks. The Céspedes

92 garrison in Bayamo was also attacked as a diversion. [5] The attack proved disastrous and more than sixty of the one-hundred and thirty-five militants involved were killed. Castro and other surviving members of his group managed to escape to a part of the rugged Sierra Maestra [27] mountains east of Santiago where they were eventually discovered and captured. Although there is disagreement over why Castro and his brother, Raúl, were not executed on capture as many of their fellow militants were, there is evidence that an officer recognized Castro from his university days and treated the captured rebels compassionately, despite the 'illegal' unofficial order to have the leader executed. [5] Others, such as Angel Prado, military commander of the 26th of July Movement, say that on the night of the attack Castro's driver got lost and he never reached the barracks. That night was the night of El Carnaval de Santiago and the streets of Santiago de Cuba were filled with party goers. Castro was tried in the fall of 1953 and sentenced to up to fifteen years in prison. During his trial Castro delivered his famous defense speech History Will Absolve Me, [28] upholding his rebellious actions and boldly declaring his political views: I warn you, I am just beginning! If there is in your hearts a vestige of love for your country, love for humanity, love for justice, listen carefully... I know that the regime will try to suppress the truth by all possible means; I know that there will be a conspiracy to bury me in oblivion. But my voice will not be stifled it will rise from my breast even when I feel most alone, and my heart will give it all the fire that callous cowards deny it... Condemn me. It does not matter. History will absolve me. While he was being held at the prison for political activists on Isla de Pinos, he continued to plot Batista's overthrow, planning upon release to reorganize and train in Mexico. [5] After having served less than two years, he was released in May 1955 due to a general amnesty from Batista who was under political pressure, and went as planned to Mexico. [6] 26th of July Movement Main article: 26th of July Movement Once in Mexico, Castro reunited with other Cuban exiles and founded the 26th of July Movement, named after the date of the failed attack on the Moncada Barracks. The goal remained the overthrow of Fulgencio Batista. Castro had learned from the Moncada experience that new tactics were needed if Batista's forces were to be defeated. This time, the plan was to use underground guerrilla tactics, which were used by the Cubans the last time they attempted a populist overthrow of what they considered an imperialistic regime. The Cuban war of Independence against the Spanish was Cuba's introduction to guerrilla warfare, about which they read once the Cuban campaign ended but was taken up by Emilio Aguinaldo in the Philippines. Once again, it would be guerrilla warfare to bring down a government. In Mexico Castro met Ernesto "Che" Guevara, a proponent of guerrilla warfare. Guevara joined the group of rebels and became an important force in shaping Castro's evolving political beliefs. Guevara's observations of the misery of the poor in Latin America had already convinced him that the only solution lay in violent revolution. Since regular contacts with a KGB agent named Nikolai Sergeevich Leonov in Mexico City had not resulted in the hoped for weapon supply, [29] they decided to go to the United States to gather personnel and funds from Cubans living there, including Carlos Prío Socarrás, the elected Cuban president deposed by Batista in Back in Mexico, the group trained under a Spanish Civil War Veteran, Cuban-born Alberto Bayo [28] who had fled to Mexico after Francisco Franco's victory in Spain. On November 26, 1956, Castro and his group of 81 followers, mostly Cuban exiles, set out from Tuxpan, Veracruz, aboard the yacht Granma for the purpose of starting a rebellion in Cuba. [30]

93 The rebels landed at Playa Las Coloradas close to Los Cayuelos near the eastern city of Manzanillo on December 2, In short order, most of Castro's men were killed, dispersed, or taken prisoner by Batista's forces. [30] While the exact number is in dispute, it is agreed that no more than twenty of the original eighty-two men survived the bloody encounters with the Cuban army and succeeded in fleeing to the Sierra Maestra mountains. [31] The group of survivors included Fidel Castro, Che Guevara, Raúl Castro, and Camilo Cienfuegos. Those who survived were aided by people in the countryside. They regrouped in the Sierra Maestra in Oriente province and organized a column under Fidel Castro's command. From their encampment in the Sierra Maestra mountains, the 26th of July Movement waged a guerrilla war against the Batista government. In the cities and major towns also, resistance groups were organizing until underground groups were everywhere. The strongest was in Santiago formed by Frank País. [32][33] In the summer of 1957, País s organization merged with the 26th of July Movement of Castro. As Castro's movement gained popular support in the cities and countryside, it grew to over eight hundred men. In mid-1957 Castro gave Che Guevara command of a second column. A journalist, Herbert Matthews from the New York Times, came to interview him in the Sierra Maestra, attracting interest to Castro's cause in the United States. The New York Times front page stories by Matthews presented Castro as a romantic and appealing revolutionary, bearded and dressed in rumpled fatigues. [34][35] Castro and Matthews were followed by the TV crew of Andrew Saint George, said to be a CIA contact person. [36] Through television, Castro's rudimentary command of the English language and charismatic presence enabled him to appeal directly to a U.S. audience. In 1957, Castro also signed the Manifesto of the Sierra Maestra [37] in which he agreed to call elections under the Electoral Code of 1943 within the first 18 months of his time in power and to restore all of the provisions of the Constitution of 1940 that had been suspended under Batista. While he took steps to implement some of the measures in the Manifesto upon coming into power, Cuba failed to have elections, the most important part of the program, within the allotted time. In February 1958, Castro published in Coronet Magazine a famous statement of the goals of the movement. [38] He stated that "we are fighting to do away with dictatorship in Cuba and to establish the foundations of genuine representative government" and promised to "prepare and conduct truly honest general elections within twelve months" after success. He also stated, "we have no plans for the expropriation or nationalization of foreign investments here". He also justified his attacks on Cuba's economy as the only way to bring down the Batista dictatorship. Despite his denouncement of dictatorships, Castro himself has been described as a dictator. [39][40][41] Operation Verano Main article: Operation Verano Fidel Castro in his days as a

94 guerrilla. In May 1958, Batista launched Operation Verano aiming to crush Castro and other anti-government groups. It was called La Ofensiva ("The Offensive") by the rebels (Alarcón Ramírez,1997). Although on paper heavily outnumbered, Castro's guerrilla forces scored a series of victories, largely aided by mass desertions from Batista's army of poorly trained and uncommitted young conscripts. During the Battle of La Plata, Castro's forces defeated an entire battalion. While pro-castro Cuban sources later emphasized the role of Castro's guerrilla forces in these battles, other groups and leaders were also involved, such as escopeteros (poorly armed irregulars). During the Battle of Las Mercedes, Castro's small army came close to defeat but he managed to pull his troops out by opening up negotiations with General Cantillo while secretly slipping his soldiers out of a trap. When Operation Verano ended, Castro ordered three columns commanded by Guevara, Jaime Vega and Camilo Cienfuegos to invade central Cuba where they were strongly supported by rebellious elements who had long been operating in the area. One of Castro's columns moved out onto the Cauto Plains. Here, they were supported by Huber Matos, Raúl Castro and others who were operating in the eastern-most part of the province. On the plains, Castro's forces first surrounded the town of Guisa in Granma Province and drove out their enemies, then proceeded to take most of the towns that had been taken by Calixto García in the Cuban War of Independence. Battle of Yaguajay Main article: Battle of Yaguajay In December 1958, the columns of Che Guevara and Camilo Cienfuegos continued their advance through Las Villas province. They succeeded in occupying several towns, and then began preparations for an attack on Santa Clara, the provincial capital. Guevara's fighters launched a fierce assault on the Cuban army surrounding Santa Clara, and a vicious house-to-house battle ensued. They also derailed an armored train which Batista had sent to aid his troops in the city while Cienfuegos won the Battle of Yaguajay. Defeated on all sides, Batista's forces crumbled. The provincial capital was captured after less than a day of fighting on December 31, Collapse of the Batista regime After the loss at the Battle of Santa Clara, expecting betrayal by his own army and having lost all backup from the previously supportive US government, Batista (accompanied by president-elect Andrés Rivero Agüero) boarded a plane and fled to the Dominican Republic in the early hours of January 1, Accompanying Batista into exile was an amassed fortune of more than $ 300,000,000 that he acquired through "graft and payoffs." [42] Batista left behind a junta headed by Gen. Eulogio Cantillo, recently the commander in Oriente province, the center of the Castro revolt. The junta immediately selected Dr. Carlos Piedra, the oldest judge of the Supreme Court, as provisional President of Cuba as specified in the Constitution of Castro refused to accept the selection of Justice Piedra as provisional President and the Supreme Court refused to administer the oath of office to the Justice. [43] The rebel forces of Fidel Castro moved swiftly to seize power throughout the island. [43] At the age of 32, Castro had successfully masterminded a classic guerrilla campaign from his headquarters in the Sierra Maestra and ousted Batista. New government Power does not interest me, and I will not take it

95 [44] Fidel Castro in Cuba, January 1959 On January 8, 1959, Castro's army rolled victoriously into Havana. [45] As news of the fall of Batista's government spread through Havana, The New York Times described the scene as one of jubilant crowds pouring into the streets and automobile horns honking. The black and red flag of the 26th of July Movement waved on automobiles and buildings. The atmosphere was chaotic. [43] Castro called a general strike in protest of the Piedra government. He demanded that Dr. Urrutia, former judge of the Urgency Court of Santiago de Cuba, be installed as the provisional President instead. The Cane Planters Association of Cuba, speaking on behalf of the island's crucial sugar industry, issued a statement of support [citation needed] for Castro and his movement. Castro arrives in Washington, D.C. on April 15, Law professor José Miró Cardona created a new government with himself as prime minister and Manuel Urrutia Lleó as president on January 5. The United States officially recognized the new government two days later. [46] Castro himself arrived in Havana to cheering crowds and assumed the post of Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces on January 8. Castro consolidates power "Until Castro, the U.S. was so overwhelmingly influential in Cuba that the American ambassador was the second most important man, sometimes even more important than the Cuban president." Earl T. Smith, former American Ambassador to Cuba, during 1960 testimony to the U.S. Senate [47] Fidel Castro sought to oust liberals and democrats, such as José Miró Cardona and Manuel Urrutia Lleó. [24] In February professor José Miró Cardona had to resign because of Castro's attacks. On February 16, 1959, Castro was sworn in as Prime Minister of Cuba. [9] Professor Miró soon went into exile in the United States, and would later participate in the Bay of Pigs Invasion against Castro's form of government. President Manuel Urrutia Lleó wanted to restore elections, but Castro opposed free elections. [48] Castro's slogan was "Revolution first, elections later". [49] The new government began expropriating property and announced plans to base the compensation on the artificially low property valuations that the companies themselves had kept to a fraction of their true value so that their taxes would be negligible. [citation needed] During this period Castro repeatedly denied being a communist. [50][51][52][53][54] For example in New York on April 25 he said, "...[communist] influence is nothing. I don't agree with communism. We are democracy. We are against all kinds of dictators... That is why we oppose communism." [55] Between April 15 and April 26, Castro and a delegation of industrial and international representatives visited the U.S. as guests of the Press Club. Castro hired one of the best public relations firms in the United States for a charm offensive visit by Castro and his recently initiated government. Castro answered impertinent questions jokingly and ate hot dogs and hamburgers. His rumpled fatigues and scruffy beard cut a popular figure easily promoted as an authentic hero. [56] He was refused a meeting with President Eisenhower. After his visit to the United States, he would go on to join forces with the Soviet leader, Nikita Khrushchev. [45] On May 17, 1959, Castro signed into law the First Agrarian Reform, which limited landholdings to 993 acres (4 km²) per owner and forbade foreign land ownership. [57][58] Castro started to organize attacks on President Manuel Urrutia Lleó. Castro himself resigned as Prime Minister of Cuba and later that day appeared on television to deliver a lengthy

96 denouncement of Urrutia, claiming that Urrutia "complicated" government, and that his "fevered anti-communism" was having a detrimental effect. Castro's sentiments received widespread support as organized crowds surrounded the presidential palace demanding Urrutia's resignation, which was duly received. On July 23, Castro resumed his position as premier and appointed Osvaldo Dorticós as the new president. [59] Years in power As early as July 1959, Castro's intelligence chief Ramiro Valdés contacted the KGB in Mexico City. [29] Subsequently, the USSR sent over one hundred mostly Spanish speaking advisors, including Enrique Líster Forján, to organize the Committees for the Defense of the Revolution. In February 1960, Cuba signed an agreement to buy oil from the USSR. When the U.S.-owned refineries in Cuba refused to process the oil, they were expropriated, and the United States broke off diplomatic relations with the Castro government soon afterward. To the concern of the Eisenhower administration, Cuba began to establish closer ties with the Soviet Union. A variety of pacts were signed between Castro and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev, allowing Cuba to receive large amounts of economic and military aid from the USSR. The mould was set. U.S. disappointment with their lack of power in Cuban decision making fueled Castro's fears leading to [citation needed] increasing Cuban dependence on USSR support. On May 1, 1961, Castro declared Cuba as socialist state and officially abolished multiparty elections. [3] Critics noted that Castro feared elections would eject him from power. [3] Fidel Castro and members of the East German Politburo in In June 1960, Eisenhower reduced Cuba's sugar import quota by 7,000,000 tons, and in response, Cuba nationalized some $850 million worth of U.S. property and businesses. Health care and education were socialized. Both dramatically improved. [citation needed] The new government took control of the country by nationalizing industry, redistributing property, collectivizing agriculture and creating policies that would benefit the poor. While popular among the poor, these policies alienated many former supporters of the revolution among the Cuban middle and upper-classes. Over one million Cubans later migrated to the U.S., forming a vocal anti-castro community in Miami, Florida, actively supported and funded by successive U.S. administrations. [citation needed] By the early autumn of 1960, the U.S. government was engaged in a semi-secret campaign to remove Castro from power. [60] In September 1960, Castro created Committees for the Defense of the Revolution, which implemented neighbhorhood spying in an effort to weed out "counter-revolutionary" activities. [61] By the end of 1960, all opposition newspaper had been closed down and all radio and television stations were in state control, run under the Leninist principle of Democratic Centralism. [61] Moderates, teachers and professors were purged. [61] He was accused of keeping about 20,000 dissents held captive and tortured under inhuman prison conditions every year. [61]

97 Groups such as homosexuals were locked up in concentration camps in the 1960s, where they were subject to medical-political "re-education". [62] Castro's admiring description of rural life in Cuba ("in the country, there are no homosexuals" [63] ) reflected the idea of homosexuality as bourgeois decadence, and he denounced "maricones" (faggots) as "agents of imperialism". [64] Castro stated that "homosexuals should not be allowed in positions where they are able to exert influence upon young people". [65] Loyalty to Castro became the primary criteria for all appointments in the island. [66] Communist Party strengthened its one-party rule, with Castro as the Prime Minister. [61] The In the 1961 New Year's Day parade, Castro exhibited Soviet tanks and other weapons. [66] Bay of Pigs Invasion Main article: Bay of Pigs Invasion The Bay of Pigs Invasion (known as La Batalla de Girón, or Playa Girón in Cuba), was an unsuccessful attempt by a US-trained force of Cuban exiles to invade southern Cuba with support from US government armed forces, to overthrow the Cuban government of Fidel Castro. The plan was launched in April 1961, less than three months after John F. Kennedy assumed the presidency in the United States. The Cuban armed forces, trained and equipped by Eastern Bloc nations, defeated the exile combatants in three days. Bad Cuban-American relations were made worse by the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis. The invasion is named after the Bay of Pigs, which is just one possible translation of the Spanish Bahía de Cochinos. The main landing at the Bay of Pigs specifically took place at the beach named Playa Girón. On May 1, 1961, Castro announced to the hundreds of thousands in his audience that: The revolution has no time for elections. There is no more democratic government in Latin America than the revolutionary government.... If Mr. Kennedy does not like Socialism, we do not like imperialism. We do not like capitalism. [67] In a nationally broadcast speech on December 2, 1961, Castro declared that he was a Marxist- Leninist and that Cuba was adopting Communism. On February 7, 1962, the US imposed an embargo against Cuba. This embargo was broadened during 1962 and 1963, including a general travel ban for American tourists. [68] Cuban Missile Crisis Main article: Cuban Missile Crisis Tensions between Cuba and the US heightened during the 1962 missile crisis, which nearly brought the US and the USSR into nuclear conflict. Khrushchev conceived the idea of placing missiles in Cuba as a deterrent to a possible U.S. invasion and justified the move in response to US missile deployment in Turkey. After consultations with his military advisors, he met with a Cuban delegation led by Raúl Castro in July in order to work out the specifics. It was agreed to deploy Soviet R-12 MRBMs on Cuban soil; however, American Lockheed U-2 reconnaissance discovered the construction of the missile installations on October 15, 1962 before the weapons had actually been deployed. The US government viewed the installation of Soviet nuclear weapons 90 miles (145 km) south of Key West as an aggressive act and a threat to US security. As a result, the US publicly announced its discovery on October 22, 1962, and implemented a quarantine around Cuba that would actively intercept and search any vessels heading for the island. Nikolai Sergevich Leonov, who would become a General in the KGB Intelligence

98 Directorate [69] and the Soviet KGB deputy station chief in Warsaw, was the translator Castro used for contact with the Russians during this period. In a personal letter to Khrushchev dated October 27, 1962, Castro urged him to launch a nuclear first strike against the United States if Cuba were invaded, but Khrushchev rejected any first strike response. [70] Soviet field commanders in Cuba were, however, authorized to use tactical nuclear weapons if attacked by the United States. Khrushchev agreed to remove the missiles in exchange for a US commitment not to invade Cuba and an understanding that the US would secretly remove American MRBMs targeting the Soviet Union from Turkey and Italy, a measure that the US implemented a few months later. The missile swap was never publicized because the Kennedy Administration demanded secrecy in order to preserve NATO relations and protect Democratic Party candidates in the upcoming US elections. Assassination attempts Fabian Escalante, who was long tasked with protecting the life of Castro, estimated the number of assassination schemes or attempts by the CIA to be 638. Some such attempts allegedly included an exploding cigar, a fungal-infected scuba-diving suit, and a mafia-style shooting. Some of these plots are depicted in a documentary entitled 638 Ways to Kill Castro. [71] One of these attempts was by his ex-lover Marita Lorenz whom he met in She allegedly agreed to aid the CIA and attempted to smuggle a jar of cold cream containing poison pills into his room. When Castro realized, he reportedly gave her a gun and told her to kill him but her nerve failed. [72] Castro once said, in regards to the numerous attempts on his life he believes have been made, "If surviving assassination attempts were an Olympic event, I would win the gold medal." According to the Family Jewels documents declassified by the CIA in 2007, one such assassination attempt before the Bay of Pigs invasion involved Johnny Roselli and Al Capone's successor in the Chicago Outfit, Salvatore Giancana and his right-hand man Santos Trafficante. It was personally authorized by then US attorney general Robert Kennedy [73]. Giancana and Miami Syndicate leader Santos Trafficante were contacted in September 1960 about the possibility of an assassination attempt by a go-between from the CIA, Robert Maheu, after Maheu had contacted Johnny Roselli, a member of the Las Vegas Syndicate and Giancana's number-two man. Maheu had presented himself as a representative of numerous international business firms in Cuba that were being expropriated by Castro. He offered $150,000 for the "removal" of Castro through this operation (the documents suggest that neither Roselli nor Giancana and Trafficante accepted any sort of payments for the job). According to the files, it was Giancana who suggested using a series of poison pills that could be used to doctor Castro's food and drink. These pills were given by the CIA to Giancana's nominee Juan Orta, whom Giancana presented as being an official in the Cuban government who was also in the pay of gambling interests, and who did have access to Castro. After a series of six attempts to introduce the poison into Castro's food, Orta abruptly demanded to be let out of the mission, handing over the job to another, unnamed participant. Later, a second attempt was mounted through Giancana and Trafficante using Dr. Anthony Verona, the leader of the Cuban Exile Junta, who had, according to Trafficante, become "disaffected with the apparent ineffectual progress of the Junta". Verona requested $10,000 in expenses and $1,000 worth of communications equipment. However, it is unknown how far the second attempt went, as the entire program was cancelled shortly thereafter due to the launching of the Bay of Pigs Invasion. [74][75][76] United States embargo Main article: United States embargo against Cuba Jose Maria Aznar, former Spanish Prime Minister, wrote that the embargo was Castro's greatest ally, and that Castro would lose his presidency within three months if the embargo was lifted. [77] Castro retained control after Cuba became bankrupt and isolated following the collapse of the Soviet Union in The synergic contraction of Cuban economy resulted in eighty-five percent

99 of its markets disappearing, along with subsidies and trade agreements that had supported it, causing extended gas and water outages, severe power shortages, and dwindling food supplies. [78] In 1994, the island's economy plunged into what was called the "Special Period"; teetering on the brink of collapse. Cuba legalized the US dollar, turned to tourism, and encouraged the transfer of remittances in US dollars from Cubans living in the USA to their relatives on the Island. After massive damage caused by Hurricane Michelle in 2001, Castro proposed a one-time cash purchase of food from the U.S. while declining a U.S. offer of humanitarian aid. [79] The U.S. authorized the shipment of food in 2001, the first since the embargo was imposed. [80] During 2004, Castro shut down 118 factories, including steel plants, sugar mills and paper processors to compensate for the crisis due to fuel shortages. [81], and in 2005 directed thousands of Cuban doctors to Venezuela in exchange for oil imports. [82] Foreign relations Main article: Foreign relations of Cuba Soviet Union Following the establishment of diplomatic ties to the Soviet Union, and after the Cuban Missile Crisis, Cuba became increasingly dependent on Soviet markets and military and economic aid. Castro was able to build a formidable military force with the help of Soviet equipment and military advisors. The KGB kept in close touch with Havana, and Castro tightened Communist Party control over all levels of government, the media, and the educational system, while developing a Soviet-style internal police force. Fidel Castro embracing former Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev. the country's government. Castro's alliance with the Soviet Union caused something of a split between him and Guevara. In 1966, Guevara left for Bolivia in an ill-fated attempt to stir up revolution against On August 23, 1968, Castro made a public gesture to the USSR that caused the Soviet leadership to reaffirm their support for him. Two days after the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia to repress the Prague Spring, Castro took to the airwaves and publicly denounced the Czech rebellion. Castro warned the Cuban people about the Czechoslovakian 'counterrevolutionaries', who "were moving Czechoslovakia towards capitalism and into the arms of imperialists". He called the leaders of the rebellion "the agents of West Germany and fascist reactionary rabble." [83] In return for his public backing of the invasion, at a time when many Soviet allies were deeming the invasion an infringement of Czechoslovakia's sovereignty, the Soviets bailed out the Cuban economy with extra loans and an immediate increase in oil exports. In 1971, despite an Organization of American States convention that no nation in the Western Hemisphere would have a relationship with Cuba (the only exception being Mexico, which had refused to adopt that convention), Castro took a month-long visit to Chile, following the reestablishment of diplomatic relations with Cuba. The visit, in which Castro participated actively in the internal politics of the country, holding massive rallies and giving public advice to Salvador Allende, was seen by those on the political right as proof to support their view that "The Chilean Way to Socialism" was an effort to put Chile on the same path as Cuba. [84]

100 When Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev visited Cuba in 1989, the comradely relationship between Havana and Moscow was strained by Gorbachev's implementation of economic and political reforms in the USSR. "We are witnessing sad things in other socialist countries, very sad things," lamented Castro in November 1989, in reference to the changes that were sweeping such communist allies as the Soviet Union, East Germany, Hungary, and Poland. [85] The subsequent collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 had an immediate and devastating effect on Cuba. Other countries As I have said before, the ever more sophisticated weapons piling up in the arsenals of the wealthiest and the mightiest can kill the illiterate, the ill, the poor and the hungry, but they cannot kill ignorance, illness, poverty or hunger. Fidel Castro, 2002 [86] On November 4, 1975, Castro ordered the deployment of Cuban troops to Angola in order to aid the Marxist MPLA-ruled government against the South African-backed UNITA opposition forces. Moscow aided the Cuban initiative with the USSR engaging in a massive airlift of Cuban forces into Angola. On Cuba's role in Angola, Nelson Mandela is said to have remarked "Cuban internationalists have done so much for African independence, freedom, and justice." [87] Cuban troops were also sent to Marxist Ethiopia to assist Ethiopian forces in the Ogaden War with Somalia in In addition, Castro extended support to Marxist Revolutionary movements throughout Latin America, such as aiding the Sandinistas in overthrowing the Somoza government in Nicaragua in It has been claimed by the Carthage Foundation-funded Center for a Free Cuba [88] that an estimated 14,000 Cubans were killed in Cuban military actions abroad. [89] Castro never disclosed the amount of casualties in Soviet African wars, but one estimate is 14,000, a high number for the small country. [90] Juan Antonio Rodríguez Mernier, a former Cuban Intelligence Major who defected in 1987, says the regime made large amounts of money from drug trafficking operations in the 1970s. The cash was to be deposited in Fidel's Swiss bank accounts "in order to finance liberation movements". [91] Norberto Fuentes, a defected member of the Castro brothers' inner circle, has provided details about these operations. According to him, an operation conducted in cooperation with the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine helped Cuban intelligence to steal one billion by robbing banks in Lebanon during the civil war. Gold bars, jewelry, gems, and museum pieces were carried in diplomatic pouches via air route Beirut-Moscow-Havana. Castro personally greeted the robbers as heroes. [91] Castro and Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau. Cuba and Panama restored diplomatic ties in 2005 after breaking them off a year prior when Panama's former president pardoned four Cuban exiles accused of attempting to assassinate Cuban President Fidel Castro in The foreign minister of each country re-established official diplomatic relations in Havana by signing a document describing a spirit of fraternity that has long linked both nations. [92] Cuba, once shunned by many of its Latin American neighbours, now has full diplomatic relations with all but Costa Rica and El Salvador. [92] Although the relationship between Cuba and Mexico remains strained, each side appears to make attempts to improve it. In 1998, Fidel Castro apologized for remarks he made about Mickey Mouse which led Mexico to recall its ambassador from Havana. He said he intended no offense when he said earlier that Mexican children would find it easier to name Disney characters than to recount key figures in Mexican history. Rather, he said, his words were meant to underscore the cultural dominance of the US. [93] Mexican president Vicente Fox apologized to Fidel Castro in 2002 over statements by Castro, who had taped their telephone conversation, to the effect that

101 Fox forced him to leave a United Nations summit in Mexico so that he would not be in the presence of President Bush, who also attended. [94] At a summit meeting of sixteen Caribbean countries in 1998, Castro called for regional unity, saying that only strengthened cooperation between Caribbean countries would prevent their domination by rich nations in a global economy. [95] Caribbean nations have embraced Cuba's Fidel Castro while accusing the US of breaking trade promises. Castro, until recently a regional outcast, has been increasing grants and scholarships to the Caribbean countries, while US aid has dropped 25% over the past five years. [96] Cuba has opened four additional embassies in the Caribbean Community including: Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Suriname, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. This development makes Cuba the only country to have embassies in all independent countries of the Caribbean Community. [97] North Korea has granted Castro "the Golden Medal (Hammer and Sickle) and the First Class Order of the National Flag". [98] Libyan de facto leader Muammar al-gaddafi has granted Castro a "Libyan human rights prize". [99] On a visit to South Africa in 1998 he was warmly received by President Nelson Mandela. [100] President Mandela gave Castro South Africa's highest civilian award for foreigners, the Order of Good Hope. [101] Last December Castro fulfilled his promise of sending 100 medical aid workers to Botswana, according to the Botswana presidency. These workers play an important role in Botswana's war against HIV/AIDS. According to Anna Vallejera, Cuba's first-ever Ambassador to Botswana, the health workers are part of her country's ongoing commitment to proactively assist in the global war against HIV/AIDS, [102] In Harlem, Castro is seen as an icon because of his historic visit with Malcolm X in 1960 at the Hotel Theresa. [103] Castro was known to be a friend of former Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau and was an honorary pall bearer at Trudeau's funeral in October They had continued their friendship after Trudeau left office until his death. Canada became one of the first American allies openly to trade with Cuba. Cuba still has a good relationship with Canada. In 1998, Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chrétien arrived in Cuba to meet President Castro and highlight their close ties. He is the first Canadian government leader to visit the island since Pierre Trudeau was in Havana in [104] The European Union accuses the Castro regime of "continuing flagrant violation of human rights and fundamental freedoms". [105] In December 2001, European Union representatives described their political dialogue with Cuba as back on track after a weekend of talks in Havana. The EU praised Cuba's willingness to discuss questions of human rights. Cuba is the only Latin American country without an economic co-operation agreement with the EU. However, trade Vladimir Putin and Castro in with individual European countries remains strong since the US trade embargo on Cuba leaves the market free from American rivals. [106] In 2005, EU Development Commissioner Louis Michel ended his visit to Cuba optimistic that relations with the communist state will become stronger. The EU is Cuba's largest trading partner. Cuba's imprisonment of 75 dissidents and the execution of three hijackers have strained diplomatic relations. However, the EU commissioner was impressed with Fidel Castro's willingness to discuss these concerns, although he received

102 no commitments from Castro. Cuba does not admit to holding political prisoners, seeing them rather as mercenaries in the pay of the United States. [107] Castro is seen as an icon by leaders of recent socialist governments in Latin America. Hugo Chavez of Venezuela is a long-time admirer and reached agreements with Cuba to provide subsidized petroleum in exchange for Cuban medical assistance. Evo Morales of Bolivia has described him as "the grandfather of all Latin American revolutionaries". [108] Succession issues According to Article 94 of the Cuban Constitution, the First Vice President of the Council of State assumes presidential duties upon the illness or death of the president. Raúl Castro was the person in that position for the last 32 years of Fidel Castro's presidency. Due to the issue of presidential succession and Castro's longevity, there have long been rumors, speculation and hoaxing about Castro's health and demise. In 1998 there were reports that he had a serious brain disease, later discredited. [109] In June 2001, he apparently fainted during a seven-hour speech under the Caribbean sun. [110] Later that day he finished the speech, walking buoyantly into the television studios in his military fatigues, joking with journalists. [111] In January 2004, Luis Eduardo Garzón, the mayor of Bogotá, said that Castro "seemed very sick to me" following a meeting with him during a vacation in Cuba. [112] In May 2004, Castro's physician denied that his health was failing, and speculated that he would live to be 140 years old. Dr. Eugenio Selman Housein said that the "press is always speculating about something, that he had a heart attack once, that he had cancer, some neurological problem", but maintained that Castro was in good health. [113] On October 20, 2004, Castro tripped and fell following a speech he gave at a rally, breaking his kneecap and fracturing his right arm. [114] He was able to recover his ability to walk and publicly demonstrated this two months later. [115] Due to his large role in Cuba, his well-being has become a continual source of speculation both on and off the island as he has grown older. The CIA has long been interested in Castro's health. [116] In 2005, the CIA said it thought Castro had Parkinson's disease. [117][118] Castro denied such allegations, while also citing the example of Pope John Paul II in saying that he would not fear the disease. [119] Illness and transfer of duties See also: 2006 Cuban transfer of presidential duties On July 31, 2006, Castro delegated his duties as President of the Council of state, President of the Council of Ministers, First Secretary of the Cuban Communist Party and the post of commander in chief of the armed forces to his brother Raúl Castro. This transfer of duties was described at the time as temporary while Fidel recovered from surgery he underwent due to an "acute intestinal crisis with sustained bleeding". [120] Fidel Castro was too ill to attend the nationwide commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the Granma boat landing on December 2, 2006, which also became his belated 80th birthday celebrations. Castro's non-appearance fueled reports that he had terminal pancreatic cancer and was refusing treatment, [121] but on December 17, 2006 Cuban officials stated that Castro had no terminal illness and would eventually return to his public duties. [122][123] Rumors of Castro's health

103 While Cuba continues to deny claims that Castro is suffering from a terminal cancer, on December 24, 2006, Spanish newspaper El Periódico de Catalunya reported that Spanish surgeon José Luis García Sabrido has been flown to Cuba on a plane charted by the Cuban government. Dr. García Sabrido is an intestinal expert who further specializes in the treatment of cancer. The plane that Dr. García Sabrido's traveled in also was reported to be carrying a large quantity of advanced medical equipment. [124][125] On December 26, 2006, shortly after returning to Madrid, Dr. García Sabrido held a news conference in which he answered questions about Castro's health. He stated that "He does not have cancer, he has a problem with his digestive system," and added, "His condition is stable. He is recovering from a very serious operation. It is not planned that he will undergo another operation for the moment." [126] Although most Cubans acknowledge that they are aware Castro is seriously ill, most also seem worried about a future without Castro. [127] On January 16, 2007, the Spanish newspaper, El País, citing two unnamed sources from the Gregorio Marañón hospital who employs Dr. García Sabrido in Madrid, reported Castro was in "very grave" condition, having trouble cicatrizing, after three failed operations and complications from an intestinal infection caused by a severe case of diverticulitis. However, Dr. García Sibrido told CNN that he was not the source of the report and that "any statement that doesn't come directly from [Castro's] medical team is without foundation." [128] Also, a Cuban diplomat in Madrid said the reports were lies and declined to comment, while White House press secretary Tony Snow said the report appeared to be "just sort of a roundup of previous health reports. We've got nothing new." [129][130][131] On January 30, 2007, Cuban television and the paper Juventud Rebelde showed fresh video and photos from a meeting between Castro and Hugo Chavez said to have taken place the previous day. [132][133] In mid-february 2007, it was reported by the Associated Press that Acting President Raul Castro had said that Fidel Castro's health was improving and he was taking part in all important issues facing the government. "He's consulted on the most important questions," Raul Castro said of Fidel. "He doesn't interfere, but he knows about everything." [134] On February 27, 2007, Reuters reported that Fidel Castro had called into Aló Presidente, a live radio talk show hosted by Hugo Chávez, and chatted with him for thirty minutes during which time he sounded "much healthier and more lucid" than he had on any of the audio and video tapes released since his surgery in July. Castro reportedly told Chávez, "I am gaining ground. I feel I have more energy, more strength, more time to study," adding with a chuckle, "I have become a student again." Later in the conversation (transcript in Spanish; audio), he made reference to the fall of the world stock markets that had occurred earlier in the day and remarked that it was proof of his contention that the world capitalist system is in crisis. [135] Reports of improvements in his condition continued to circulate throughout March and early April. On April 13, 2007, Chávez was quoted by the Associated Press as saying that Castro has "almost totally recovered" from his illness. That same day, Cuban Foreign Minister Felipe Roque confirmed during a press conference in Vietnam that Castro had improved steadily and had resumed some of his leadership responsibilities. [136] On April 21, 2007, the official newspaper Granma reported that Castro had met for over an hour with Wu Guanzheng, a member of the Politburo of the Chinese Communist Party who was visiting Havana. Photographs of their meeting showed the Cuban president looking healthier than he had in any previously released since his surgery. [137] As a comment on Castro s recovery, U.S. President George W. Bush said: "One day the good Lord will take Fidel Castro away," Hearing about this, Castro, who is an atheist, ironically replied: "Now I understand why I survived Bush's plans and the plans of other presidents who ordered my assassination: the good Lord protected me." [138] In January 2009 Castro asked Cubans not to worry about his lack of recent news columns, his failing health, and not to be disturbed by his future death. [139] At the same time pictures were

104 released of Castro's meeting with the Argentine president Cristina Fernandez on January 21, [140] Retirement "I'm really happy to reach 80. I never expected it, not least having a neighbor - the greatest power in the world - trying to kill me every day." Fidel Castro, July 21, 2006 [141] In a letter dated February 18, 2008, Castro announced that he would not accept the positions of president and commander in chief at the February 24, 2008 National Assembly meetings, saying "I will not aspire nor accept I repeat I will not aspire or accept the post of President of the Council of State and Commander in Chief," [142] effectively announcing his retirement from official public life. [143][144][145] The letter was published online by the official Communist Party newspaper Granma. In it, Castro stated that his health was a primary reason for his decision, stating that "It would betray my conscience to take up a responsibility that requires mobility and total devotion, that I am not in a physical condition to offer". [146] Succession Fidel Castro's brother Raúl Castro and Dmitry Medvedev. On February 24, 2008, the National Assembly of People's Power unanimously chose his brother, Raúl Castro, as Fidel's successor as President of Cuba. [1] In his first speech as Fidel s successor, he proposed to the National Assembly of People's Power that Fidel continue to be consulted on matters of great importance, such as defence, foreign policy and "the socioeconomic development of the country". The proposal was immediately and unanimously approved by the 597 members of the National Assembly. Raúl described Fidel as "not substitutable". [147] Fidel also remains the First Secretary of the Communist Party. [148] Religious beliefs Castro was raised a Roman Catholic as a child but did not practice as one. In Oliver Stone's documentary Comandante, Castro states "I have never been a believer", and has total conviction that there is only one life. [149] Pope John XXIII excommunicated Castro in 1962 on the basis of Pope Pius XII's Decree against Communism, a 1949 decree forbidding Catholics from supporting communist governments. In 1992, Castro agreed to loosen restrictions on religion and even permitted church-going Catholics to join the Cuban Communist Party. He began describing his country as "secular" rather than "atheist". [150] Pope John Paul II visited Cuba in 1998, the first visit by a reigning pontiff to the island. Castro and the Pope appeared side by side in public on several occasions during the visit. Castro wore a dark blue business suit (in contrast to his fatigues) in his public meetings with the Pope and treated him with reverence and respect. [151] In December 1998, Castro formally reinstated Christmas Day as the official celebration for the first time since its abolition by the Communist Party in [152] Cubans were again allowed to mark Christmas as a holiday and to openly hold religious processions. The Pope sent a telegram to Castro thanking him for restoring Christmas as a public holiday. [153]

105 Castro attended a Roman Catholic convent blessing in The purpose of this unprecedented event was to help bless the newly restored convent in Old Havana and to mark the fifth anniversary of the Pope's visit to Cuba. [154] The senior spiritual leader of the Orthodox Christian faith arrived in Cuba in 2004, the first time any Orthodox Patriarch has visited Latin America in the Church's history: Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I consecrated a cathedral in Havana and bestowed an honor on Fidel Castro. [155] His aides said that he was responding to the decision of the Cuban Government to build and donate to the Orthodox Christians a tiny Orthodox cathedral in the heart of old Havana. [156] After Pope John Paul II's death in April 2005, an emotional Castro attended a mass in his honor in Havana's cathedral and signed the Pope's condolence book at the Vatican Embassy. [157] He had last visited the cathedral in 1959, 46 years earlier, for the wedding of one of his sisters. Cardinal Jaime Lucas Ortega y Alamino led the mass and welcomed Castro, who was dressed in a black suit, expressing his gratitude for the "heartfelt way the death of our Holy Father John Paul II was received (in Cuba)." [158] Public image By wearing military-style uniforms and leading mass demonstrations, Castro projected an image of a perpetual revolutionary. He was mostly seen in military attire, but his personal tailor, Merel Van 't Wout, convinced him to occasionally change to a business suit. [159] Castro is often referred to as "Comandante", but is also nicknamed "El Caballo", meaning "The Horse", a label that was first attributed to Cuban entertainer Benny Moré, who on hearing Castro passing in the Havana night with his entourage, shouted out "Here comes the horse!" [160] During the revolutionary campaign, fellow rebels knew Castro as "The Giant". [161] Large throngs of people gathered to cheer at Castro's fiery speeches, which typically lasted for hours. Many details of Castro's private life, particularly involving his family members, are scarce as the media is forbidden to mention them. [162] Castro's image appears frequently in Cuban stores, classrooms, taxicabs, and national television. [163] Castro has stated that he does not promote a cult of personality. [164] Family By his first wife Mirta Díaz-Balart, whom he married on October 11, 1948, Castro has a son named Fidel Ángel "Fidelito" Castro Díaz-Balart, born on September 1, Díaz-Balart and Castro were divorced in 1955, and she remarried Emilio Núñez Blanco. After a spell in Madrid, Díaz-Balart reportedly returned to Havana to live with Fidelito and his family. [165] Fidelito grew up in Cuba; for a time, he ran Cuba's atomic-energy commission before being removed from the post by his father. [166] Díaz-Balart's nephews are Republican U.S. Congressmen Lincoln Diaz- Balart and Mario Diaz-Balart, vocal critics of the Castro government. Fidel has five other sons by his second wife, Dalia Soto del Valle: Antonio, Alejandro, Alexis, Alexander "Alex" and Ángel Castro Soto del Valle. [166] While Fidel was married to Mirta, he had an affair with Natalia "Naty" Revuelta Clews, born in Havana in 1925 and married to Orlando Fernández, resulting in a daughter named Alina Fernández-Revuelta. [166] Alina left Cuba in 1993, disguised as a Spanish tourist, [167] and sought asylum in the United States. She has been a vocal critic of her father's policies. By an unnamed woman he had another son, Jorge Ángel Castro. Fidel has another daughter, Francisca Pupo (born 1953) the result of a one night affair. Ms. Pupo and her husband now live in Miami. [2][168] His sister Juanita Castro has been living in the United States since the early 1960s. When she emigrated, she said "I cannot longer remain indifferent to what is happening in my country. My

106 brothers Fidel and Raúl have made it an enormous prison surrounded by water. The people are nailed to a cross of torment imposed by international Communism." [169] Controversy and criticism Human rights record Main articles: Human rights in Cuba and Censorship in Cuba Many of Castro's critics describe him as a dictator [170][171][172][173][174] and his rule was the longest to-date in modern Latin American history. [171][172][173][174] The Human Rights Watch organization has suggested that Castro constructed a "repressive machinery" which "continues to deprive Cubans of their basic rights". [175] Allegations of mismanagement In their book, Corruption in Cuba, Sergio Diaz-Briquets and Jorge F. Pérez-López Servando state that Castro "institutionalized" corruption and that "Castro's state-run monopolies, cronyism, and lack of accountability have made Cuba one of the world's most corrupt states". [176] Servando Gonzalez, in The Secret Fidel Castro, calls Castro a "corrupt tyrant". [177] In 1959, according to Gonzalez, Castro established "Fidel's checking account", from which he could draw funds as he pleased. [177] The "Comandante's reserves" were created in 1970, from which Castro allegedly "provided gifts to many of his cronies, both home and abroad". [177] Gonzalez asserts that Comandante's reserves have been linked to counterfeiting business empires and money laundering. [177] As early as 1968, a once-close friend of Castro's wrote that Castro had huge accounts in Swiss banks. [177] Castro's secretary was allegedly seen using Zurich banks. [177] Gonzalez believes that Cuba's paucity of trade with Switzerland contrasts oddly with the National Office of Cuba's relatively large office in Zurich. [177] Castro has denied having a bank account abroad with even a dollar in it. [178] Anti-Castro activist and poet Jorge Valls was on record stating that Castro never knew how to love, and that "Fidel tried a respectable marriage, which failed; he tried respectable politics, which failed". [24] Allegations of wealth A KGB officer, Alexei Novikov, stated that Castro's personal life, like the lives of the rest of the Communist elite, is "shrouded under an impenetrable veil of secrecy". Among other things, he asserted that Castro has a personal guard of more than 9700 men and three luxurious yachts. [177] In 2005, American business and financial magazine Forbes listed Castro among the world's richest people, with an estimated net worth of $550 million. The estimates, which the magazine admitted were "more art than science", [179] claimed that the Cuban leader's personal wealth was nearly double that of Britain's Queen Elizabeth II, despite anecdotal evidence from diplomats and businessmen that the Cuban leader's personal life was notably austere. [178] This assessment was drawn by making economic estimates of the net worth of Cuba's state-owned companies, and used the assumption that Castro had personal economic control. [180] Forbes Magazine later increased the estimates to $900 million, adding rumors of large cash stashes in Switzerland. [178] The magazine offered no proof of this information, [179] and according to CBS news, Castro's entry on the rich list was notably brief compared to the amount of information provided on other figures. [179] Castro, who had considered suing the magazine, responded that the claims were "lies and slander", and that they were part of a US campaign to discredit him. [178] He declared: "If they can

107 prove that I have a bank account abroad, with $900m, with $1m, $500,000, $100,000 or $1 in it, I will resign." [178] President of Cuba's Central Bank, Francisco Soberón, called the claims a "grotesque slander", asserting that money made from various state owned companies is pumped back into the island's economy, "in sectors including health, education, science, internal security, national defense and solidarity projects with other countries." [180] Legacy Fidel Castro remains a very controversial figure to this day. Whether his legacy will be interpreted in a positive or negative light is frequently debated in political circles. Those who support his government generally state that Cuba has one of the world's highest literacy rates and most effective healthcare systems, low wealth inequalities, a stable government, and record of supporting international populist struggles in Africa. [citation needed] His detractors point out Cuba's bleak human rights record, authoritarian state, stagnant economy, and repression of political [citation needed] dissent. In October of 2009, Castro was named "World Hero of Solidarity" by the United Nations General Assembly. [181] Authored works Fully or partially by Fidel Castro Capitalism in Crisis: Globalization and World Politics Today, Ocean Press, 2000, ISBN Che: A Memoir, Ocean Press, 2005, ISBN X Cuba at the Crossroads, Ocean Press, 1997, ISBN X Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography, Scribner, 2008, ISBN Fidel Castro Reader, Ocean Press, 2007, ISBN Fidel My Early Years, Ocean Press, 2004, ISBN Fidel & Religion: Conversations with Frei Betto on Marxism & Liberation Theology, Ocean Press, 2006, ISBN Playa Giron: Bay of Pigs : Washington's First Military Defeat in the Americas, Pathfinder Press, 2001, ISBN X Political Portraits: Fidel Castro reflects on famous figures in history, Ocean Press, 2008, ISBN The Declarations of Havana, Verso, 2008, ISBN The Prison Letters of Fidel Castro, Nation Books, 2007, ISBN War, Racism and Economic Justice: The Global Ravages of Capitalism, Ocean Press, 2002, ISBN See also 26th of July Movement Agrarian Reform Laws of Cuba Politics of Cuba Opposition to Fidel Castro Cuban transfer of presidential duties Comandante Fidel (film) Fidel (2001 documentary) My Life (Fidel Castro autobiography) 638 Ways to Kill Castro References and footnotes 1. ^ a b c "Raul Castro named Cuban president". BBC Retrieved "Raul, 76, has

108 in effect been president since and the National Assembly vote was seen as formalising his position." 2. ^ a b c 3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Thomas M. Leonard. ISBN Fidel Castro. 4. ^ DePalma, Anthony (2006). The Man Who Invented Fidel. Public Affairs. 5. ^ a b c d Bockman, Larry James (April ). "The Spirit Of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise To Power, ". Retrieved ^ a b Sweig, Julia E. (2002). Inside the Cuban Revolution. Harvard University Press. ISBN ^ Audio: Cuba Marks 50 Years Since 'Triumphant Revolution' by Jason Beaubien, NPR All Things Considered, January ^ Encyclopedia Britannica entry for Fulgencio Batista 9. ^ a b "1959: Castro sworn in as Cuban PM". BBC News. m. Retrieved ^ "Spanish newspaper gives more details on Castro condition". CNN. Retrieved ^ Castro, Fidel (February 19, 2008). "Mensaje del Comandante en Jefe" (in Spanish) (PDF). Granma. Retrieved ^ Castro, Fidel (February 19, 2008). "Message from the Commander in Chief". Granma. Retrieved ^ The Castropedia: Fidel's Cuba in facts and figures, Belfast Telegraph 14. ^ Bardach, Ann Louise : Cuba Confidential. p ^ a b Raffy, Serge Castro el Desleal. Santillana Ediciones Generales, S.L. Madrid. ISBN ^ a b Fuentes, Norberto 2005 La Autobiografia de Fidel Castro. Destino Ediciones. ISBN ^ a b "Fidel Castro: From Student to Revolutionary". History Television. Alliance Atlantis Communications Inc.. Retrieved ^ "CASTRO, BASEBALL, AND THE GREAT DIVIDE" ^ "Fidel Castro" ^ a b c Thomas, Hugh : Cuba the Pursuit of Freedom p ^ Sweig ^ Bardach, Ann Louise : Cuba Confidential. p ^ The United States and the Origins of the Cuban Revolution: An Empire of Liberty in an Age of National Liberation, Jules R. Benjamin, 1992, p ^ a b c d e f g h Georgie Anne Geyer. Guerrilla Prince. 25. ^ Hugh Thomas. Cuba : The Pursuit of Freedom p ^ Duboise, Jules (1959). Fidel Castro: Rebel-Liberator or Dictator?. Indianapolis: Bobbs- Merrill Company, Inc. 27. ^ Sierra, J. A.. "The Sierra Maestra". historyofcuba.com. Retrieved ^ a b Tabío, Pedro Álvarez (1975). "History Will Absolve Me". Editorial de Ciencias Sociales, La Habana, Cuba. Retrieved ^ a b Andrew, Christopher; Gordievsky, Oleg (1991). Instructions from the Centre: Top Secret Files from the KGB's Foreign Operations. Hodder & Stoughton General Division. ISBN ^ a b Sierra, J. A.. "The Landing of the Granma". historyofcuba.com. Retrieved

109 31. ^ Thomas, Hugh (1998). Cuba or The Pursuit of Freedom (Updated Edition). New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN ^ Cannon, Terrance (1981). Revolutionary Cuba. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell. 33. ^ Cannon, Terrance (1981). "Frank País and the Underground Movement in the cities". historyofcuba.com. Retrieved ^ Alter, James (April 2006). "Review: The Man Who Invented Fidel". The International Herald Tribune. Retrieved ^ De Palma, Anthony. "Book Excerpt: The Man Who Invented Fidel: Castro, Cuba, and Herbert L. Matthews of the New York Times". historyofcuba.com. Retrieved ^ St George, Andrew ( ). "Biography: Andrew St George". Spartacus Educational. Retrieved ^ Familia Chibás > Raul Antonio Chibás > Manifiesto Sierra Maestra 38. ^ Why We Fight 39. ^ "The Cuban dictator's birthday is a reminder that it's time to get ready for the post- Castro era". San Antonio Express-News _reminder_that_its_time_to_get_ready_for_the_post-castro_era.html. Retrieved ^ "Cuba trade gets 'new opportunity'". USA Today Retrieved ^ "Changing Castro's Cuba". The Post and Courier Retrieved ^ Ernesto "Che" Guevara (World Leaders Past & Present), by Douglas Kellner, 1989, Chelsea House Publishers, ISBN , pg ^ a b c "How the NYT presented day-one of the Cuban Revolution". CubaNow.net. January Retrieved ^ CUBA: End of a War, TIME Magazine, January 12, ^ a b "Castro: The Great Survivor". BBC News. October Retrieved ^ "Chronology". The National Security Archive. Retrieved ^ Ernesto "Che" Guevara (World Leaders Past & Present), by Douglas Kellner, 1989, Chelsea House Publishers, ISBN , pg ^ The Political End of President Urrutia. Fidel Castro, by Robert E. Quirk Accessed 8th October ^ Thomas C. Wright. Latin America in the era of the Cuban Revolution. 50. ^ Irving Louis Horowitz and Jaime Suchlicki Cuban Communism Transaction Publishers, 1998, p ^ David Wallechinsky & Irving Wallace Biography of Famous Cuban Leader Fidel Castro Part ^ Russell J. Hampsey Voices from the Sierra Maestra: Fidel Castro's Revolutionary Propaganda 53. ^ snopes.com: Che Guevara, economist 54. ^ A videotape of Fidel Castro denying his support of communism was re-aired on NBC "Meet the Press" on November 25, ^ Castro's Whirl. New York Times, April 26, ^ Franqui, Carlos. "Fidel Castro's Trip to the United States". historyof Cuba.com. Retrieved

110 57. ^ Sierra, J.A.. "Timetable History of Cuba - After The Revolution". historyof Cuba.com. Retrieved ^ "First Agrarian Reform Law (1959)". Retrieved ^ Hugh Thomas, Cuba. The pursuit for freedom. p ^ "Bay of Pigs Chronology". The National Security Archives. Retrieved ^ a b c d e Paul H. Lewis. Authoritarian regimes in Latin America. 62. ^ Katherine Hirschfeld. Health, politics, and revolution in Cuba since ^ Gay Rights and Wrongs in Cuba,, Peter Tatchell (2002), published in the "Gay and Lesbian Humanist", Spring An earlier version was published in a slightly edited form as The Defiant One, in The Guardian, Friday Review, 8 June ^ Llovio-Menéndez, José Luis. Insider: My Hidden Life as a Revolutionary in Cuba, (New York: Bantam Books, 1988), p , ^ Lockwood, Lee (1967), Castro's Cuba, Cuba's Fidel. p.124. Revised edition (October 1990) ISBN ^ a b Clifford L. Staten. The history of Cuba. 67. ^ "Victorious Castro bans elections". BBC News. May Retrieved ^ Sierra, J.A. (May ). "Economic Embargo Timeline". historyofcuba.com. Retrieved ^ The Cold War, television documentary archive. King's College London, Liddell Hart Centre for Military Archives Retrieved ^ Khrushchev, Nikita Sergeyevich ( ). "Letter to Castro" (PDF). The George Washington University. Retrieved ^ "638 ways to kill Castro". The Guardian Unlimited. April Retrieved ^ Aston, Martin (25 November - 1 December 2006). "The Man Who Wouldn't Die". Radio Times. 73. ^ January 4, 1975 memorandum of conversation between President Gerald Ford and Henry Kissinger, made available by the National Security Archive, June ^ [1] Holland, Steve and Andy Sullivan. "CIA Tried to get Mafia to kill Castro: documents". Reuters News Service, June 26, ^ [2] "Family Jewels" Archive, pages ^ [3] Johnson, Alex. "CIA opens the book on a shady past." MSNBC, June 26, ^ "US embargo of Cuba is Castro's 'great ally', says former Spanish PM". Caribbean Net News. April Retrieved ^ Brandford, Becky (June ). "Cuba's hardships fuel discontent". BBC News. Retrieved ^ "Castro welcomes one-off US trade". BBC News Retrieved ^ "US food arrives in Cuba". BBC News Retrieved ^ "Cuba to shut plants to save power". BBC News Retrieved ^ Morris, Ruth (December ). "Cuba's Doctors Resuscitate Economy Aid Missions Make Money, Not Just Allies". Sun-Sentinel.com &FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&date=Dec+18%2C+2005&author=Ruth+Morris+Hav ana+bureau&pub=south+florida+sun+- +Sentinel&edition=&startpage=1.A&desc=CUBA%27S+DOCTORS+RESUSCITATE+EC

111 ONOMY+AID+MISSIONS+MAKE+MONEY%2C+NOT+JUST+ALLIES. Retrieved ^ Castro, Fidel (August 1968). "Castro comments on Czechoslovakia crisis". FBIS ^ Quirk, Robert (August 1995). Fidel Castro. W. W. Norton & Company. 85. ^ "Castro Laments 'Very Sad Things' in Bloc". Washington Post Retrieved ^ March 21, 2002 Speech by Fidel Castro at the international conference on financing for development. 87. ^ Mandela, Nelson. "Attributed quotes of Nelson Mandela". Wikiquote.org. Retrieved ^ "Recipient Grants: Center for a Free Cuba" Retrieved ^ O'Grady, Mary Anastasia ( ). "Counting Castro's Victims". Wallstreet Journal, Center for a Free Cuba. Retrieved ^ Return to Havana by Maurice Halperin 91. ^ a b Maria C. Werlau. "Fidel Castro, Inc.: A global conglomerate" ^ a b "Cuba and Panama restore relations". BBC News Retrieved ^ "Castro says sorry to Mexico". BBC News Retrieved ^ "Mexico's Fox apologises to Castro". BBC News Retrieved ^ "Castro calls for Caribbean unity". BBC News Retrieved ^ "Castro finds new friends". BBC News. August Retrieved ^ "Cuba opens more Caribbean embassies". Caribbean Net News. March Retrieved ^ "Democratic Korea decorates President Fidel Castro". Granma ^ "Libyan human rights prize awarded to Fidel Castro of Cuba". BBC News. August Retrieved ^ "Castro's state visit to South Africa". BBC News. September Retrieved ^ "Castro ends state-visit to South Africa". BBC News. September Retrieved ^ "Fidel Castro's "promise to Botswana fulfilled"". afrol News. December Retrieved ^ "Malcolm X Chronology". Columbia University ^ "Canadian PM visits Fidel in April". BBC News. April Retrieved ^ "EU-Cuba relations" ^ "EU and Cuba bury the hatchet". BBC News Retrieved ^ Gibbs, Stephen ( ). "EU 'optimistic' after Cuba visit". BBC News. Retrieved

112 108. ^ "Spiegel interview with Bolivia's Evo Morales". Der Spiegel Retrieved ^ "Castro says he feels fine". BBC News ^ "Castro collapses during speech". BBC News Retrieved ^ "Castro finishes speech after collapse". BBC New. June Retrieved ^ "Bogota mayor: Castro health deteriorating". CNN.com Retrieved ^ "Fidel Castro can live to 140, doctor says". The Sydney Morning Herald Retrieved ^ "Castro breaks knee, arm in fall". BBC News Retrieved ^ "First walk for Castro after fall". BBC News. December Retrieved ^ Westcott, Kathryn (November ). "Why health matters for CIA". BBC News. Retrieved ^ Nordqvist, Christian (November 2005). "Fidel Castro has Parkinson's Disease, thinks the CIA". Medical News Today. Retrieved ^ "Castro has Parkinson's says CIA". BBC News. November Retrieved ^ Nordqvist, Christian (November 2005). "Parkinson's disease a CIA fabrication, says Fidel Castro". Medical News Today. Retrieved ^ ^ "Casto in Cancer Battle". Sky News. December 8, ^ "Castro has no terminal illness, officials tell congressman". CNN. December 17, ^ "U.S. lawmakers told Castro not dying, no cancer". Reuters. December 17, ^ "Surgeon 'flew in to treat Castro'". BBC. December 25, ^ "Spanish Doctor is Said to Be Aiding Castro". The New York Times. December 25, ^ "Castro does not have cancer, says Spanish doctor". Times Online. Retrieved ^ Gonzalez-Torres, Fernan (December ). "Cubans look to future with trepidation". BBC News. Retrieved ^ "Spanish newspaper: Castro prognosis 'very grave'". CNN. January Retrieved ^ Roman, Mar (January ). "Castro reportedly in 'grave' condition". Associated Press. N=HOME&TEMPLATE=DEFAULT. Retrieved

113 130. ^ "Una cadena de actuaciones médicas fallidas agravó el estado de Castro". El Pais. January estado/castro/elpepuint/ elpepiint_16/tes. Retrieved ^ Boadle, Anthony (January ). "Castro had 3 failed surgeries, paper says". Reuters. Retrieved ^ Report from Juventud Rebelde (in Spanish) 133. ^ Miami Herald - Weak Castro in new video 134. ^ "Raul Castro Thinks Fidel Improving". Associated Press, February 10, ^ Pretel, Enrique Andres (February ). "Cuba's Castro says recovering, sounds stronger". Reuters AlertNet. Retrieved ^ Pearson, Natalie Obiko (April ). "Venezuela: Ally Castro Recovering". Associated Press. Retrieved ^ "Castro resumes official business". BBC News. April Retrieved ^ "Bush wishes Cuba's Castro would disappear". Reuters. June Retrieved ^ Govan, Fiona ( ). "Fidel Castro sends farewell message to his people". The Daily Telegraph. 28/Fidel-Castro-sends-farewell-message-to-his-people.html. Retrieved ^ "Fidel contemplates his mortality". BBC Retrieved ^ Fidel Castro, 20th Century Revolutionary by Anthony Boadle, Reuters, February 19, ^ Castro, Fidel (February 18, 2008). "Message from the Commander in Chief". Diario Granma (Comité Central del Partido Comunista de Cuba). Retrieved ^ "Fidel Castro announces retirement". BBC News Retrieved ^ "Fidel Castro stepping down as Cuba's leader". Reuters Retrieved ^ "Fidel Castro will step down after 50 years at Cuba's helm". miamiherald.com Retrieved ^ "Fidel Castro announces retirement". BBC News Retrieved ^ CUBA: Raúl Shares His Seat with Fidel 148. ^ "Raul Castro Chosen to Lead Cuba". Voice of America Retrieved ^ Comandante - Fidel Castro & Oliver Stone at YouTube (Adobe Flash video) 150. ^ "Pope John Paul II's visit to Cuba" ^ Rother, Larry (January 28, 1998). "Pope Condemns Embargo; Castro Attends Mass". The New York Times ^ "Castro ratifies Christmas holiday". BBC News. December Retrieved ^ "Pope's Christmas message for Castro". BBC News. December Retrieved

114 154. ^ "Castro attends convent blessing". BBC News. March Retrieved ^ A new Greek Orthodox Cathedral consecrated in Havana, Cuba March ^ Gibbs, Stephen (January ). "Castro greets Orthodox patriarch". BBC News. Retrieved ^ Newman, Lucia (April 6, 2005). "Castro signs pope's condolence book". CNN.com ^ Batista, Carlos ( ). "Fidel Castro mourns pope at Havana cathedral". Caribbean Net News. Retrieved ^ "In brief". Arizona Daily Wildcat Retrieved ^ Richard Gott, Cuba : A new history. p Yale press ^ Jon Lee Anderson. Che Guevara : A revolutionary life. p ^ Fidel Castro's Family 163. ^ ^ "Fidel Castro" PBS Online Newshour February 12, ^ Ann Louise Bardach : Cuba Confidential. p. 67. "One knowledgable source claims that Mirta returned to Cuba in early 2002 and is now living with Fidelito and his family." 166. ^ a b c Jon Lee Anderson, "Castro's Last Battle: Can the revolution outlive its leader?" The New Yorker, July 31, ^ Boadle, Anthony ( ). "Cuba's first family not immune to political rift". Reuters. b1fb-2cc9e Retrieved ^ Cuba confidential: Love and Vengeance in Miami and Havana By Ann Louise Bardach; Random House, Inc., 2002; ISBN ^ "The Bitter Family (page 1 of 2)". Time Magazine Retrieved ^ Jay Mallin. Covering Castro: rise and decline of Cuba's communist dictator. Transaction Publishers. ISBN ^ a b D. H. Figueredo. The complete idiot's guide to Latino history and culture ^ a b "Farewell Fidel: The man who nearly started World War III". Daily Mail. World-War-III.html ^ a b Catan, Thomas. "Fidel Castro bows to illness and age as he quits centre stage after 50 years - Times Online". Retrieved ^ a b "Fidel's fade-out" ^ "Cuba: Fidel Castro s Abusive Machinery Remains Intact". Human Rights Watch Retrieved ^ Sergio Diaz-Briquets, Jorge F. Pérez-López. Corruption in Cuba ^ a b c d e f g h Servando Gonzalez. The Secret Fidel Castro ^ a b c d e Castro denies huge fortune claim. BBC News ^ a b c Castro: I am not rich. CBS News. Assessed April 24, ^ a b Castro blasts Forbes over wealth report. Associated Press. Accessed December ^ Morales Named "World Hero of Mother Earth" by UN General Assembly by the Latin American Herald Tribune 182. ^ Ancestry of Fidel Castro

115 External links By Fidel Castro Archive of Fidel Castro's speeches in 6 languages Fidel Castro History Archive at Marxists Internet Archive. Collection of Castro's speeches "We Don't Hope for Favors from the Worst of Empires" "Where Have All the Bees Gone?" "In Spite of Everything: Reflections on the Pan-American Games" "Time for an Alliance of Civlizations Against Empire" About Fidel Castro Castro: Early Years ( ) - slideshow by LIFE magazine Arthur Miller: A Visit With Castro (The Nation) December 24, 2003 BBC: Fidel Castro: A Life in Pictures BBC Video: Fidel Castro Visits Boyhood Home of Che Guevara PBS American Experience Interactive site on Fidel Castro with a teacher's guide Guide to the Cuban Revolution Collection, Manuscripts and Archives, Yale University Library Deena Stryker Photographs of Cuba, , Duke University Libraries Digital Collections Fidel Castro at the Internet Movie Database New York Times --- Interactive Feature: Three Days With Fidel New York Times --- Slideshow: Fidel Castro Resigns as President NPR Audio: Cuba's Castro an Inspiration, Not a Role Model by Tom Gjelten, September 15, 2006 The Guardian: In Pictures - Fidel Castro The Guardian: "The Fidel I Think I Know" by Gabriel García Márquez, August Washington Post: Fidel Castro Will Always Lead Cuba, Locals Say February 22, 2008 Political offices Preceded by José Miró Cardona Preceded by Osvaldo Dorticós Torrado President of Cuba Party political offices Preceded by New title Preceded by Himself First Secretary of IRO Preceded by Himself First Secretary of UPCSR Prime Minister of Cuba President of the State Council of Cuba Raúl Castro acting from 2006 to First Secretary of Integrated Revolutionary Organizations First Secretary of the United Party of Cuban Socialist Revolution First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba Raúl Castro acting from present Succeeded by Merged with office of President Succeeded by Raúl Castro Succeeded by Himself First Secretary of UPCSR Succeeded by Himself First Secretary of CPC Succeeded by Incumbent

116 Military offices Preceded by None Diplomatic posts Preceded by Junius Richard Jayewardene Sri Lanka Preceded by Neelam Sanjiva Reddy India Cold War Commander-in-Chief of the Revolutionary Armed Forces Raúl Castro acting from 2006 to Secretary General of Non-Aligned Movement Secretary General of Non-Aligned Movement Succeeded by Raúl Castro Succeeded by Abdullah Ahmad Badawi Malaysia Succeeded by Raúl Castro Participants NATO Non-Aligned Movement SEATO Warsaw Pact 1940s Yalta Conference Operation Unthinkable Potsdam Conference Gouzenko Affair Iran crisis of 1946 Greek Civil War Restatement of Policy on Germany First Indochina War Truman Doctrine Marshall Plan Czechoslovak coup d'état of 1948 Tito Stalin split Berlin Blockade Western betrayal Iron Curtain Eastern Bloc Chinese Civil War (Second round) 1950s Korean War 1953 Iranian coup d'état Uprising of 1953 in East Germany 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état Partition of Vietnam First Taiwan Strait Crisis Geneva Summit (1955) Poznań 1956 protests Hungarian Revolution of 1956 Suez Crisis Sputnik crisis Second Taiwan Strait Crisis Cuban Revolution Kitchen Debate Asian African Conference Bricker Amendment McCarthyism Operation Gladio Hallstein Doctrine 1960s Congo Crisis Sino-Soviet split 1960 U-2 incident Bay of Pigs Invasion Cuban Missile Crisis Berlin Wall Vietnam War 1964 Brazilian coup d'état 1965 United States occupation of the Dominican Republic South African Border War Transition to the New Order Domino theory ASEAN Declaration Laotian Civil War Greek military junta of Cultural Revolution Sino-Indian War Prague Spring Goulash Communism Sino-Soviet border conflict 1970s Détente Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Black September in Jordan Cambodian Civil War Ping Pong Diplomacy Four Power Agreement on Berlin 1972 Nixon visit to China 1973 Chilean coup d'état Yom Kippur War Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Angolan Civil War Mozambican Civil War Ogaden War Cambodian Vietnamese War Sino-Vietnamese War Iranian Revolution Operation Condor Bangladesh Liberation War Korean Air Lines Flight s Soviet war in Afghanistan Olympic boycotts History of Solidarity

117 Contras Central American crisis RYAN Korean Air Lines Flight 007 Able Archer 83 Strategic Defense Initiative Invasion of Grenada Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 Invasion of Panama Fall of the Berlin Wall Revolutions of 1989 Glasnost Perestroika 1990s See also Organizations Races Ideologies Propaganda Breakup of Yugoslavia Dissolution of the USSR Dissolution of Czechoslovakia Soviet and Russian espionage in U.S. Soviet Union United States relations NATO Russia relations ASEAN Central Intelligence Agency Comecon European Community KGB Stasi Arms race Nuclear arms race Space Race Capitalism Liberal democracy Communism (Stalinism Trotskyism Maoism Juche Castroism Guevarism Titoism) Active measures Pravda Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Red Scare Voice of America Voice of Russia Foreign policy Truman Doctrine Marshall Plan Containment Eisenhower Doctrine Domino theory Kennedy Doctrine Peaceful coexistence Ostpolitik Johnson Doctrine Brezhnev Doctrine Nixon Doctrine Ulbricht Doctrine Carter Doctrine Reagan Doctrine Rollback Timeline of events Portal Category Notable figures of the Cold War United States Harry S. Truman George Marshall (Secretary of State) Joseph McCarthy (Republican Senator) Dwight D. Eisenhower John F. Kennedy Robert F. Kennedy Lyndon B. Johnson Richard Nixon Henry Kissinger (Secretary of State) Gerald Ford Jimmy Carter Ronald Reagan George H. W. Bush Soviet Union Joseph Stalin Nikita Khrushchev Leonid Brezhnev Yuri Andropov Konstantin Chernenko Mikhail Gorbachev Boris Yeltsin Andrei Gromyko (foreign minister) Anatoly Dobrynin (ambassador to the U.S.) United Kingdom Winston Churchill Clement Attlee Ernest Bevin (foreign secretary) Harold Macmillan Harold Wilson Margaret Thatcher West Germany Konrad Adenauer Walter Hallstein Willy Brandt Helmut

118 Schmidt Helmut Kohl People's Republic of China France Italy Mao Zedong Zhou Enlai (Premier) Hua Guofeng Deng Xiaoping Zhao Ziyang (General Secretary) Charles de Gaulle Alain Poher Georges Pompidou Valéry Giscard d'estaing François Mitterrand Alcide De Gasperi Palmiro Togliatti Giulio Andreotti Aldo Moro Enrico Berlinguer Francesco Cossiga Bettino Craxi Eastern Europe Enver Hoxha (Albania) Josip Broz Tito (Yugoslavia) Imre Nagy (Hungary) Nicolae Ceauşescu (Romania) Alexander Dubček (Czechoslovakia) Walter Ulbricht Erich Honecker (East Germany) Lech Wałęsa (Poland) Pope John Paul II (Poland/Holy See) Far East Chiang Kai-shek Chiang Ching-kuo (Republic of China/Taiwan) Syngman Rhee Park Chung-hee (South Korea) Kim Il-sung (North Korea) Ho Chi Minh (North Vietnam) Ngo Dinh Diem (South Vietnam) Pol Pot (Cambodia) U Nu Ne Win (Burma) Indira Gandhi Jawaharlal Nehru (India) Sukarno Suharto Mohammad Hatta Adam Malik (Indonesia) Nur Misuari Jose Maria Sison Ferdinand Marcos Imelda Marcos (Philippines) Canada William Lyon Mackenzie King Louis St. Laurent John Diefenbaker Lester Pearson Pierre Trudeau Joe Clark John Turner Brian Mulroney Kim Campbell Latin America Fidel Castro (Cuba) Che Guevara (Argentina/Cuba) Daniel Ortega (Nicaragua) Salvador Allende Augusto Pinochet (Chile) João Goulart (Brazil) Middle East Mohammad Reza Pahlavi Ayatollah Khomeini (Iran) Saddam Hussein (Iraq) Gamal Abdel Nasser Anwar El Sadat (Egypt) Muammar al-gaddafi (Libya) Menachem Begin (Israel) Africa Patrice Lumumba Mobutu Sese Seko (Congo/Zaire) Kwame Nkrumah (Ghana) Idi Amin (Uganda) Agostinho Neto José Eduardo dos Santos Jonas Savimbi (Angola) Mengistu Haile Mariam (Ethiopia) Timeline of events Portal Category Presidents of Cuba

119 Estrada US occupation, J. Gómez García Zayas Machado Herrera (provisional) Céspedes Pentarchy of 1933 Grau Hevia* Márquez Sterling* Mendieta* Barnet* M. Gómez Laredo Batista Grau Prío Batista^ Alliegro* Piedra* Urrutia Dorticós F. Castro R. Castro * interim ^Domingo acted as president during part of this term. Prime Ministers of Cuba, Saladrigas Zayas Zaydín Alliegro Lancís Sánchez Prío Socarrás López del Castillo de Varona Lancís Sánchez Gans Batista García Montes Rivero Agüero Núñez Portuondo Güell Miró Cardona Castro Secretaries-General of the Non-Aligned Movement Tito Nasser Kaunda Boumédienne Gopallawa Jayewardene F. Castro Reddy Singh Mugabe Drnovšek Jović Mesić Kostić Ćosić Suharto Samper Pastrana Mandela Mbeki Mahathir Abdullah F. Castro R. Castro Mubarak

120 Che Guevara Ernesto "Che" Guevara (June 14, [1] 1928 October 9, 1967) commonly known as Che Guevara, El Che, or simply Che, was an Argentine Marxist revolutionary, physician, author, intellectual, guerrilla leader, military theorist, and major figure of the Cuban Revolution. Since his death, his stylized visage has become a ubiquitous countercultural symbol and global insignia within popular culture. [4] As a young medical student, Guevara traveled throughout Latin America and was transformed by the endemic poverty he witnessed. [5] His experiences and observations during these trips led him to conclude that the region's ingrained economic inequalities were an intrinsic result of monopoly capitalism, neocolonialism, and imperialism, with the only remedy being world revolution. [6] This belief prompted his involvement in Guatemala's social reforms under President Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán, whose eventual CIA-assisted overthrow solidified Guevara's radical ideology. Later, while living in Mexico city, he met Raul and Fidel Castro, joined their 26th of July Movement, and invaded Cuba aboard the Granma with the intention of overthrowing U.S.-backed Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista. [7] Guevara soon rose to prominence among the insurgents, was promoted to second in command, and played a pivotal role in the successful two year guerrilla campaign that deposed the Batista regime. [8] Ernesto "Che" Guevara "Guerrillero Heroico" Che Guevara at the La Coubre memorial service. Taken by Alberto Korda on March 5, Date of birth: June 14, 1928 [1] Place of birth: Rosario, Argentina Date of death: October 9, 1967 (aged 39) Place of death: La Higuera, Bolivia Major organizations: Religion: None [3] 26th of July Movement, United Party of the Cuban Socialist Revolution, [2] National Liberation Army (Bolivia)

121 Following the Cuban Revolution, Guevara performed a number of key roles in the new government. These included reviewing the appeals and firing squads for those convicted as war criminals during the revolutionary tribunals, [9] instituting agrarian reform as minister of industries, Contents [hide] 1 Early life o 1.1 Motorcycle journey 2 Guatemala, Arbenz and United Fruit 3 Mexico City and preparation 4 Cuban Revolution o 4.1 Invasion, warfare and Santa Clara o 4.2 La Cabaña, land reform, and literacy o 4.3 The "New Man", Bay of Pigs and Missile Crisis 5 International diplomacy 6 Congo 7 Bolivia o 7.1 Capture and execution o 7.2 Post-execution, remains and memorial 8 Legacy 9 Timeline 10 Archival media o 10.1 Video footage o 11 List of works 12 Notes 13 References 14 External links serving as both national bank president and instructional director for Cuba s armed forces, and traversing the globe as a diplomat on behalf of Cuban socialism. Such positions allowed him to play a central role in training the militia forces who repelled the Bay of Pigs Invasion [10] and bringing to Cuba the Soviet nuclear-armed ballistic missiles which precipitated the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis. [11] Additionally, he was a prolific writer and diarist, composing a seminal manual on guerrilla warfare, along with a best-selling memoir about his youthful motorcycle journey across South America. Guevara left Cuba in 1965 to incite revolutions first unsuccessfully in Congo-Kinshasa and later in Bolivia, where he was captured by CIA-assisted Bolivian forces and executed. [12] Guevara remains both a revered and reviled historical figure, polarized in the collective imagination in a multitude of biographies, memoirs, essays, documentaries, songs, and films. Time magazine named him one of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century, [13] while an Alberto Korda photograph of him entitled Guerrillero Heroico (shown), was declared "the most famous photograph in the world." [14] Early life 10.2 Audio recording A teenage Ernesto (left) with his parents and siblings, ca Seated beside him, from left to right: Celia (mother), Celia (sister), Roberto, Juan Martín, Ernesto (father) and Ana María. Ernesto Guevara was born to Celia de la Serna y Llosa and Ernesto Guevara Lynch on June 14, 1928 [1] in Rosario, Argentina, the eldest of five children in a family of Spanish, Basque and Irish descent. [15] In lieu of his parents' surnames, his legal name (Ernesto Guevara) will sometimes appear with de la Serna, or Lynch accompanying it. In reference to Che's "restless" nature, his father declared "the first thing to note is that in my son's veins flowed the blood of the Irish rebels." [16] Very early on in life Ernestito (as he was then called) developed an "affinity for the poor". [17] Growing up in a family with leftist leanings, Guevara was introduced to a wide spectrum of political perspectives even as a boy. His father, a staunch supporter of Republicans from the Spanish Civil War, often hosted many veterans from the conflict in the Guevara home. [18]

122 Though suffering crippling bouts of acute asthma that were to afflict him throughout his life, he excelled as an athlete, enjoying swimming, soccer, golf, and shooting; while also becoming an "untiring" cyclist. [19][20] He was an avid rugby union player, and played at fly-half for the University of Buenos Aires First XV. [21] His rugby playing earned him the nickname "Fuser" a contraction of El Furibundo (raging) and his mother's surname, de la Serna for his aggressive style of play. [22] His schoolmates also nicknamed him "Chancho" ("pig"), because he rarely bathed, and proudly wore a "weekly shirt." Guevara learned chess from his father and began participating in local tournaments by age 12. During adolescence and throughout his life he was passionate about poetry, especially that of Pablo Neruda, John Keats, Antonio Machado, Federico García Lorca, Gabriela Mistral, César Vallejo, and Walt Whitman. [23] He could also recite Rudyard Kipling's "If" and José Hernández's "Martín Fierro" from memory. [23] The Guevara home contained more than 3,000 books, which allowed Guevara to be an enthusiastic and eclectic reader, with interests including Karl Marx, William Faulkner, André Gide, Emilio Salgari and Jules Verne. [24] Additionally, he enjoyed the works of Jawaharlal Nehru, Franz Kafka, Albert Camus, Vladimir Lenin, and Jean-Paul Sartre; as well as Anatole France, Friedrich Engels, H.G. Wells, and Robert Frost. [25] A 22-year-old Guevara in 1951 As he grew older, he developed an interest in the Latin American writers Horacio Quiroga, Ciro Alegría, Jorge Icaza, Rubén Darío, and Miguel Asturias. [25] Many of these authors' ideas he cataloged in his own handwritten notebooks of concepts, definitions, and philosophies of influential intellectuals. These included composing analytical sketches of Buddha and Aristotle, along with examining Bertrand Russell on love and patriotism, Jack London on society, and Nietzsche on the idea of death. Sigmund Freud's ideas fascinated him as he quoted him on a variety of topics from dreams and libido to narcissism and the oedipus complex. [25] His favorite subjects in school included philosophy, mathematics, engineering, political science, sociology, history and archaeology. [26][27] Years later, a February 13, 1958, declassified CIA 'biographical and personality report' would make note of Guevara s wide range of academic interests and intellect, describing him as "quite well read" and the comment that "Che is fairly intellectual for a Latino". [28] Motorcycle journey Main articles: The Motorcycle Diaries and The Motorcycle Diaries (film) In 1948, Guevara entered the University of Buenos Aires to study medicine. But in 1951, he took a year off from studies to embark on a trip traversing South America by motorcycle with his friend Alberto Granado, with the final goal of spending a few weeks volunteering at the San Pablo Leper colony in Peru, on the banks of the Amazon River. On the way to Machu Picchu high in the Andes, he was struck by the crushing poverty of the remote rural areas, where peasant farmers worked small plots of land owned by wealthy landlords. [29] Later on his journey, Guevara was especially impressed by the camaraderie among those living in a Leper Colony, stating "The highest forms of human solidarity and loyalty arise among such lonely and desperate people." [29] Guevara used notes taken during this trip to write an account entitled The Motorcycle Diaries, which later became a New York Times best-seller, [30] and was adapted into a 2004 award-winning film of the same name. By trip's end, he came to view Latin America not as collection of separate nations, but as a single entity requiring a continent-wide liberation strategy. His conception of a borderless, united Hispanic America sharing a common 'Latino' heritage was a theme that prominently recurred

123 during his later revolutionary activities. Upon returning to Argentina, he completed his studies and received his medical degree in June 1953, making him officially "Dr. Ernesto Guevara". [31][32] Guevara later remarked that through his travels of Latin America, he came in "close contact with poverty, hunger and disease" along with the "inability to treat a child because of lack of money" and "stupefaction provoked by the continual hunger and punishment" that leads a father to "accept the loss of a son as an unimportant accident". It was these experiences which Guevara cites as convincing him that in order to "help these people", he needed to leave the realm of medicine, and consider the political arena of armed struggle. [5] Guatemala, Arbenz and United Fruit Main article: 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état Che Guevara's movements between 1953 and 1956, including his trip north to Guatemala, his stay in Mexico and his journey east by boat to Cuba with Fidel Castro and other revolutionaries On July 7, 1953, Guevara set out again, this time to Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras and El Salvador. On December 10, 1953, before leaving for Guatemala, Guevara sent an update to his Aunt Beatriz from San José, Costa Rica. In the letter Guevara speaks of traversing through the "dominions" of the United Fruit Company, which convinced him "how terrible" the "Capitalist octopuses" were. [33] This affirmed indignation carried the "head hunting tone" that he adopted in order to frighten his more Conservative relatives, and ends with Guevara swearing on an image of the then recently deceased Josef Stalin, not to rest until these "octopuses have been vanquished." [34] Later that month, Guevara arrived in Guatemala where President Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán headed a democratically elected government that, through land reform and other initiatives, was attempting to end the latifundia system. To accomplish this, President Arbenz had enacted a major land reform program, where all uncultivated portions of large land holdings were to be expropriated and redistributed to landless peasants. The biggest land owner, and one most affected by the reforms, was the United Fruit Company, from which the Arbenz government had already taken more than 225,000 uncultivated acres. [35] Pleased with the road the nation was heading down, Guevara decided to settle down in Guatemala so as to "perfect himself and accomplish whatever may be necessary in order to become a true revolutionary". [36] In Guatemala City, Guevara sought out Hilda Gadea Acosta, a Peruvian economist who was wellconnected politically as a member of the left-leaning Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana (APRA, American Popular Revolutionary Alliance). She introduced Guevara to a number of highlevel officials in the Arbenz government. Guevara then established contact with a group of Cuban exiles linked to Fidel Castro through the July 26, 1953 attack on the Moncada Barracks in Santiago de Cuba. [37] During this period he acquired his famous nickname, due to his frequent use of the Argentine diminutive interjection che, a slang casual speech filler used similarly to "eh" or "pal." [38] Guevara's attempts to obtain a medical internship were unsuccessful and his economic situation was often precarious. On May 15, 1954, a shipment of Škoda infantry and light artillery weapons was sent from Communist Czechoslovakia for the Arbenz Government and arrived in Puerto

124 Barrios, [39][40]. As a result, the U.S. CIA sponsored an army which invaded the country and installed the right-wing dictatorship of Carlos Castillo Armas. [36] Guevara was eager to fight on behalf of Arbenz and joined an armed militia organized by the Communist Youth for that purpose, but frustrated with the group's inaction, he soon returned to medical duties. Following the coup, he again volunteered to fight, but soon after, Arbenz took refuge in the Mexican Embassy and told his foreign supporters to leave the country. Guevara s repeated calls to resist were noted by supporters of the coup, and he was marked for murder. [41] After Hilda Gadea was arrested, Guevara sought protection inside the Argentine consulate, where he remained until he received a safe-conduct pass some weeks later and made his way to Mexico. [42] He married Gadea in Mexico in September [43] The overthrow of the Arbenz regime cemented Guevara's view of the United States as an imperialist power that would oppose and attempt to destroy any government that sought to redress the socioeconomic inequality endemic to Latin America and other developing countries. In speaking about the coup Guevara stated: "The last Latin American revolutionary democracy that of Jacobo Arbenz failed as a result of the cold premeditated aggression carried out by the U.S.A. Its visible head was the Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, a man who, through a rare coincidence, was also a stockholder and attorney for the United Fruit Company." [41] Guevara's conviction that Marxism achieved through armed struggle and defended by an armed populace was the only way to rectify such conditions was thus strengthened. [44] Gadea wrote later, "It was Guatemala which finally convinced him of the necessity for armed struggle and for taking the initiative against imperialism. By the time he left, he was sure of this." [45] Mexico City and preparation Guevara arrived in Mexico City in early September 1954, and worked in the allergy section of the General Hospital. In addition he gave lectures on medicine at the National Autonomous University of Mexico and worked as a news photographer for Latina News Agency. [46] During this time he renewed his friendship with Ñico López and the other Cuban exiles whom he had met in Guatemala. In June 1955, López introduced him to Raúl Castro who subsequently introduced him to his older brother, Fidel Castro, the revolutionary leader who had formed the 26th of July Movement and was now plotting to overthrow the dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista. During a long conversation with Castro on the night of their first meeting, Guevara concluded that the Cuban's cause was the one for which he had been searching and before daybreak he had signed up as a member of the 26J Movement. [47] By this point in Guevara s life, he deemed that U.S.-controlled conglomerates installed and supported repressive regimes around the world. In this vein, he considered Batista a "U.S. puppet whose strings needed cutting." [48] Although he planned to be the group's combat medic, Guevara participated in the military training with the members of the Movement. The key portion of training involved learning hit and run tactics of guerrilla warfare. Guevara and the others underwent arduous 15 hour marches over mountains, across rivers, and through the dense undergrowth, learning and perfecting the procedures of ambush and quick retreat. From the start Guevara was Alberto Bayo's "prize student" among those in training, scoring the highest on all of the tests given. [49] At the end of the course, he was called "the best guerrilla of them all" by their instructor, Colonel Bayo. [50] Cuban Revolution Main article: Cuban Revolution Invasion, warfare and Santa Clara The first step in Castro's revolutionary plan was an assault on Cuba from Mexico via the Granma, an old, leaky cabin cruiser. They set out for Cuba on November 25, Attacked by Batista's military soon after landing, many of the 82 men were either killed in the attack or executed upon

125 capture; only 22 found each other afterwards. [51] Guevara wrote that it was during this bloody confrontation that he laid down his medical supplies and picked up a box of ammunition dropped by a fleeing comrade, finalizing his symbolic transition from physician to combatant. Only a small band of revolutionaries survived to re-group as a bedraggled fighting force deep in the Sierra Maestra mountains, where they received support from the urban guerrilla network of Frank País, the 26th of July Movement, and local campesinos. With the group withdrawn to the Sierra, the world wondered whether Castro was alive or dead until early 1957 when the interview by Herbert Matthews appeared in The New York Times. The article presented a lasting, almost mythical image for Castro and the guerrillas. Guevara was not present for the interview, but in the coming months he began to realize the importance of the media in their struggle. Meanwhile, as supplies and morale grew low, and with an allergy to mosquito bites which resulted in agonizing walnut-sized cysts on his body, [52] Guevara considered these "the most painful days of the war." [53] Riding a mule in Las Villas province, Cuba, November 1958 As the war continued, Guevara became an integral part of the rebel army and "convinced Castro with competence, diplomacy and patience." [8] Guevara set up factories to make grenades, built ovens to bake bread, taught new recruits about tactics, and organized schools to teach illiterate campesinos to read and write. [8] Moreover, Guevara established health clinics, workshops to teach military tactics, and a newspaper to disseminate information. [54] The man who three years later would be dubbed by Time Magazine: "Castro's brain", at this point was promoted by Fidel Castro to Comandante (commander) of a second army column. [8] As the only other ranked Comandante besides Fidel Castro, Guevara was an extremely harsh disciplinarian who unhesitatingly shot defectors. Deserters were punished as traitors, and Guevara was known to send execution squads to hunt down those seeking to go AWOL. [55] As a result, Guevara became feared for his brutality and ruthlessness. [56] During the guerrilla campaign, Guevara was also responsible for the often summary execution of a number of men accused of being informers, deserters or spies. [57] Although he maintained a demanding and harsh disposition, Guevara also viewed his role of commander as one of a teacher, entertaining his men during breaks between engagements with readings from the likes of Robert Louis Stevenson, Cervantes, and Spanish lyric poets. [58] His commanding officer Fidel Castro has described Guevara as intelligent, daring, and an exemplary leader who "had great moral authority over his troops." [59] Castro has further remarked that Guevara took too many risks, even having a "tendency toward foolhardiness". [60] In his trademark olivegreen military fatigues, 2 June 1959 Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán. [61] Guevara was instrumental in creating the clandestine radio station Radio Rebelde in February 1958, which broadcast news to the Cuban people with statements by the 26th of July movement, and provided radiotelephone communication between the growing number of rebel columns across the island. Guevara had apparently been inspired to create the station by observing the effectiveness of CIA supplied radio in Guatemala in ousting the government of In late July 1958, Guevara played a critical role in the Battle of Las Mercedes by using his column to halt a force of 1,500 men called up by Batista's General Cantillo in a plan to encircle and

126 destroy Castro's forces. Years later, Major Larry Bockman of the United States Marine Corps would analyze and describe Che's tactical appreciation of this battle as "brilliant." [62] During this time Guevara also became an "expert" at leading hit and run tactics against Batista s army, and then fading back into the countryside before the army could counterattack. [63] As the war extended, Guevara led a new column of fighters dispatched westward for the final push towards Havana. Travelling by foot, Guevara embarked on a difficult 7 week march only travelling at night to avoid ambush, and often not eating for several days. [64] In the closing days of December 1958, Guevara s task was to cut the island in half by taking Las Villas province. In a matter of days he executed a series of "brilliant tactical victories" that gave him control of all but the province s capital city of Santa Clara. [64] Guevara then directed his "suicide squad" in the attack on Santa Clara, that became the final decisive military victory of the revolution. [65][66] In the six weeks leading up to the Battle of Santa Clara there were times when his men were completely surrounded, outgunned, and overrun. Che's eventual victory despite the formidable odds and being outnumbered 10:1, remains in the view of some observers a "remarkable tour de force in modern warfare." [67] After the battle of Santa Clara, January 1, 1959 Radio Rebelde broadcast the first reports that Guevara's column had taken Santa Clara on New Year's Eve This contradicted reports by the heavily controlled national news media, which had at one stage reported Guevara's death during the fighting. At 3 am on January 1, 1959, upon learning that his generals were negotiating a separate peace with Guevara, Fulgencio Batista boarded a plane in Havana and fled for the Dominican Republic, along with an amassed "fortune of more than $ 300,000,000 through graft and payoffs". [68] The following day on January 2, Guevara entered Havana to take final control of the capitol. [69] Fidel Castro however took 6 more days to arrive, as he stopped to rally support in several large cities on his way to rolling victoriously into Havana on January 8, In February, the revolutionary government proclaimed Guevara "a Cuban citizen by birth" in recognition of his role in the triumph. [70] When Hilda Gadea arrived in Cuba in late January, Guevara told her that he was involved with another woman, and the two agreed on a divorce, [71] which was finalized on May 22. [72] On June 2, 1959, he married Aleida March, a Cuban-born member of the 26th of July movement with whom he had been living since late [73] La Cabaña, land reform, and literacy During the rebellion against Batista's dictatorship, the general command of the rebel army, led by Fidel Castro, introduced into the liberated territories the 19th century penal law commonly known as the Ley de la Sierra. [74] This law included the death penalty for extremely serious crimes, whether perpetrated by the dictatorship or by supporters of the revolution. In 1959, the revolutionary government extended its application to the whole of the republic and to those it considered war criminals, captured and tried after the revolution. According to the Cuban Ministry of Justice, this latter extension was supported by the majority of the population, and followed the same procedure as those in the Nuremberg Trials held by the Allies after World War II. [75] To implement a portion of this plan, Castro named Guevara commander of the La Cabaña Fortress prison, for a five-month tenure (January 2 through June 12, 1959). [76] Guevara was charged with purging the Batista army and consolidating victory by exacting "revolutionary justice" against those considered to be traitors, chivatos (informants) or war criminals. [77] Serving in the post as commander of La Cabaña, Guevara reviewed the appeals of those convicted during the revolutionary tribunal process. [9] On some occasions the penalty delivered by the tribunal was death by firing squad. [78] Raúl Gómez Treto, senior legal advisor to the Cuban Ministry of Justice, has argued that the death penalty was justified in order to prevent citizens themselves from taking

127 justice into their own hands, as happened twenty years earlier in the anti-machado rebellion. [79] Biographers note that in January 1959, the Cuban public was in a "lynching mood", [80] and point to a survey at the time showing 93% public approval for the tribunal process. [9] With 20,000 Cubans estimated to have been killed at the hands of Batista's collaborators, [81] and many of those sentenced to death accused of torture and physical atrocities, [9] the newly empowered government carried out executions "without respect for due process." [82] Although the exact numbers differ, it is estimated that several hundred people were executed during this time. [83] Conflicting views exist of Guevara's delight towards the executions at La Cabaña. Some exiled opposition biographers report that he relished the rituals of the firing squad, and organized them with gusto. [82] What is acknowledged by all sides is that Guevara had become a "hardened" man, who had no qualms about the death penalty or summary and collective trials. If the only way to "defend the revolution was to execute its enemies, he would not be swayed by humanitarian or political arguments." [82] This is further confirmed by a February 5, 1959, letter to Luis Paredes López in Buenos Aires where Guevara states unequivocally "The executions by firing squads are not only a necessity for the people of Cuba, but also an imposition of the people." [84] (right to left) Rebel leader Camilo Cienfuegos, Cuban President Manuel Urrutia, and Guevara (January 1959) Along with ensuring "revolutionary justice", the other key early platform of Guevara's was establishing agrarian land reform. Almost immediately after the success of the revolution on January 27, 1959, Che Guevara made one of his most significant speeches where he talked about "the social ideas of the rebel army." During this speech, he declared that the main concern of the new Cuban government was "the social justice that land redistribution brings about." [85] A few months later on May , the Agrarian Reform Law called on and crafted by Che Guevara went into effect, limiting the size of all farms to 1,000 acres. Any holdings over these limits were expropriated by the government and either redistributed to peasants in 67 acre parcels or held as state run communes. [86] The law also stipulated that sugar plantations could not be owned by foreigners. [87] On June 12, 1959, Castro sent Guevara out on a three-month tour of 14 countries, most of them Bandung Pact members in Africa and Asia. Sending Guevara from Havana allowed Castro to appear to be distancing himself from Che and his Marxist sympathies, that troubled both the United States and some of Castro's 26th of July Movement members. [88] He spent 12 days in Japan (July 15 27), participating in negotiations aimed at expanding Cuba's trade relations with that nation. During this visit, Guevara secretly visited the city of Hiroshima, where the American military had detonated an atom-bomb 14 years earlier. Guevara was "really shocked" at what he witnessed and by his visit to a hospital where A-bomb survivors were being treated. [89] Upon returning to Cuba in September 1959, it was evident that Castro now had more political power. The government had begun land seizures included in the agrarian reform law, but was hedging on compensation offers to landowners, instead offering low interest "bonds", which put the U.S. on alert. At this point the affected wealthy cattlemen of Camagüey mounted a campaign against the land redistributions, and enlisted the newly disaffected rebel leader Huber Matos, who along with the anti-communist wing of the 26th of July Movement, joined them in denouncing the "Communist encroachment." [90] During this time Dominican dictator Rafael Trujillo was offering assistance to the "Anti-Communist Legion of the Caribbean" who was training in the Dominican Republic. This multi-national force comprised mostly of Spaniards and Cubans, but also of Croatians, Germans, Greeks, and right-wing mercenaries, were plotting to topple Castro's new regime. [90] Such threats were heightened when on March 4, 1960, two massive explosions ripped through the French freighter La Coubre, which was carrying Belgian munitions from the port of Antwerp,

128 and docked in Havana Harbor. The blasts killed at least 76 people and injured several hundred, with Guevara personally providing first aid to some of the victims. Cuban leader Fidel Castro immediately accused the CIA of "an act of terrorism" and held a state funeral the following day for the victims of the blast. [91] It was at the memorial service that Alberto Korda took the famous photograph of Guevara, now known as Guerrillero Heroico. [92] These perceived threats prompted Castro to further eliminate "counter-revolutionaries", and utilize Guevara to now drastically increase the speed of land reform. To implement this plan, a new government agency the National Institute of Agrarian Reform (INRA) was established to administer the new Agrarian Reform law, and quickly became the most important governing body in the nation with Guevara serving as its head as minister of industries. [87] Under Guevara's command, INRA established its own 100,000 person militia, used first to help the government seize control of the expropriated land and supervise its distribution, and later to set up cooperative farms. The land confiscated included 480,000 acres owned by U.S. corporations. [87] Months later as retaliation, U.S President Dwight D. Eisenhower sharply reduced the import of Cuban sugar (Cuba s main cash crop), thus leading Guevara on July 10, 1960, to address over 100,000 workers in front of the Presidential Palace at a rally called to denounce U.S. "economic aggression." [93] Along with land reform, one of the primary areas that Guevara stressed needed national improvement was in the area of literacy. Before 1959 the official literacy rate for Cuba was between %, with educational access in rural areas and a lack of instructors the main determining factor. [94] As a result, the Cuban government at Guevara's behest dubbed 1961 the "year of education", and sent "literacy brigades" out into the countryside to construct schools, train new educators, and teach the predominately illiterate Guajiros (peasants) to read and write. Unlike many of Guevara's later economic initiatives, this campaign was "a remarkable success." [94] By the completion of the campaign, 707,212 adults were taught to read and write, raising the national literacy rate to 96 %. [94] The "New Man", Bay of Pigs and Missile Crisis Meeting with French existentialist philosophers Jean-Paul Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir in March In addition to Spanish, Guevara was Guevara then acquired the additional position of Finance Minister as President of the National Bank, which along with Minister of Industries, placed Che at the zenith of his power, as the "virtual czar" of the Cuban economy. [93] As a consequence of his new position, it was now Guevara's duty to sign the Cuban currency, which per custom would bear his signature. However, instead of using his more dignified full name, he dismissively signed the bills solely "Che". [96] It was through this symbolic act, which horrified many in the Cuban financial sector, that Guevara signaled his distaste for money and the class distinctions it brought about. [96] Guevara's long fluent in French. [95] time friend Ricardo Rojo later remarked that "the day he signed Che on the bills, (he) literally knocked the props from under the widespread belief that money was sacred." [25] Guevara's first desired economic goal, which coincided with his aversion for wealth, was to see a nation-wide elimination of material incentives in favor of moral ones. He viewed capitalism as a "contest among wolves" where "one can only win at the cost of others," and thus desired to see the creation of a "new man and woman." [97] Guevara continually stressed that a socialist economy in itself is not "worth the effort, sacrifice, and risks of war and destruction" if it ends up encouraging "greed and individual ambition at the expense collective spirit." [98] A primary goal of Guevara's thus became to reform "individual consciousness" and values to produce better workers and citizens. [98] In his view, Cuba's "new man" would be able to overcome the "egotism"

129 and "selfishness" that he loathed and discerned was uniquely characteristic of individuals in capitalist societies. [98] In describing this new method of "development", Guevara stated: "There is a great difference between free-enterprise development and revolutionary development. In one of them, wealth is concentrated in the hands of a fortunate few, the friends of the government, the best wheeler-dealers. In the other, wealth is the people s patrimony." [99] A further integral part of fostering a sense of "unity between the individual and the mass", Guevara believed, was volunteer work and will. To display this, Guevara "led by example", working "endlessly at his ministry job, in construction, and even cutting sugar cane" on his day off. [100] He was known for working 36 hours at a stretch, calling meetings after midnight, and eating on the run. [98] Such behavior was befitting of Guevara's new program of moral incentives, where each worker was now required to meet a quota and produce a certain number of goods. However, as a replacement for the pay increases abolished by Guevara, workers who now exceeded their quota only received a certificate of commendation, while workers who failed to meet their quotas were given a pay cut. [98] Guevara unapologetically defended his personal philosophy towards motivation and work, stating: "This is not a matter of how many pounds of meat one might be able to eat, or how many times a year someone can go to the beach, or how many ornaments from abroad one might be able to buy with his current salary. What really matters is that the individual feels more complete, with much more internal richness and much more responsibility." [101] Whatever the merits or demerits of Guevara s economic principles, his programs soon ended in failure. [102] Guevara's program of "moral incentives" for workers caused a rapid drop in productivity and a rapid rise in absenteeism. [103] On April 17, 1961, 1,400 U.S. trained Cuban exiles invaded the island during the Bay of Pigs Invasion. Guevara himself did not play a key role in the fighting, as one day before the invasion a warship carrying Marines faked an invasion off the West Coast of Pinar Del Rio and drew forces commanded by Guevara to that region. However, historians give Guevara, who was director of instruction for Cuba s armed forces at the time, a share of credit for the victory. [10] Author Tad Szulc in his explanation of the Cuban victory, assigns Guevara partial credit, stating: "The revolutionaries won because Che Guevara, as the head of the Instruction Department of the Revolutionary Armed Forces in charge of the militia training program, had done so well in preparing 200,000 men and women for war." [10] It was also during this deployment where he suffered a bullet grazing to the cheek when his pistol fell out of its holster and accidentally discharged. [104] In August 1961, during an economic conference of the Organization of American States in Punta del Este, Uruguay, Che Guevara sent a note of "gratitude" to U.S. President John F. Kennedy through Richard N. Goodwin, a young secretary of the White House. It read "Thanks for Playa Girón (Bay of Pigs). Before the invasion, the revolution was shaky. Now it's stronger than ever." [105] In response to U.S. Treasury Secretary Douglas Dillon presenting the Alliance for Progress for ratification by the meeting, Guevara antagonistically attacked the United States claim of being a "democracy", stating that such a system was not compatible with "financial oligarchy, discrimination against blacks, and outrages by the Ku Klux Klan." [106] Guevara continued, speaking out against the "persecution" that in his view "drove scientists like Oppenheimer from their posts, deprived the world for years of the marvelous voice of Paul Robeson, and sent the Rosenbergs to their deaths against the protests of a shocked world." [106] Guevara ended his remarks by insinuating that the United States was not interested in real reforms, sardonically quipping that "U.S. experts never talk about agrarian reform; they prefer a safe subject, like a better water supply. In short they seem to prepare the revolution of the toilets." [25]

130 Guevara, who was practically the architect of the Soviet-Cuban relationship, [107] then played a key role in bringing to Cuba the Soviet nuclear-armed ballistic missiles that precipitated the Cuban Missile Crisis in October 1962 and brought the world to the brink of nuclear war. [108] During an interview with the British Communist newspaper The Daily Worker a few weeks after the crisis, Guevara still fuming over the perceived Soviet betrayal, stated that if the missiles had been under Cuban control, they would have fired them off. [109] Sam Russell, the British correspondent who spoke to Guevara at the time came away with "mixed feelings", calling him "a warm character" and "clearly a man of great intelligence", but "crackers from the way he went on about the missiles." [109] The missile crisis further convinced Guevara that the two World's superpowers (U.S. & U.S.S.R.) used Cuba as a pawn in their own global strategies, afterward he denounced the Soviets almost as frequently as he denounced the Americans. [110] International diplomacy By December 1964, Che Guevara had emerged as a "revolutionary statesmen of world stature" and thus traveled to New York City as head of the Cuban delegation to speak at the United Nations. [25] During his impassioned address, he criticized the United Nations inability to confront the "brutal policy of apartheid" in South Africa, proclaiming "can the United Nations do nothing to stop this?" [111] Guevara then denounced the United States policy towards their black population, stating: "Those who kill their own children and discriminate daily against them because of the color of their skin; those who let the murderers of blacks remain free, protecting them, and furthermore punishing the black population because they demand their legitimate rights as free men how can those who do this consider themselves guardians of freedom?" [111] An indignant Guevara ended his speech by reciting the Second Declaration of Havana, decreeing Latin America a "family of 200 million brothers who suffer the same miseries." [111] This "epic", Guevara declared, would be written by the "hungry Indian masses, peasants without land, exploited workers, and progressive masses." To Guevara the conflict was a struggle of mass and ideas, which would be carried forth by those "mistreated and scorned by imperialism" who were previously considered "a weak and submissive flock." With this "flock", Guevara now asserted, "Yankee monopoly capitalism" now terrifyingly saw their "gravediggers." [111] It would be during this "hour of vindication" Guevara pronounced, that the "anonymous mass" would begin to write its own history "with its own blood", and reclaim those "rights that were laughed at by one and all for 500 years." Guevara ended his remarks to the United Nations general assembly by hypothesizing that this "wave of anger would "sweep the lands of Latin America", and that the labor masses who "turn the wheel of history", for the first time were "awakening from the long, brutalizing sleep to which they had been subjected. [111] Guevara later learned that there were two failed attempts on his life by Cuban exiles during his stop at the U.N. complex. [112] The first from Molly Gonzales who tried to break through barricades upon his arrival with a seven-inch hunting knife, and later during his address by Guillermo Novo with a timerinitiated bazooka that was fired off target from a boat in the East River at the United Nations Headquarters. [112][113] Afterwards, Guevara commented on both incidents stating that "it is better to be killed by a woman with a knife than by a man with a gun", while adding with a languid wave of his cigar that the explosion had "given the whole thing more flavor." [112] Walking through Red Square While in New York City, Guevara also appeared on the CBS in Moscow, November 1964 Sunday news program Face the Nation [114] and met with a range of people, from U.S. Senator Eugene McCarthy [115] to associates of Malcolm X. Malcolm X

131 expressed his admiration, declaring Guevara "one of the most revolutionary men in this country right now" while reading a statement from him to a crowd at the Audubon Ballroom. [116] On December 17, Guevara left for Paris and embarked on a three-month tour that included the People's Republic of China, the United Arab Republic (Egypt), Algeria, Ghana, Guinea, Mali, Dahomey, Congo-Brazzaville and Tanzania, with stops in Ireland and Prague. While in Ireland, Guevara embraced his own Irish heritage, celebrating Saint Patrick's Day in Limerick City. [117] He wrote to his father on this visit, humorously stating "I am in this green Ireland of your ancestors. When they found out, the television [station] came to ask me about the Lynch genealogy, but in case they were horse thieves or something like that, I didn't say much." [118] During this voyage, he wrote a letter to Carlos Quijano, editor of a Uruguayan weekly, which was later re-titled Socialism and Man in Cuba. [97] Outlined in the treatise was Guevara's summons for the creation of a new consciousness, status of work, and role of the individual. He also laid out the reasoning behind his anti-capitalist sentiments, stating: "The laws of capitalism, blind and invisible to the majority, act upon the individual without his thinking about it. He sees only the vastness of a seemingly infinite horizon before him. That is how it is painted by capitalist propagandists, who purport to draw a lesson from the example of Rockefeller whether or not it is true about the possibilities of success. The amount of poverty and suffering required for the emergence of a Rockefeller, and the amount of depravity that the accumulation of a fortune of such magnitude entails, are left out of the picture, and it is not always possible to make the people in general see this." [97] Guevara ended the essay by declaring that "the true revolutionary is guided by a great feeling of love" and beckoning on all revolutionaries to "strive every day so that this love of living humanity will be transformed into acts that serve as examples", thus becoming "a moving force". [97] The genesis for Guevara's assertions relied on the fact that he believed the example of the Cuban Revolution was "something spiritual that would transcend all borders." [25] In Algiers on February 24, 1965, he made what turned out to be his last public appearance on the international stage when he delivered a speech at an economic seminar on Afro-Asian solidarity. [119] He specified the moral duty of the socialist countries, accusing them of tacit complicity with the exploiting Western countries. He proceeded to outline a number of measures which he said the communist-bloc countries must implement in order to accomplish the defeat of imperialism. [120] Having criticized the Soviet Union (the primary financial backer of Cuba) in such a public manner, he returned to Cuba on March 14 to a solemn reception by Fidel and Raúl Castro, Osvaldo Dorticós and Carlos Rafael Rodríguez at the Havana airport. Guevara took a pro-chinese Communist stance on the Sino- Soviet split. In November 1960, he was received in Communist China by Chairman Mao Zedong with an official ceremony in the Government palace. Two weeks later, in 1965 Guevara dropped out of public life and then vanished altogether. His whereabouts were a great mystery in Cuba, as he was generally regarded as second in power to Castro himself. His disappearance was variously attributed to the failure of the industrialization scheme he had advocated while minister of industry, to pressure exerted on Castro by Soviet officials disapproving of Guevara's pro-chinese Communist stance on the Sino- Soviet split, and to serious differences between Guevara and the pragmatic Castro regarding Cuba's economic development and ideological line. The coincidence of Guevara's views with those expounded by the Chinese Communist leadership was increasingly problematic for Cuba as the nation's economy became more and more dependent on the Soviet Union. Since the early days of the Cuban revolution, Guevara had been

132 considered by many an advocate of Maoist strategy in Latin America and the originator of a plan for the rapid industrialization of Cuba which was frequently compared to China's "Great Leap Forward". Castro became weary of Guevara, because of the fact that Guevara was opposed to Soviet conditions and recommendations that Castro pragmatically saw as necessary. Of which Guevara described as corrupt "pre-monopolist". [121] However, both Guevara and Castro were supportive publicly on the idea of a united front. Following the Cuban Missile Crisis and what Guevara perceived as a Soviet betrayal when Nikita Khrushchev withdrew the missiles from Cuban territory, Guevara had grown more skeptical of the Soviet Union. As revealed in his last speech in Algiers, he had come to view the Northern Hemisphere, led by the U.S. in the West and the Soviet Union in the East, as the exploiter of the Southern Hemisphere. He strongly supported Communist North Vietnam in the Vietnam War, and urged the peoples of other developing countries to take up arms and create "many Vietnams". [122] Pressed by international speculation regarding Guevara's fate, Castro stated on June 16, 1965 that the people would be informed when Guevara himself wished to let them know. Still, rumors spread both inside and outside Cuba. On October 3, Castro revealed an undated letter purportedly written to him by Guevara some months earlier: in it, Guevara reaffirmed his enduring solidarity with the Cuban Revolution, but declared his intention to leave Cuba to fight for the revolutionary cause abroad. Additionally, he resigned from all his positions in the government and party, and renounced his honorary Cuban citizenship. [123] Guevara's movements continued to be a closely guarded secret for the next two years. Congo A 37-year-old Guevara, in the Congo Crisis, 1965 In 1965, Guevara decided to venture to Africa and offer his knowledge and experience as a guerrilla to the ongoing conflict in the Congo. According to Algerian President Ahmed Ben Bella, Guevara thought that Africa was imperialism's weak link and therefore had enormous revolutionary potential. [124] Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser, who had fraternal relations with Che dating back to his 1959 visit, saw Guevara's plans to fight in the Congo as "unwise" and warned that he would become a "Tarzan" figure, doomed to failure. [125] Despite the warning, Guevara led the Cuban operation in support of the Marxist Simba movement, which had emerged from the ongoing Congo Crisis. Guevara, his second-in-command Victor Dreke, and 12 other Cuban expeditionaries arrived in the Congo on April 24, 1965 and a contingent of approximately 100 Afro-Cubans joined them soon afterward. [126][127] They collaborated for a time with guerrilla leader Laurent-Désiré Kabila, who had previously helped supporters of the CIA-slain Patrice Lumumba lead an unsuccessful revolt months earlier. As an admirer of the late Lumumba, Guevara declared that his "murder should be a lesson for all of us." [128] Guevara, with limited knowledge of Swahili and the local languages was assigned a teenage interpreter Freddy Ilanga. Over the course of seven months Ilanga grew to "admire the hard-working Guevara", who according to Mr Ilanga, "showed the same respect to black people as he did to whites." [129] However Guevara soon became disillusioned with the discipline of Kabila's troops and later dismissed him, stating "nothing leads me to believe he is the man of the hour." [130] As an additional obstacle, white South African mercenaries, led by Mike Hoare in concert with Cuban exiles and the CIA, worked with the Congo National Army to thwart Guevara in the mountains near the village of Fizi on Lake Tanganyika. They were able to monitor his communications, and so pre-empted his attacks and interdicted his supply lines. Despite the fact that Guevara sought to conceal his presence in the Congo, the U.S. government was aware of his location and activities: The National Security Agency was intercepting all of his incoming and

133 outgoing transmissions via equipment aboard the USNS Pvt Jose F. Valdez (T-AG-169), a floating listening post that continuously cruised the Indian Ocean off Dar es Salaam for that purpose. [131] Listening to a Zenith Trans- Oceanic shortwave receiver are (seated from the left) Rogelio Oliva, José María Martínez Tamayo (known as "Mbili" in the Congo and "Ricardo" in Bolivia), and Guevara. Standing behind them is Roberto Sánchez ("Lawton" in Cuba and "Changa" in the Congo). Guevara's aim was to export the revolution by instructing local anti-mobutu Simba fighters in Marxist ideology and foco theory strategies of guerrilla warfare. In his Congo Diary, he cites the incompetence, intransigence and infighting of the local Congolese forces as key reasons for the revolt's failure. [132] Later that year, ill with dysentery, suffering from acute asthma, and disheartened after seven months of frustrations, Guevara left the Congo with the Cuban survivors (Six members of his column had died). At one point Guevara considered sending the wounded back to Cuba, and fighting in Congo alone until his death, as a revolutionary example; however, after being urged by his comrades and pressed by two emissaries sent by Castro, at the last moment he reluctantly agreed to retreat. In speaking about the Congo, Guevara concluded that "The human element failed. There is no will to fight, the leaders are corrupt; in a word, there was nothing to do." [133] A few weeks later, when writing the preface to the diary he kept during the Congo venture, he began: "This is the history of a failure." [134] Guevara was reluctant to return to Cuba, because Castro had made public Guevara's "farewell letter" a letter intended to only be revealed in the case of his death wherein he severed all ties in order to devote himself to revolution throughout the world. [135] As a result, Guevara spent the next six months living clandestinely in Dar es Salaam and Prague. During this time he compiled his memoirs of the Congo experience, and wrote drafts of two more books, one on philosophy and the other on economics. He then visited several Western European countries to test his new false identity papers, created by Cuban Intelligence for his later travels to South America. As Guevara prepared for Bolivia, he wrote a last letter to his five children to be read upon his death, which ended with him instructing them: "Above all, always be capable of feeling deeply any injustice committed against anyone, anywhere in the world. This is the most beautiful quality in a revolutionary." [136] Bolivia In rural Bolivia shortly before his death (1967) Guevara's location was still not public knowledge. Representatives of Mozambique's independence movement, the FRELIMO, reported that they met with Guevara in late 1966 or early 1967 in Dar es Salaam regarding his offer to aid in their revolutionary project, which they ultimately rejected. [137] In a speech at the 1967 International Workers' Day rally in Havana, the Acting Minister of the armed forces, Major Juan Almeida, announced that Guevara was "serving the revolution somewhere in Latin America". The persistent reports that he was leading the guerrillas in Bolivia were eventually shown to be true. At Castro's behest, a parcel of montane dry forest in the remote Ñancahuazú region had been purchased by native Bolivian Communists for Guevara to use as a training area and base camp. Training at this camp in the Ñancahuazú valley proved to be more hazardous than combat to Guevara and the Cubans accompanying him. Little was accomplished in the way of building a

134 guerrilla army. Former Stasi operative Haydée Tamara Bunke Bider, better known by her nom de guerre "Tania", who had been installed as his primary agent in La Paz, was reportedly also working for the KGB and in several Western sources she is inferred to have unwittingly served Soviet interests by leading Bolivian authorities to Guevara's trail. [138][139] Guevara's guerrilla force, numbering about 50 and operating as the ELN (Ejército de Liberación Nacional de Bolivia; "National Liberation Army of Bolivia"), was well equipped and scored a number of early successes against Bolivian regulars in the difficult terrain of the mountainous Camiri region. As a result of Guevara s units winning several skirmishes against Bolivian troops in the spring and summer of 1966, the Bolivian government began to overestimate the true size of the guerrilla force. [140] But in September, the Army managed to eliminate two guerrilla groups in a violent battle, reportedly killing one of the leaders. Location of Vallegrande in Bolivia Guevara's plan for fomenting revolution in Bolivia failed, apparently because: He had expected to deal only with the Bolivian military, who were poorly trained and equipped. However, Guevara was unaware that the U.S. government had sent a team of the CIA's Special Activities Division commandos and other operatives into Bolivia to aid the anti-insurrection effort. The Bolivian Army would also be trained, advised, and supplied by U.S. Army Special Forces including a recently organized elite battalion of Rangers trained in jungle warfare that set up camp in La Esperanza, a small settlement close to the location of Guevara's guerrillas. [141] Guevara had expected assistance and cooperation from the local dissidents which he did not receive, nor did he receive support from Bolivia's Communist Party, under the leadership of Mario Monje, which was oriented toward Moscow rather than Havana. In Guevara's own diary captured after his death, he bristled with complaints about the Communist Party of Bolivia, which he characterized as "distrustful, disloyal and stupid." [142] He had expected to remain in radio contact with Havana. However, the two shortwave transmitters provided to him by Cuba were faulty; thus the guerrillas were unable to communicate with and be resupplied, leaving them isolated and stranded. In addition, Guevara's known preference for confrontation rather than compromise, which had previously surfaced during his guerrilla warfare campaign in Cuba, contributed to his inability to develop successful working relationships with local leaders in Bolivia, just as it had in the Congo. [143] This tendency had existed in Cuba, but had been kept in check by the timely interventions and guidance of Fidel Castro. [144] The end result was that Guevara was unable to attract any inhabitants of the local area to join his militia in the 11 months he attempted recruitment [citation needed]. Near the end of the venture Guevara complained in his dairy that "the peasants do not give us any help, and are turning into informers." [145] Capture and execution Félix Rodríguez, a Cuban exile turned CIA Special Activities Division operative, advised Bolivian troops during the hunt for Guevara in Bolivia. [146] On October 7, an informant apprised the Bolivian Special Forces of the location of Guevara's guerrilla encampment in the Yuro ravine. They encircled the area with 1,800 soldiers, and Guevara was wounded and taken prisoner while leading a detachment with Simeón Cuba Sarabia. Che biographer Jon Lee Anderson reports Bolivian Sergeant Bernardino Huanca's account: that a twice wounded Guevara, his gun rendered useless, shouted "Do not shoot! I am Che Guevara and worth more to you alive than dead." [147]

135 There was no person more feared by the company (CIA) than Che Guevara because he had the capacity and charisma necessary to direct the struggle against the political repression of the traditional hierarchies in power in the countries of Latin America. Philip Agee, CIA agent, later defected to Cuba [25] Guevara was tied up and taken to a dilapidated mud schoolhouse in the nearby village of La Higuera on the night of October 7. For the next day and a half Guevara refused to be interrogated by Bolivian officers and would only speak quietly to Bolivian soldiers. One of those Bolivian soldiers, helicopter pilot Jaime Nino de Guzman, describes Che as looking "dreadful". According to De Guzman, Guevara was shot through the right calf, his hair was matted with dirt, his clothes were shredded, and his feet were covered in rough leather sheaths. Despite his haggard appearance, he recounts that "Che held his head high, looked everyone straight in the eyes and asked only for something to smoke." De Guzman states that he "took pity" and gave him a small bag of tobacco for his pipe, with Guevara then smiling and thanking him. [148] Later on the night of October 8, Guevara, despite having his hands tied, kicked Bolivian Officer Espinosa into the wall, after the officer entered the schoolhouse in order to snatch Guevara's pipe from his mouth as a souvenir. [149] In another instance of defiance, Guevara spat in the face of Bolivian Rear Admiral Urgateche shortly before his execution. [149] The following morning on October 9, Guevara asked to see the "maestra" (school teacher) of the village, 22-year-old Julia Cortez. Cortez would later state that she found Guevara to be an "agreeable looking man with a soft and ironic glance" and that during their conversation she found herself "unable to look him in the eye", because his "gaze was unbearable, piercing, and so tranquil." [149] During their short conversation, Guevara complained to Cortez about the poor condition of the schoolhouse, stating that it was "anti-pedagogical" to expect campesino students to be educated there, while "government officials drive Mercedes cars"... declaring "that's what we are fighting against." [149] Later that morning on October 9, Bolivian President René Barrientos ordered that Guevara be killed. The executioner was Mario Terán, a half-drunken sergeant in the Bolivian army who had requested to shoot Che on the basis of the fact that three of his friends from B Company all named "Mario" had been killed in an earlier firefight with Guevara's band of guerrillas. [9] To make the bullet wounds appear consistent with the story the government planned to release to the public, Félix Rodríguez ordered Terán to aim carefully to make it appear that Guevara had been killed in action during a clash with the Bolivian army. [150] Moments before Guevara was executed he was asked if he was thinking about his own immortality. "No", he replied, "I'm thinking about the immortality of the revolution." [151] Che Guevara then told his executioner, "I know you've come to kill me. Shoot, coward, you are only going to kill a man." [152] Terán hesitated, then opened fire with his semiautomatic rifle, hitting Guevara in the arms and legs. Guevara writhed on the ground, apparently biting one of his wrists to avoid crying out. Terán then fired several times again, wounding him fatally in the chest at 1:10 pm, according to Rodríguez. [153] In all Guevara was shot nine times. This included five times in the legs, once in the right shoulder and arm, once in the chest, and finally in the throat. [149] Post-execution, remains and memorial Guevara's body was then lashed to the landing skids of a helicopter and flown to nearby Vallegrande where photographs were taken of him lying on a concrete slab in the laundry room of the Nuestra Señora de Malta. [154] As hundreds of local residents filed past the body, many of them considered Guevara's corpse to represent a "Christ-like" visage, with some of them even surreptitiously clipping locks of his hair as divine relics. [155] Such comparisons were further extended when two weeks later upon seeing the post-mortem photographs, English art critic John

136 Berger observed that they resembled two famous paintings: Rembrandt's The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp and Andrea Mantegna's Lamentation over the Dead Christ. [156] A declassified memorandum dated October 11, 1967 to United States President Lyndon B. Johnson from his National Security Advisor, Walt Whitman Rostow, called the decision to kill Guevara "stupid" but "understandable from a Bolivian standpoint." [157] After the execution, Rodríguez took several of Guevara's personal items, including a Rolex GMT Master wristwatch [158] which he continued to wear many years later, often showing them to reporters during the ensuing years. [159] Today, some of these belongings, including his flashlight, are on display at The day after his execution on October the CIA. [160] After a military doctor amputated his 10, 1967, Guevara's corpse was hands, Bolivian army officers transferred Guevara's displayed to the World press in the body to an undisclosed location and refused to laundry house of the Vallegrande reveal whether his remains had been buried or hospital. (photo by Freddy Alberto) cremated. The hands were preserved in formaldehyde to be sent to Buenos Aires for fingerprint identification. (His fingerprints were on file with the Argentine police.) They were later sent to Cuba. Plaza de la Revolución, in Havana, Cuba. Aside the Ministry of the Interior building where Guevara once worked, is a 5 story steel outline of his face. Under the image is Guevara's motto, the Spanish phrase: "Hasta la Victoria Siempre" (English: Until the Everlasting Victory On October 15, Fidel Castro acknowledged that Guevara was dead and proclaimed three days of public mourning throughout the island. [161] On October 18, Castro addressed a crowd of one million mourners in Havana's Plaza de la Revolución and spoke about Guevara's character as a revolutionary. [162] Fidel Castro closed his impassioned eulogy thusly: "If we wish to express what we want the men of future generations to be, we must say: Let them be like Che! If we wish to say how we want our children to be educated, we must say without hesitation: We want them to be educated in Che s spirit! If we want the model of a man, who does not belong to our times but to the future, I say from the depths of my heart that such a model, without a single stain on his conduct, without a single stain on his action, is Che!" [163] French intellectual Régis Debray, who was captured in April 1967 while with Guevara in Bolivia, gave an Always). interview from prison, in August 1968, where he enlarged on the circumstances of Guevara's capture. Debray, who had lived with Guevara's band of guerrillas for a short time, said that in his view they were "victims of the forest" and thus "eaten by the jungle." [164] Debray described a destitute situation where Guevara's men suffered malnutrition, lack of water, absence of shoes, and only possessed six blankets for 22 men. Debray recounts that Guevara and the others had been suffering an "illness" which caused their hands and feet to swell into "mounds of flesh" to the point where you could not discern the fingers on their hands. [164] Despite the futile situation, Debray described Guevara as "optimistic about the future of Latin America" and remarked that Guevara was "resigned to die in the knowledge that his death would be a sort of renaissance", noting that Guevara perceived death "as a promise of rebirth" and "ritual of renewal." [164] In late 1995, retired Bolivian General Mario Vargas revealed to Jon Lee Anderson, author of Che Guevara: A Revolutionary Life, that Guevara's body was located near a Vallegrande airstrip. The result was a multi-national search for the remains, which would last more than a year. In July

137 1997, a team of Cuban geologists and Argentine forensic anthropologists discovered the remnants of seven bodies in two mass graves, including one man with amputated hands (like Guevara). Bolivian government officials with the Ministry of Interior later identified the body as Guevara when the excavated teeth "perfectly matched" a plaster mold of Che's teeth, made in Cuba prior to his Congolese expedition. The "clincher" then arrived when Argentine forensic anthropologist Alejandro Inchaurregui inspected the inside hidden pocket of a blue jacket dug up next to the handless cadaver and found a small bag of pipe tobacco. Nino de Guzman, the Bolivian helicopter pilot who had given Che a small bag of tobacco, later remarked that he "had serious doubts" at first and "thought the Cubans would just find any old bones and call it Che"; however he stated "after hearing about the tobacco pouch, I have no doubts." [148] On October 17, 1997, Guevara's remains, with those of six of his fellow combatants, were laid to rest with military honors in a specially built mausoleum in the city of Santa Clara, where he had commanded over the decisive military victory of the Cuban Revolution. [165] Removed when Guevara was captured was his 30,000- word, hand-written diary, a collection of his personal poetry, and a short story he authored about a young Communist guerrilla who learns to overcome his fears. [166] His diary documented events of the guerrilla campaign in Bolivia [167] with the first entry on November 7, 1966 shortly after his arrival at the farm in Ñancahuazú, and the last dated October 7, 1967, the day before his capture. The diary tells how the guerrillas were forced to begin operations prematurely because of discovery by the Che Guevara's Monument and Bolivian Army, explains Guevara's decision to divide the Mausoleum in Santa Clara, Cuba. column into two units that were subsequently unable to reestablish contact, and describes their overall unsuccessful venture. It also records the rift between Guevara and the Communist Party of Bolivia that resulted in Guevara having significantly fewer soldiers than originally expected and shows that Guevara had a great deal of difficulty recruiting from the local populace, partly because of the fact that the guerrilla group had learned Quechua, unaware that the local language was actually Tupí-Guaraní. [168] As the campaign drew to an unexpected close, Guevara became increasingly ill. He suffered from everworsening bouts of asthma, and most of his last offensives were carried out in an attempt to obtain medicine. [169] The Bolivian Diary was quickly and crudely translated by Ramparts magazine and circulated around the world. [170] There are at least four additional diaries in existence those of Israel Reyes Zayas (Alias "Braulio"), Harry Villegas Tamayo ("Pombo"), Eliseo Reyes Rodriguez ("Rolando") [138] and Dariel Alarcón Ramírez ("Benigno") [171] each of which reveals additional aspects of the events. In July 2008, the Bolivian government of Evo Morales unveiled Guevara's formerly sealed diaries composed in two frayed notebooks, along with a logbook and several black-and-white photographs. At this event, Bolivia's vice minister of culture, Pablo Groux, expressed that there were plans to publish photographs of every handwritten page later in the year. [172] Legacy Main articles: Legacy of Che Guevara and Che Guevara in popular culture The current court of opinion places Che on a continuum that teeters between viewing him as a misguided rebel, a coruscatingly brilliant guerrilla philosopher, a poet-warrior jousting at windmills, a brazen warrior who threw down the gauntlet to the bourgeoisie, the object of fervent paeans to his sainthood, or a mass murderer clothed in the guise of an avenging angel whose every action is imbricated in violence the archetypal fanatical terrorist.

138 Dr. Peter McLaren, author of Che Guevara, Paulo Freire, and the Pedagogy of Revolution [173] A stylized graphic of Guevara's face on a flag above the words "El Che Vive" (The Che Lives). Over forty years after his execution, Che's life and legacy still remain a contentious issue. The contradictions of his ethos at various points in his life have created a complex character of unending duality. As a result of his perceived martyrdom, poetic invocations for class struggle, and desire to create the consciousness of a new man driven by moral rather than material incentives, [174] Guevara evolved into a quintessential icon of leftist-inspired movements. An array of notable individuals have viewed Che Guevara as a hero; [175] for example, Nelson Mandela referred to him as "an inspiration for every human being who loves freedom" [25] while Jean-Paul Sartre described him as "not only an intellectual but also the most complete human being of our age." [176] Others who expressed their admiration include authors Graham Greene who remarked that Che "represented the idea of gallantry, chivalry, and adventure" [177], and Susan Sontag who expounded that "(Che's) goal was nothing less than the cause of humanity itself." [178] In the black community, philosopher Frantz Fanon professed Guevara to be "the world symbol of the possibilities of one man" [179], while Black Panther Party head Stokely Carmichael eulogized that "Che Guevara is not dead, his ideas are with us." [180] Praise has been reflected throughout the political spectrum, with the anarcho-capitalist / libertarian theorist Murray Rothbard extolling Guevara as a "heroic figure", lamenting after his death that "more than any man of our epoch or even of our century, (Che) was the living embodiment of the principle of revolution", [181] while journalist Christopher Hitchens commented that "[Che's] death meant a lot to me and countless like me at the time, he was a role model, albeit an impossible one for us bourgeois romantics insofar as he went and did what revolutionaries were meant to do fought and died for his beliefs." [182] Guevara remains a beloved national hero to many in Cuba, where his image adorns the $3 Cuban Peso and school children begin each morning by pledging "We will be like Che." [183] In his native homeland of Argentina, where high schools bear his name, [184] numerous Che museums dot the country, which in 2008 unveiled a 12 foot bronze statue of him in his birth city of Rosario. [185] Additionally, Guevara has been sanctified by some Bolivian campesinos [186] as "Saint Ernesto", to whom they pray for assistance. [187] Conversely, Machover, one of his biographers, dismisses the hero-worshipping and portrays him as a ruthless executioner. [188] Detractors have theorized that in much of Latin America, Cheinspired revolutions had the practical result of reinforcing brutal militarism and internecine conflict for many years. [189] In an assessment of Guevara, British historian Hugh Thomas acknowledge's that Che was a "brave, sincere and determined man who was also obstinate, narrow, and dogmatic." [190] At the end of his life, according to Thomas, "he seems to have become convinced of the virtues of violence for its own sake", while "his influence over Castro for good or evil" grew after his death, as Fidel took up many of his views. In Thomas' assessment "as in the case of Martí, or Lawrence of Arabia, failure has brightened, not dimmed the legend." [190] Alvaro Vargas Llosa of The Independent Institute has hypothesized that Guevara s contemporary followers "delude themselves by clinging to a myth", while describing Guevara as "Marxist Puritan" who employed his rigid power to suppress dissent, while also operating as a "cold-blooded killing machine". [189] Llosa has also accused Guevara's "fanatical disposition" as being the linchpin of the "Sovietization" of the Cuban revolution, speculating that he possessed a "total subordination of reality to blind ideological orthodoxy." [189] Guevara remains a hated figure amongst many in the Cuban exile community, who view him with animosity as "the butcher of La Cabaña." [191] Guevara's exiled grandson Canek Sánchez Guevara has also recently become an outspoken critic of the current Cuban regime. [192]

139 Despite his polarized status, a high-contrast monochrome graphic of his face has become one of the world's most universally merchandized and objectified images, [193][194] found on an endless array of items, including t-shirts, hats, posters, tattoos, and bikinis, [195] ironically contributing to the consumer culture he despised. Yet, Guevara still remains a transcendent figure both in specifically political contexts [196] and as a wide-ranging popular icon of youthful rebellion. [197] Timeline Che Guevara Timeline Archival media Video footage Guevara interviewed in 1964 on a visit to Dublin, Ireland, (2:53), English translation, from RTÉ Libraries and Archives, Video Clip Guevara reciting a poem, (1:00), English subtitles, from El Che: Investigating a Legend - Kultur Video 2001, Video Clip Guevara showing support for Fidel Castro, (0:22), English subtitles, from El Che: Investigating a Legend - Kultur Video 2001, Video Clip Guevara speaking about labor, (0:28), English subtitles, from El Che: Investigating a Legend - Kultur Video 2001, Video Clip Guevara speaking about the Bay of Pigs, (0:17), English subtitles, from El Che: Investigating a Legend - Kultur Video 2001, Video Clip Guevara speaking against imperialism, (1:20), English subtitles, from El Che: Investigating a Legend - Kultur Video 2001, Video Clip Audio recording Guevara interviewed on ABC's Issues and Answers, (23:53), English translation, narrated by Lisa Howard, March , Audio clip List of works Main article: List of works related to Che Guevara Originally written in Spanish by Ernesto "Che" Guevara, later translated into English A New Society: Reflections for Today's World, Ocean Press, 1996, ISBN Back on the Road: A Journey Through Latin America, Grove Press, 2002, ISBN Che Guevara, Cuba, and the Road to Socialism, Pathfinder Press, 1991, ISBN Che Guevara on Global Justice, Ocean Press (AU), 2002, ISBN Che Guevara: Radical Writings on Guerrilla Warfare, Politics and Revolution, Filiquarian Publishing, 2006, ISBN Che Guevara Reader: Writings on Politics & Revolution, Ocean Press, 2003, ISBN Che Guevara Speaks: Selected Speeches and Writings, Pathfinder Press (NY), 1980, ISBN Che Guevara Talks to Young People, Pathfinder, 2000, ISBN X Che: The Diaries of Ernesto Che Guevara, Ocean Press (AU), 2008, ISBN Colonialism is Doomed, Ministry of External Relations: Republic of Cuba, 1964, ASIN B0010AAN1K

140 Notes Critical Notes on Political Economy: A Revolutionary Humanist Approach to Marxist Economics Ocean Press, 2008, ISBN Episodes of the Cuban Revolutionary War, , Pathfinder Press (NY), 1996, ISBN Guerrilla Warfare: Authorized Edition Ocean Press, 2006, ISBN Latin America: Awakening of a Continent, Ocean Press, 2005, ISBN Marx & Engels: An Introduction, Ocean Press, 2007, ISBN Our America And Theirs: Kennedy And The Alliance For Progress, Ocean Press, 2006, ISBN Reminiscences of the Cuban Revolutionary War: Authorized Edition Ocean Press, 2005, ISBN Self Portrait Che Guevara, Ocean Press (AU), 2004, ISBN Socialism and Man in Cuba, Pathfinder Press (NY), 1989, ISBN The African Dream: The diaries of the Revolutionary War in the Congo Grove Press, 2001, ISBN The Argentine, Ocean Press (AU), 2008, ISBN The Bolivian Diary of Ernesto Che Guevara Pathfinder Press, 1994, ISBN The Diary of Che Guevara: The Secret Papers of a Revolutionary, Amereon Ltd, ISBN The Great Debate on Political Economy, Ocean Press, 2006, ISBN The Motorcycle Diaries: A Journey Around South America London: Verso, 1996, ISBN To Speak the Truth: Why Washington's "Cold War" Against Cuba Doesn't End, Pathfinder, 1993, ISBN ^ a b c The date of birth recorded on his birth certificate was June 14, 1928, although one tertiary source, (Julia Constenla, quoted by Jon Lee Anderson), asserts that he was actually born on May 14 of that year. Constenla alleges that she was told by an unidentified astrologer that his mother, Celia de la Serna, was already pregnant when she and Ernesto Guevara Lynch were married and that the date on the birth certificate of their son was forged to make it appear that he was born a month later than the actual date to avoid scandal. (Anderson 1997, pp. 3, 769.) 2. ^ Partido Unido de la Revolución Socialista de Cuba, aka PURSC 3. ^ Hall ^ Casey 2009, p ^ a b On Revolutionary Medicine Speech by Che Guevara to the Cuban Militia on August 19, ^ At the Afro-Asian Conference in Algeria A speech by Che Guevara to the Second Economic Seminar of Afro-Asian Solidarity in Algiers, Algeria on February 24, ^ Beaubien, NPR Audio Report, 2009, 00:09-00:13 8. ^ a b c d "Castro's Brain" ^ a b c d e Taibo 1999, p ^ a b c Kellner 1989, p ^ Anderson 1997, p ^ Ryan 1998, p ^ Dorfman ^ Maryland Institute of Art, referenced at BBC News May 26, ^ Che's last name "Guevara" derives from the Castilianized form of the Basque "Gebara", a habitational name from the province of Álava. Through his grandmother, Ana Lynch, he was a descendant of Patrick Lynch, an emigrant from Galway, Ireland in the 1740s. 16. ^ Lavretsky ^ Kellner 1989, p. 23.

141 18. ^ Anderson 1997, p ^ Sandison 1996, p ^ Kellner 1989, p ^ Cain, Nick & Growden, Greg "Chapter 21: Ten Peculiar Facts about Rugby" in Rugby Union for Dummies (2nd Edition), John Wiley and Sons, ISBN , p ^ Anderson 1997, p ^ a b Hart 2004, pg ^ Haney 2005, p ^ a b c d e f g h i (Anderson 1997, p ) 26. ^ Sandison 1996, p ^ Kellner 1989, p ^ Ratner 1997, p ^ a b Kellner 1989, p ^ NYT bestseller list: #38 Paperback Nonfiction on , #9 Nonfiction on and on more occasions. 31. ^ Anderson 1997, pp ^ A copy of Guevara's University transcripts showing conferral of his medical diploma can be found on pg 75 of Becoming Che: Guevara's Second and Final Trip through Latin America, by Carlos 'Calica' Ferrer (Translated from the Spanish by Sarah L. Smith), Marea Editorial, 2006, ISBN Ferrer was a longtime childhood friend of Che, and when Guevara passed the last of his 12 exams in 1953, he gave him a copy to prove to Ferrer, who had been telling Guevara that he would never finish, that he had finally completed his studies. 33. ^ Anderson 1997, p ^ Taibo 1999, p ^ Kellner 1989, p ^ a b Guevara Lynch 2000, p ^ Radio Cadena Agramonte ^ Ignacio 2007, p ^ U.S. Department of State ^ Anderson 1997, p ^ a b Kellner 1989, p ^ Taibo 1999, p ^ Snow, Anita. "'My Life With Che' by Hilda Gadea." Associated Press at WJXX-TV. August 16, Retrieved on February 23, ^ Che Guevara by Frank E. Smitha 45. ^ Sinclair, Andrew (1970). Che Guevara. The Viking Press. p ^ Kellner 1989, p ^ Taibo 1999, p ^ Sandison 1996, p ^ Kellner 1989, p ^ Anderson 1997, p ^ Anderson 1997, p ^ Sandison 1996, p ^ DePalma 2006, pp ^ Kellner 1989, p ^ Anderson 1997, pp ^ Castañeda 1998, pp. 105, ^ Anderson 1997, pp , , ^ Sandison 1996, p ^ Ignacio 2007, p ^ Ignacio 2007, p ^ Moore, Don. "Revolution! Clandestine Radio and the Rise of Fidel Castro". Patepluma Radio ^ Bockman ^ Kellner 1989, p. 40.

142 64. ^ a b Kellner 1989, p ^ Castro 1972, pp ^ Dorschner 1980, pp , ^ Sandison 1996, p ^ Kellner 1989, p ^ Kellner 1989, p ^ Anderson 1997, ^ Anderson 1997, pp ^ Anderson 1997, pp ^ Guevara had children from both his marriages, and one illegitimate child, as follows: With Hilda Gadea (married August 18, 1955; divorced May 22, 1959), Hilda Beatriz Guevara Gadea, born February 15, 1956 in Mexico City; died August 21, 1995 in Havana, Cuba; with Aleida March (married June 2, 1959), Aleida Guevara March, born November 24, 1960 in Havana, Cuba, Camilo Guevara March, born May 20, 1962 in Havana, Cuba, Celia Guevara March, born June 14, 1963 in Havana, Cuba, and Ernesto Guevara March, born February 24, 1965 in Havana, Cuba; and with Lilia Rosa López (extramarital), Omar Pérez, born March 19, 1964 in Havana, Cuba (Castañeda 1998, pp ). 74. ^ Gómez Treto 1991, p "The Penal Law of the War of Independence (July 28, 1896) was reinforced by Rule 1 of the Penal Regulations of the Rebel Army, approved in the Sierra Maestra February 21, 1958, and published in the army's official bulletin (Ley penal de Cuba en armas, 1959)" (Gómez Treto 1991, p. 123). 75. ^ Gómez Treto 1991, pp ). 76. ^ Anderson 1997, pp. 372, ^ Anderson 1997, p ^ Niess 2007, p ^ Gómez Treto 1991, p. 116). 80. ^ Anderson 1997, pp ^ Niess 2007, p ^ a b c Castañeda 1998, pp ^ Different sources cite different numbers of executions, with some of the discrepancy resulting from which deaths to attribute directly to Guevara or to the regime as a whole. Anderson (1997) gives the number specifically at La Cabaña prison as 55 (p. 387.), while also stating that as a whole "several hundred people were officially tried and executed across Cuba" (p. 387). (Castañeda 1998) notes how historians differ on the number killed and place it as anywhere from nationwide (p. 143). This is supported by Lago who gives the figure as 216 executions ordered by Guevara across Cuba in three years ( ). 84. ^ Anderson 1997, pp ^ Kellner 1989, p ^ Kellner 1989, p ^ a b c Kellner 1989, p ^ Anderson 1997, p ^ Niwata Guevara requested that the Japanese government arrange for him to visit Hiroshima. When they refused, he covertly left his Osaka hotel to visit Hiroshima by night train, along with his aide Omar Fernández. 90. ^ a b Anderson 1997, p ^ Casey 2009, p ^ Casey 2009, p ^ a b Kellner 1989, p ^ a b c Kellner 1989, p ^ Dumur 1964 shows Che Guevara speaking French. 96. ^ a b Crompton 2009, p ^ a b c d "Socialism and Man in Cuba" A letter to Carlos Quijano, editor of Marcha, a weekly published in Montevideo, Uruguay; published as "From Algiers, for Marcha: The Cuban Revolution Today" by Che Guevara on March 12, 1965

143 98. ^ a b c d e Kellner 1989, p ^ Kellner 1989, p ^ PBS: Che Guevara, Popular but Ineffective 101. ^ Kellner 1989, p ^ Kellner 1989, p ^ Kellner 1989, p ^ Anderson 1997, p ^ Anderson 1997, p ^ a b "Economics Cannot be Separated from Politics" speech by Che Guevara to the ministerial meeting of the Inter-American Economic and Social Council (CIES), in Punta del Este, Uruguay on August 8, ^ Anderson 1997, p ^ Anderson 1997, p ^ a b Anderson 1997, p ^ Kellner 1989, p ^ a b c d e "Colonialism is Doomed" speech to the 19th General Assembly of the United Nations in New York City by Cuban representative Che Guevara on December 11, ^ a b c Bazooka Fired at U.N. as Cuban Speaks by Homer Bigart, The New York Times, December 12, page ^ Guillermo Novo Biography by Spartacus Educational Encyclopedia 114. ^ Snow ^ Hart 2004, pg ^ Anderson 1997, p ^ ^ St. Patrick's Day 2005: Che Lives by Peter McDermott, The Irish Echo, March edition 119. ^ Guevara 1969, p ^ Guevara 1969, pp ^ globalresearch.ca%2findex.php%3fcontext%3dva%26aid%3d9315&ei=spz8stkddsv 2- Ab034hR&usg=AFQjCNHqDzcWGSLQab_RR8CmnNWZYhrEYA&sig2=RBPGr8ZVFfdj O_rRoJjCSg 122. ^ Message to the Tricontinental A letter sent by Che Guevara from his jungle camp in Bolivia, to the Tricontinental Solidarity Organisation in Havana, Cuba, in the Spring of ^ Guevara ^ Ben Bella ^ Anderson 1997, p ^ Gálvez 1999, p ^ Gott 2004 p ^ Kellner 1989, p ^ DR Congo's Rebel-Turned-Brain Surgeon by Mark Doyle, BBC World Affairs', December 13, ^ BBC News January 17, ^ "The intercept operators knew that Dar-es-Salaam was serving as a communications center for the fighters, receiving messages from Castro in Cuba and relaying them on to the guerrillas deep in the bush (Bamford 2002, p. 181) ^ Ireland's Own ^ Kellner 1989, p ^ Guevara 2000, p ^ Castañeda 1998, p ^ Guevara 2009, p ^ Mittleman 1981, p. 38.

144 138. ^ a b Selvage ^ Anderson 1997, p ^ Kellner 1989, p ^ U.S. Army 1967 and Ryan 1998, pp , inter alia. "U.S. military personnel in Bolivia never exceeded 53 advisers, including a sixteen-man Mobile Training Team (MTT) from the 8th Special Forces Group based at Fort Gulick, Panama Canal Zone" (Selvage 1985) ^ "Bidding for Che", Time Magazine, Dec ^ Guevara ^ Castañeda 1998, pp ; ^ Wright 2000, p ^ Shadow Warrior: The CIA Hero of 100 Unknown Battles, Felix Rodriguez and John Weisman, Simon & Schuster, October ^ Anderson 1997, p ^ a b "The Man Who Buried Che" by Juan O. Tamayo, Miami Herald, September 19, ^ a b c d e Ray, Michèle (March 1968). "In Cold Blood: The Execution of Che by the CIA". Ramparts Magazine: ^ Grant René Barrientos has never revealed his motives for ordering the summary execution of Guevara ^ Time magazine ^ Anderson 1997, p ^ Anderson 1997, pp ^ Almudevar 2007 and Gott ^ Casey 2009, p ^ Casey 2009, p ^ Lacey 2007a ^ Watch blog image of Guevara's GMT Master 159. ^ Felix Rodríguez entry from Spartacus Schoolnet Encyclopedia 160. ^ Kornbluh ^ Anderson 1997, pp ^ Anderson 1997, pp ^ Kellner 1989, p ^ a b c Nadle, Marlene (August 24, 1968). "Régis Debray Speaks from Prison". Ramparts Magazine: ^ Cuba salutes 'Che' Guevara: Revolutionary Icon Finally Laid to Rest CNN, October 17, 1997 CNN VIDEO 166. ^ "Bidding for Che", Time Magazine, Dec ^ Guevara 1967b ^ Ryan 1998, p ^ Ryan 1998, p ^ Ryan 1998, p ^ Ramírez ^ Bolivia unveils original Che Guevara diary by Eduardo Garcia, Reuters, July 7, ^ McLaren 2000, p ^ Guevara ^ Che's Second Coming? by David Rieff, November 20, 2005, New York Times 176. ^ Moynihan ^ Sinclair 1968 / 2006, p ^ Sinclair 1968 / 2006, p ^ McLaren 2000, p ^ Sinclair 1968 / 2006, p ^ Ernesto Che Guevara R.I.P. by Murray Rothbard, Left and Right: A Journal of Libertarian Thought, Volume 3, Number 3 (Spring-Autumn 1967) 182. ^ Just a Pretty Face? by Sean O'Hagan, The Observer, July 11, 2004

145 183. ^ People's Weekly ^ Argentina pays belated homage to "Che" Guevara by Helen Popper, Reuters, June 14, ^ Statue for Che's '80th birthday' by Daniel Schweimler, BBC News, June 15, ^ On a tourist trail in Bolivia's hills, Che's fame lives on By Hector Tobar, Los Angeles Times, October 17, ^ Schipani ^ Behind Che Guevara s mask, the cold executioner Times Online, September 16, ^ a b c Vargas Llosa ^ a b Kellner 1989, p ^ D'Rivera ^ ""Chávez es díficil de encasillar, pero a final de cuentas queda claro que es un pobre rico"". El Nacional. nacional.com/www/site/p_contenido.php?q=nodo/76704/internacional/canek- S%C3%A1nchez-Guevara:-Ch%C3%A1vez-es-una-mezcla-de-caudillo,-peronista-yguerrillero-en-tiempos-de-paz ^ BBC News May 26, ^ see also Che Guevara (photo) 195. ^ Lacey 2007b ^ BBC News ^ O'Hagan References Alekseev, Aleksandr (October 1984). "Cuba después del triunfo de la revolución" ("Cuba after the triumph of the revolution"). Moscow: America Latina. Almudevar, Lola (October 9, 2007). "Bolivia marks capture, execution of 'Che' Guevara 40 years ago". San Francisco Chronicle. Anderson, Jon Lee (1997). Che Guevara: A Revolutionary Life. New York: Grove Press. ISBN Bamford, James (2002). Body of Secrets: Anatomy of the Ultra-Secret National Security Agency (Reprint edition). New York: Anchor Books. ISBN BBC News (January 17, 2001). "Profile: Laurent Kabila". Accessed April 10, BBC News (May 26, 2001). Che Guevara photographer dies. Accessed January 4, BBC News (October 9, 2007). "Cuba pays tribute to Che Guevara". BBC News, International version. Beaubien, Jason (2009). Cuba Marks 50 Years Since 'Triumphant Revolution'. NPR: All Things Considered, Audio Report. Ben Bella, Ahmed (October 1997). "Che as I knew him". Le Monde diplomatique. mondediplo.com. Accessed February 28, Bockman, USMC Major Larry James (April 1, 1984). The Spirit of Moncada: Fidel Castro's Rise to Power United States: Marine Corps Command and Staff College. Casey, Michael (2009). Che's Afterlife: The Legacy of an Image. Vintage. ISBN Castañeda, Jorge G (1998). Che Guevara: Compañero. New York: Random House. ISBN Castro, Fidel (editors Bonachea, Rolando E. and Nelson P. Valdés; 1972). Revolutionary Struggle Cambridge, Massachusetts and London: MIT Press. ISBN Crompton, Samuel (2009). Che Guevara: The Making of a Revolutionary. Gareth Stevens. ISBN X.

146 Cuban Information Archives. "La Coubre explodes in Havana 1960". Accessed February 26, 2006; pictures can be seen at Cuban site fotospl.com. DePalma, Anthony (2006). The Man Who Invented Fidel: Castro, Cuba, and Herbert L. Matthews of the New York Times. New York: Public Affairs. ISBN Dorfman, Ariel (June 14, 1999). Time 100: Che Guevara. Time Inc. Dorschner, John and Roberto Fabricio (1980). The Winds of December: The Cuban Revolution of New York: Coward, McCann & Geoghegen. ISBN D'Rivera, Paquito(March 25, 2005). "Open letter to Carlos Santana by Paquito D'Rivera". Latin Beat Magazine. Accessed June 18, Dumur, Jean (interviewer) (1964). L'interview de Che Guevara (Video clip; 9:43). Gálvez, William (1999). Che in Africa: Che Guevara's Congo Diary. Melbourne: Ocean Press, ISBN Gómez Treto, Raúl (Spring 1991). "Thirty Years of Cuban Revolutionary Penal Law". Latin American Perspectives 18(2), Cuban Views on the Revolution Gott, Richard (2004). Cuba: A New History. Yale University Press. ISBN Gott, Richard (August 11, 2005). "Bolivia on the Day of the Death of Che Guevara". Le Monde diplomatique. Accessed February 26, Grant, Will (October 8, 2007). "CIA man recounts Che Guevara's death". BBC News. Accessed February 29, Guevara, Ernesto "Che" (1995). Motorcycle Diaries. London: Verso Books. Guevara, Ernesto "Che" (editor Waters, Mary Alice) (1996). Episodes of the Cuban Revolutionary War New York: Pathfinder. ISBN Guevara, Ernesto "Che" (1965). "Che Guevara's Farewell Letter". Guevara, Ernesto "Che" (1967a). "English Translation of Complete Text of his Message to the Tricontinental" Guevara, Ernesto "Che" (1967b). "Diario (Bolivia)". Written Guevara, Ernesto "Che" (editors Bonachea, Rolando E. and Nelson P. Valdés; 1969). Che: Selected Works of Ernesto Guevara, Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. ISBN Guevara, Ernesto (2009). Che: The Diaries of Ernesto Che Guevara. Ocean Press. ISBN Guevara, Ernesto "Che" (1972). Pasajes de la guerra revolucionaria. Guevara, Ernesto "Che" (translated from the Spanish by Patrick Camiller; 2000). The African Dream. New York: Grove Publishers. ISBN Guevara, Ernesto "Che" (2005). "Socialism and man in Cuba" (First published March 12, 1965 as "From Algiers, for Marcha. The Cuban Revolution Today"). Che Guevara Reader. (1997). Ocean Press. ISBN Guevara Lynch, Ernesto (2000). Aquí va un soldado de América. Barcelona: Plaza y Janés Editores, S.A. ISBN Hall, Kevin (2004). "In Bolivia, Push for Che Tourism Follows Locals' Reverence". Common Dreams. commondreams.org. Accessed November 15, Haney, Rich (2005). Celia Sánchez: The Legend of Cuba's Revolutionary Heart. New York: Algora Pub. ISBN Hari, Johann (October 6, 2007). "Johann Hari: Should Che be an icon? No". The Independent. Hart, Joseph (2004). Che: The Life, Death, and Afterlife of a Revolutionary. New York: Thunder's Mouth Press. ISBN Ramonez, Ignacio (2007). Translated by Andrew Hurley. Fidel Castro: My Life London: Penguin Books. ISBN Ireland's Own (August 12, 2000). From Cuba to Congo, Dream to Disaster for Che Guevara. Accessed January 11, Kellner, Douglas (1989). Ernesto Che Guevara (World Leaders Past & Present). Chelsea House Publishers (Library Binding edition). pp ISBN

147 Kornbluh, Peter (1997). Electronic Briefing Book No. 5. National Security Archive. Accessed March 25, Lacey, Mark (October 26, 2007). "Lone Bidder Buys Strands of Che's Hair at U.S. Auction". New York Times. Lacey, Mark (October 9, 2007). "A Revolutionary Icon, and Now, a Bikini". The New York Times. Lago, Armando M (September 2005). "216 Documented Victims of Che Guevara in Cuba: 1957 to 1959PDF (24.8 KB)". Cuba: the Human Cost of Social Revolution. (Manuscript pending publication.) Summit, New Jersey: Free Society Project. Lavretsky, Iosif (1976). Ernesto Che Guevara. translated by A. B. Eklof. Moscow: Progress. p. 5. ASIN B000B9V7AW. OCLC McLaren, Peter (2000). Che Guevara, Paulo Freire, and the Pedagogy of Revolution. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN Mittleman, James H (1981). Underdevelopment and the Transition to Socialism Mozambique and Tanzania. New York: Academic Press. ISBN Moynihan, Michael. "Neutering Sartre at Dagens Nyheter". Stockholm Spectator. Accessed February 26, Murray, Edmundo (November-December 2005). "Guevara, Ernesto [Che] ( )". Irish Migration Studies in Latin America ( Che Guevara, by Frank Niess, Haus Publishers Ltd, 2007, ISBN Niwata, Manabu, Mainichi correspondent (October 14, 2007). Aide reveals Che Guevara's secret trip to Hiroshima. HDR Japan. O'Hagan, Sean (July 11, 2004). "Just a pretty face?". The Guardian. Accessed October 25, Radio Cadena Agramonte, "Ataque al cuartel del Bayamo". Accessed February 25, Ramírez, Dariel Alarcón (1997). Le Che en Bolivie. Paris: Éditions du Rocher. ISBN Ramonez, Ignacio (2007). Translated by Andrew Hurley. Fidel Castro: My Life London: Penguin Books. ISBN Ratner, Michael (1997). Che Guevara and the FBI: The U.S. Political Police Dossier on the Latin American Revolutionary. Ocean Press. ISBN Rodriguez, Félix I. and John Weisman (1989). Shadow Warrior/the CIA Hero of a Hundred Unknown Battles. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN Ryan, Henry Butterfield (1998). The Fall of Che Guevara: A Story of Soldiers, Spies, and Diplomats. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN Sandison, David (1996). The Life & Times of Che Guevara. Paragon. ISBN Schipani, Andres (September 23, 2007). "The Final Triumph of Saint Che". The Observer. (Reporting from La Higuera.) Selvage, Major Donald R. USMC (April 1, 1985). Che Guevara in Bolivia. Globalsecurity.org. Accessed January 5, Sinclair, Andrew (1968 / re-released in 2006). Viva Che!: The Strange Death and Life of Che Guevara. Sutton publishing. ISBN Snow, Anita (October 8, 2007). "Castro Pays Homage to Che Guevara". ABC News. Taibo II, Paco Ignacio (1999). Guevara, Also Known as Che. St Martin's Griffin. 2nd edition. pp ISBN Time Magazine (October 12, 1970). "Che: A Myth Embalmed in a Matrix of Ignorance". Time Magazine cover story (August 8, 1960). "Castro's Brain". U.S. Army (April 28, 1967). Memorandum of Understanding Concerning the Activation, Organization and Training of the 2d Ranger Battalion Bolivian Army. Accessed June 19, U.S. Department of State. Foreign Relations, Guatemala, Office of Electronic Information, Bureau of Public Affairs. Accessed February 29, 2008.

148 Vargas Llosa, Alvaro (July 11, 2005). "The Killing Machine: Che Guevara, from Communist Firebrand to Capitalist Brand". The Independent Institute. Accessed November 10, "World Combined Sources" (October 2, 2004). "Che Guevara remains a hero to Cubans". People's Weekly World. Wright, Thomas C. (2000 Revised edition). Latin America in the Era of the Cuban Revolution. Praeger. ISBN External links BBC: Che Guevara Images: Set 1, Set 2, Set 3 Che Guevara Internet Archive: Speeches, Images CNN (video): "Che Guevara, Superstar" Democracy Now: "Life & Legacy of Che Guevara" Discovery Channel: Ernesto "Che" Guevara Documentary: Che Guevara, The Body & The Legend Documentary: El Che Investigating a Legend History International: Tracing Che: A Motorcycle Journey MSNBC Slideshow: "In Cuba, Che Still Sells Revolution" National Security Archive: The Death of Che Guevara New York Post: Ernesto "Che" Guevara Photo Gallery NY Times Interactive Gallery: "A Revolutionary Afterlife" Reuters Slideshow: "Honoring Che" Slate Magazine: Picture Essay of Che The Guardian: "Making of a Marxist" ~ Che's Early Journals The History Channel: The True Story of Che Guevara Che Guevara Events Guatemalan Coup Granma Voyage 26th of July Movement Battle of Santa Clara Radio Rebelde La Cabaña Cuban Missile Crisis People Alberto Granado Jacobo Arbenz Fulgencio Batista Raúl Castro Fidel Castro Camilo Cienfuegos "Tania" "Willy" "Pombo" Régis Debray Félix Rodríguez Mario Terán Aleida Guevara Orlando Borrego Carlos Puebla Silvio Rodríguez Subcomandante Marcos Hilda Gadea Theory Guevarism Focalism Foco theory Guerrilla warfare Marxism Socialism Neocolonialism Anti-imperialism Anti-Capitalism World Revolution Books The Motorcycle Diaries Guerrilla Warfare Episodes of the Cuban Revolutionary War Jon Lee Anderson Jorge Castañeda Paco Ignacio Taibo Film Icon The Motorcycle Diaries Che (Part 1 & Part 2) Che! The Hands of Che Guevara His Legacy In Popular Culture Famous Photo Korda Feltrinelli Jim Fitzpatrick Sartre La Higuera Mausoleum

149 5Wikiquote 5Wikisource 5Commons 5List of works related to Che Guevara Cold War Participants NATO Non-Aligned Movement SEATO Warsaw Pact 1940s Yalta Conference Operation Unthinkable Potsdam Conference Gouzenko Affair Iran crisis of 1946 Greek Civil War Restatement of Policy on Germany First Indochina War Truman Doctrine Marshall Plan Czechoslovak coup d'état of 1948 Tito Stalin split Berlin Blockade Western betrayal Iron Curtain Eastern Bloc Chinese Civil War (Second round) 1950s Korean War 1953 Iranian coup d'état Uprising of 1953 in East Germany 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état Partition of Vietnam First Taiwan Strait Crisis Geneva Summit (1955) Poznań 1956 protests Hungarian Revolution of 1956 Suez Crisis Sputnik crisis Second Taiwan Strait Crisis Cuban Revolution Kitchen Debate Asian African Conference Bricker Amendment McCarthyism Operation Gladio Hallstein Doctrine 1960s Congo Crisis Sino-Soviet split 1960 U-2 incident Bay of Pigs Invasion Cuban Missile Crisis Berlin Wall Vietnam War 1964 Brazilian coup d'état 1965 United States occupation of the Dominican Republic South African Border War Transition to the New Order Domino theory ASEAN Declaration Laotian Civil War Greek military junta of Cultural Revolution Sino-Indian War Prague Spring Goulash Communism Sino- Soviet border conflict 1970s Détente Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Black September in Jordan Cambodian Civil War Ping Pong Diplomacy Four Power Agreement on Berlin 1972 Nixon visit to China 1973 Chilean coup d'état Yom Kippur War Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Angolan Civil War Mozambican Civil War Ogaden War Cambodian Vietnamese War Sino-Vietnamese War Iranian Revolution Operation Condor Bangladesh Liberation War Korean Air Lines Flight s Soviet war in Afghanistan Olympic boycotts History of Solidarity Contras Central American crisis RYAN Korean Air Lines Flight 007 Able Archer 83 Strategic Defense Initiative Invasion of Grenada Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 Invasion of Panama Fall of the Berlin Wall Revolutions of 1989 Glasnost Perestroika 1990s See also Breakup of Yugoslavia Dissolution of the USSR Dissolution of Czechoslovakia Soviet and Russian espionage in U.S. Soviet Union United States relations NATO Russia relations Organizations ASEAN Central Intelligence Agency Comecon European Community

150 KGB Stasi Races Ideologies Propaganda Arms race Nuclear arms race Space Race Capitalism Liberal democracy Communism (Stalinism Trotskyism Maoism Juche Castroism Guevarism Titoism) Active measures Pravda Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Red Scare Voice of America Voice of Russia Foreign policy Truman Doctrine Marshall Plan Containment Eisenhower Doctrine Domino theory Kennedy Doctrine Peaceful coexistence Ostpolitik Johnson Doctrine Brezhnev Doctrine Nixon Doctrine Ulbricht Doctrine Carter Doctrine Reagan Doctrine Rollback Timeline of events Portal Category Notable figures of the Cold War United States Harry S. Truman George Marshall (Secretary of State) Joseph McCarthy (Republican Senator) Dwight D. Eisenhower John F. Kennedy Robert F. Kennedy Lyndon B. Johnson Richard Nixon Henry Kissinger (Secretary of State) Gerald Ford Jimmy Carter Ronald Reagan George H. W. Bush Soviet Union Joseph Stalin Nikita Khrushchev Leonid Brezhnev Yuri Andropov Konstantin Chernenko Mikhail Gorbachev Boris Yeltsin Andrei Gromyko (foreign minister) Anatoly Dobrynin (ambassador to the U.S.) United Kingdom Winston Churchill Clement Attlee Ernest Bevin (foreign secretary) Harold Macmillan Harold Wilson Margaret Thatcher West Germany People's Republic of China France Italy Eastern Europe Konrad Adenauer Walter Hallstein Willy Brandt Helmut Schmidt Helmut Kohl Mao Zedong Zhou Enlai (Premier) Hua Guofeng Deng Xiaoping Zhao Ziyang (General Secretary) Charles de Gaulle Alain Poher Georges Pompidou Valéry Giscard d'estaing François Mitterrand Alcide De Gasperi Palmiro Togliatti Giulio Andreotti Aldo Moro Enrico Berlinguer Francesco Cossiga Bettino Craxi Enver Hoxha (Albania) Josip Broz Tito (Yugoslavia) Imre

151 Nagy (Hungary) Nicolae Ceauşescu (Romania) Alexander Dubček (Czechoslovakia) Walter Ulbricht Erich Honecker (East Germany) Lech Wałęsa (Poland) Pope John Paul II (Poland/Holy See) Far East Chiang Kai-shek Chiang Ching-kuo (Republic of China/Taiwan) Syngman Rhee Park Chung-hee (South Korea) Kim Il-sung (North Korea) Ho Chi Minh (North Vietnam) Ngo Dinh Diem (South Vietnam) Pol Pot (Cambodia) U Nu Ne Win (Burma) Indira Gandhi Jawaharlal Nehru (India) Sukarno Suharto Mohammad Hatta Adam Malik (Indonesia) Nur Misuari Jose Maria Sison Ferdinand Marcos Imelda Marcos (Philippines) Canada William Lyon Mackenzie King Louis St. Laurent John Diefenbaker Lester Pearson Pierre Trudeau Joe Clark John Turner Brian Mulroney Kim Campbell Latin America Fidel Castro (Cuba) Che Guevara (Argentina/Cuba) Daniel Ortega (Nicaragua) Salvador Allende Augusto Pinochet (Chile) João Goulart (Brazil) Middle East Mohammad Reza Pahlavi Ayatollah Khomeini (Iran) Saddam Hussein (Iraq) Gamal Abdel Nasser Anwar El Sadat (Egypt) Muammar al-gaddafi (Libya) Menachem Begin (Israel) Africa Patrice Lumumba Mobutu Sese Seko (Congo/Zaire) Kwame Nkrumah (Ghana) Idi Amin (Uganda) Agostinho Neto José Eduardo dos Santos Jonas Savimbi (Angola) Mengistu Haile Mariam (Ethiopia) Timeline of events Portal Category Persondata NAME ALTERNATIVE NAMES SHORT DESCRIPTION Guevara, Che Ernesto Guevara de la Serna, el Che DATE OF BIRTH May 14, 1928 PLACE OF BIRTH Rosario, Argentina DATE OF DEATH October 9, 1967 PLACE OF DEATH La Higuera, Bolivia Argentine-born Marxist, politician, and leader of Cuban and internationalist guerrillas

152 Bay of Pigs Invasion The Bay of Pigs Invasion (known as La Batalla de Girón, or Playa Girón in Cuba), was an unsuccessful attempt by a CIA-trained force of Cuban exiles to invade southern Cuba with support from US government armed forces, to overthrow the Cuban government of Fidel Castro. The plan was launched in April 1961, less than three months after John F. Kennedy assumed the presidency in the United States. The Cuban armed forces, trained and equipped by Eastern Bloc nations, defeated the exile combatants in three days. Bad Cuban-American relations were made worse by the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis. The invasion is named after the Bay of Pigs, which is just one possible translation of the Spanish Bahía de Cochinos. The main invasion landing specifically took place at a beach named PlayaGirón, located at the mouth of the bay. Political background On March 16, 1960, US President Dwight D. Eisenhower ordered the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to use their elite Special Activities Division to equip, train Bay of Pigs Invasion Part of the Cold War Date April 17 April 19, 1961 Location Bay of Pigs, southern Cuba Result Cuban government victory Belligerents Cuba Commanders 6Fidel Castro 6José Ramón Fernández 6Juan Almeida 6Che Guevara [1][2] Strength c25,000 army [3] c200,000 militia [3][4] c9,000 armed police [3][4] Casualties and losses 176 killed [6] (Regular Army) 4,000-5,000 killed, missing, or wounded [6][7] (Militias and armed civilian fighters) United States 6Cuban exiles 6John F. Kennedy 6Grayston Lynch 6Pepe San Roman 6Erneido Oliva >1,500 Cuban exiles (c1,300 landed) [5] 2 CIA agents 118 killed 1,201 captured and lead Cuban exiles in an amphibious invasion of Cuba, to overthrow the new Cuban government of Fidel Castro. [8] Eisenhower stated it was the policy of the US government to aid anti-castro guerrilla forces. [9] The CIA was initially confident it was capable of overthrowing the Cuban government, having experience in actions such as the 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état. The plan (code-named Operation Pluto) was organized by CIA Deputy Director for Plans Richard Mervin Bissell, Jr., under CIA Director Allen Dulles. The original CIA plan called for a shipborne invasion at the old colonial city of Trinidad, Cuba, about 270 km (170mi) south-east of Havana, at the foothills of the Escambray Mountains in Sancti Spiritus province. Trinidad had good port facilities, and arguably was close to much existing counter-revolutionary activities. The CIA Map showing the location of the Bay of Pigs. later proposed alternative plans, and on 11 March 1961 President Kennedy and his cabinet selected the Bay of Pigs option (also known as Operation Zapata), because it had an airfield suitable for B-26 bomber operations and it was less

153 militarily "noisy", so potentially more plausible deniability of US direct involvement. The invasion landing area was changed to beaches bordering the Bay of Pigs in Las Villas Province, 150 km south-east of Havana, and east of the Zapata peninsula. The landings were to take place at Playa Girón (code-named Blue Beach), Playa Larga (code-named Red Beach), and Caleta Buena Inlet (code-named Green Beach). [10][11] Contents [hide] 1 Political background 2 Preparation and training for invasion 3 Prior warnings of invasion 4 Parties involved o 4.1 US Government personnel o 4.2 Cuban government order of battle 5 Existing resistance in Cuba 6 Prelude to invasion o 6.1 Air attacks on airfields (15 April) o 6.2 Deception flight (15 April) o 6.3 Reactions (15 April) o 6.4 Phony war (16 April) 7 Invasion o 7.1 Invasion day (17 April) o 7.2 Invasion day plus one (D+1) 18 April o 7.3 Invasion day plus two (D+2) 19 April o 7.4 Invasion day plus three (D+3) 20 April 8 Aftermath o 8.1 Casualties o 8.2 Prisoners o 8.3 Political reaction 9 Later analysis o 9.1 Maxwell Taylor survey o 9.2 CIA report o 9.3 Invasion legacy in Cuba o 9.4 Invasion legacy for Cuban exiles 10 Playa Girón today 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 External links In March 1961, the CIA helped Cuban exiles in Miami to create the Cuban Revolutionary Council (CRC), chaired by José Miró Cardona, former Prime Minister of Cuba (Jan 1959). Cardona became the de facto leader-in-waiting of the intended post-invasion Cuban government. [12] Preparation and training for invasion In April 1960, the CIA began to recruit anti-castro Cuban exiles in the Miami area. Until July 1960, assessment and training was carried out on Useppa Island and at various other facilities in South Florida, such as Homestead AFB. Specialist guerrilla training took place at Fort Gulick, Panama and at Fort Clayton, Panama. [5][13] For the increasing ranks of recruits, infantry training was carried out at a CIA-run base code-named JMTrax near Retalhuleu in the Sierra Madre on the Pacific coast of Guatemala. [8] The exiles group named themselves Brigade 2506 (Brigada Asalto 2506). [14] In summer 1960, an airfield (code-named JMMadd, aka Rayo Base) was constructed near Retalhuleu, Guatemala. Gunnery and flight training of Brigade 2506 air crews was carried out by personnel from Alabama ANG (Air National Guard), using at least six Douglas B-26 Invaders in the markings of FAG (Fuerza Aérea Guatemalteca), legitimate delivery of those to the FAG being delayed by about 6 months. A further 26 B-26s were obtained from US military stocks, 'sanitized' at 'Field Three' to obscure their origins, and about 20 of them were converted for offensive operations by deletion of defensive armament, standardization of the Eight-gun nose, addition of underwing drop tanks, rocket racks, etc. [15][16] Paratroop training was at a base nicknamed Garrapatenango, near Quetzaltenango, Guatemala. Training for boat handling and amphibious landings took place at Vieques Island, Puerto Rico. Tank training took place at Fort Knox, Kentucky and Fort Benning, Georgia. Underwater demolition and infiltration training took place at Belle Chase near New Orleans. [11] The CIA used Douglas C-54 transports to deliver people, supplies, and arms from Florida at night. Curtiss C-46s were also used for transport between Retalhuleu and the CIA base codenamed JMTide (aka Happy Valley), at Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua. On April 9, 1961, Brigade

154 2506 personnel, ships, and aircraft started transferring from Guatemala to Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua. [17] In early 1961, Cuba's army possessed Soviet-designed T-34 and IS-2 Stalin tanks, SU-100 selfpropelled 'tank destroyers', 122 mm howitzers, other artillery and small arms, plus Italian 105 mm howitzers. The Cuban air force armed inventory included Douglas B-26 Invader light bombers, Hawker Sea Fury fighters, and Lockheed T-33 jets, all remaining from the Fuerza Aérea del Ejército de Cuba (FAEC), the Cuban air force of the Batista government. [14] Anticipating an invasion, Che Guevara stressed the importance of an armed civilian populace, stating "all the Cuban people must become a guerrilla army, each and every Cuban must learn to handle and if necessary use firearms in defense of the nation." [18] Prior warnings of invasion The Cuban security apparatus knew the invasion was coming, via their secret intelligence network, as well as loose talk by members of the brigade, some of which was heard in Miami and was repeated in US and foreign newspaper reports. Nevertheless, days before the invasion, multiple acts of sabotage were carried out, such as the arson attack in the El Encanto department store in Havana on 13 April, killing one shop worker. [5] The Cuban government also had been warned by senior KGB agents Osvaldo Sánchez Cabrera and "Aragon", who died violently before and after the invasion, respectively. [19] The general Cuban population was not well informed, except for CIA-funded Radio Swan. [20] As of May 1960, almost all means of public communication were in the government s hands. [21][22] An April 29, 2000 Washington Post article, "Soviets Knew Date of Cuba Attack", reported that the CIA had information indicating that the Soviet Union knew the invasion was going to take place and did not inform Kennedy. Radio Moscow broadcast an English-language newscast on April 13, 1961 predicting the invasion "in a plot hatched by the CIA" using paid "criminals" within a week. The invasion took place four days later. [23] According to the British Ambassador to the US, David Ormsby-Gore, British intelligence estimates, which had been made available to the CIA, indicated that the Cuban people were predominantly behind Castro and that there was no likelihood of mass defections or insurrections following the invasion. [8] More recent analysis suggests that the sources such as those used in the Ormsby-Gore intelligence estimate were not aware of related material. [24] Parties involved US Government personnel Recruiting of Cuban exiles in Miami was organized by CIA staff officers E. Howard Hunt and Gerry Droller. Detailed planning, training and military operations were conducted by Jacob Esterline, Col. Jack Hawkins and Major Stanley Beerli under the direction of Richard Bissell, and his deputy Tracy Barnes. [11] Cuban government order of battle The Cuban government order of battle is unclear and subject to dispute, although most sources generally credit Fidel Castro with centrally directing the overall strategy from Havana. The general geographical outlay in preparation of the invasion divided the island into three, placing Raul Castro in charge of forces in the East, Che Guevara in charge in the West, and Major Juan Almeida in charge of the center (as head of the central army in Santa Clara). [25][26] Sergio del Valle Jiménez was Director of Headquarters Operations at Point One, Havana. [27] Antonio Enrique Lussón Batlle, a Raul Castro loyalist, is also placed there. Orlando Rodriguez Puerta, previous commander of Fidel Castro's personal guard, was charged with direction of Cuban government forces in Matanzas Province directly north of combat area. Captain José Ramón

155 Fernández was head of the School of Militia Leaders (Cadets) at Matanzas. Efigenio Ameijeiras was the Head of the Revolutionary National Police. Ramiro Valdés Menéndez was Minister of the Interior in 1961, and head of G-2 (Seguridad del Estado, or state security). [28] His deputy was Comandante Manuel Piñeiro Losada, also known as 'Barba Roja'. [3] Soviet-trained Spanish advisors were brought to Cuba from Eastern Bloc countries. These advisors had held high staff positions in the Soviet Armies during World War II, and having resided in the Soviet Union for long periods are thus known as "Hispano-Soviets"; the most senior of these were the Spanish Communist veterans of the Spanish Civil War Francisco Ciutat de Miguel, Enrique Lister and Cuban-born Alberto Bayo. Ciutat de Miguel (Cuban alias: Ángel Martínez Riosola, commonly referred to as Angelito) was a significant leader/advisor for Cuban forces in the central provinces. Victor Emilio Dreke Cruz, although nominally in charge of central province forces is generally considered to have played subordinate role to Ciutat de Miguel. Victor Dreke describes his part in the action as first fighting with parachutists, and then being wounded in an ambush. [29][30] Arnaldo Ochoa, later to be commander of Cuban forces in Angola, [citation needed] is believed to have been under the command of José Ramón Fernández. On 17 April, the head of the Cuban air force, "Maro" Guerra Bermejo, former driver for Raul Castro, was replaced by Raúl Curbelo Morales, Minister of Communication. [31] The role of other Soviet agents at the time is not well known, although they were there and well established in Cuba at the time of the Bay of Pigs Invasion and can be presumed that in that emergency to have been actively involved in the Cuban government's defence. Some of these agents acquired far greater fame later. For instance, two KGB colonels, Vadim Kochergin and Victor Simanov were first sighted in Cuba about September [32][33] Existing resistance in Cuba After the success of the Cuban Revolution in January 1959, counter-revolutionary groups grew both in cities and in the countryside, particularly in the Escambray mountains, where the "War Against the Bandits" guerrilla war continued sporadically until about Prior to the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the CIA supported and supplied various groups with arms and other resources, but they were not included in the invasion plans due to concerns about information security. [13] No quarter was given during the suppression of the resistance in the Escambray mountains, where former rebels from the War Against Batista took different sides. [34] On 11 March 1961, former Castro ally American William Alexander Morgan was executed. [35] On April 3, 1961, a bomb attack on militia barracks in Bayamo killed four militia and wounded eight more; on April 6, the Hershey Sugar factory in Matanzas was destroyed by sabotage. [24] On April 14, 1961, the guerrillas of Agapito Rivera fought Cuban government forces near Las Cruces, Montembo, Las Villas, where several government forces were killed and others wounded. [24] Prelude to invasion Air attacks on airfields (15 April) During the night of 14/15 April, a diversionary landing was planned near Baracoa, Oriente Province, by about 164 Cuban exiles commanded by Higinio 'Nino' Diaz. Their mother ship, named 'La Playa' or 'Santa Ana', had sailed from Key West under a Costa Rican ensign. Several US Navy destroyers were stationed offshore near Guantanamo Bay to give the appearance of an impending invasion fleet. The reconnaissance boats turned back to the ship after detecting activities by Cuban militia forces along the coastline. [6][14][27][3][36][37] As a result of those activities, at daybreak, a reconnaissance sortie over the Baracoa area was launched from Santiago de Cuba. That was a FAR T-33, piloted by Lt Orestes Acosta, and it

156 crashed fatally into the sea, possibly due to pilot fatigue or mechanical failure. On 17 April his name was falsely quoted as a defector among the (CIA?) disinformation circulating in Miami. [38] At about Cuba local time on 15 April 1961, eight Douglas B-26B Invader bombers in three groups, simultaneously attacked three Cuban airfields, at San Antonio de Los Baños and at Ciudad Libertad (formerly named Campo Columbia), both near Havana, plus the Antonio Maceo International Airport at Santiago de Cuba. The B-26s had been prepared by the CIA on behalf of Brigade 2506, and had been painted with the markings of the FAR (Fuerza Aérea Revolucionaria), the air force of the Cuban government. Each was armed with bombs, rockets and machine guns. They had flown from Puerto Cabezas in Nicaragua, and were crewed by exiled Cuban pilots and navigators of the self-styled Fuerza Aérea de Liberación (FAL). The purpose of the action (code-named Operation Puma) was reportedly to destroy most or all of the armed aircraft of the FAR in preparation for the main invasion. At Santiago, the two attackers reportedly destroyed a C-47 transport, a PBY Catalina flying boat, two B-26s and a civilian DC-3 plus various other civilian aircraft. At San Antonio, the three attackers reportedly destroyed 3 FAR B-26s, one Sea Fury and one T-33, and one attacker diverted to Grand Cayman due to low usable fuel. At Ciudad Libertad, the three attackers reportedly destroyed only non-operational aircraft such as two F-47 Thunderbolts. One of those attackers was damaged by anti-aircraft fire, and ditched about 50 km north of Cuba with the loss of its crew Daniel Fernández Mon and Gaston Pérez. Its companion B-26 continued north and landed at Boca Chica field (Naval Air Station Key West), Florida. The crew, José Crespo and Lorenzo Pérez-Lorenzo, were granted political asylum and made their way back to Nicaragua the next day via Miami and the daily CIA C-54 flight from Opa-Locka Airport to Puerto Cabezas. Their B-26, purposely numbered 933, the same as at least two other B-26s that day for disinformation reasons, was held until late on 17 April. [13][38] Deception flight (15 April) About 90 minutes after the eight B-26s had taken off from Puerto Cabezas to attack Cuban airfields, another B-26 departed on a deception flight that took it close to Cuba but headed north to Florida. Like the bomber groups, it carried false FAR markings and the same number 933 as painted on at least two of the others. Prior to departure, the cowling from one of the aircraft's two engines was removed by CIA personnel, fired upon, then re-installed to give the false appearance that the aircraft had taken ground fire at some point during its flight. At a safe distance north of Cuba, the pilot feathered the engine with the pre-installed bullet holes in the cowling, radioed a mayday call and requested immediate permission to land at Miami International airport. The pilot was Mario Zúñiga, formerly of the Cuban air force, and after landing he masqueraded as "Juan Garcia", and publicly claimed that three colleagues had also defected from the FAR. The next day he was granted political asylum and that night he returned to Puerto Cabezas via Opa- Locka. [16][38][39] Reactions (15 April) At 10:30am on 15 April at the United Nations, the Cuban Foreign Minister Raúl Roa attempted to accuse the US of aggressive air attacks against Cuba, and that afternoon formally tabled a motion to the Political (First) Committee of the UN General Assembly. In response, US ambassador to the UN Adlai Stevenson stated that US armed forces would not "under any conditions" intervene in Cuba, and that the US would do everything in its power to ensure that no US citizens would participate in actions against Cuba. He also stated that Cuban defectors had carried out the attacks that day, and he presented a UPI wire photo of Zuniga's B-26 in Cuban markings at Miami airport. Stevenson was later embarrassed to realize that the CIA had lied to him and to Secretary of State Dean Rusk. [10][17][27] On 15 April, the national police, led by Efigenio Ameijeiras, started the process of arresting thousands of suspected anti-revolutionary individuals, and detaining them in provisional locations

157 such as the Blanquita Theatre, the moat of Fortaleza de la Cabana and the Principe Castle all in Havana, and the baseball park in Matanzas. [35] Phony war (16 April) On the night of 15/16 April, the Nino Diaz group failed in a second attempted diversionary landing at a fresh location near Baracoa. [27] On this day, Merardo Leon, Jose Leon, and 14 others staged armed rising at Las Delicias Estate in Las Villas, only four survived. Leonel Martinez and 12 others took to the countryside. [24][clarification needed] Following the air strikes on airfields on April 15, 1961, the FAR managed to prepare for armed action at least four T-33s, four Sea Furies and five or six B-26s. All three types could be armed with machine guns and rockets for air-to-air combat and for strafing of ships and ground forces. CIA planners had reportedly failed to discover that the US-supplied T-33 jets had long been armed with M-3 machine guns. The Sea Furies and B-26s could also carry bombs, for attacks against ships and tanks. [40] No additional air strikes against Cuban airfields and aircraft were specifically planned before 17 April, but pilots' exaggerated claims gave the CIA false confidence in the success of the 15 April attacks, until U-2 reconnaissance photos on 16 April showed otherwise. Late on 16 April, President Kennedy ordered cancellation of further airfield strikes planned for dawn on 17 April, to attempt plausible deniability of US direct involvement. [11] Late on April 16, 1961, the CIA/Brigade 2506 invasion fleet converged on "Rendezvous Point Zulu", about 65 km (40 miles) south of Cuba, having sailed from Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua where they had been loaded with troops and other materiel, after loading arms and supplies at New Orleans. The US Navy operation was code-named Bumpy Road, having been changed from Crosspatch on 1 April 1961 [11]. The fleet, cryptically labelled the "Cuban Expeditionary Force" (CEF), included five 2,400-ton (empty weight) freighter ships chartered by the CIA from the Garcia Line and outfitted with anti-aircraft guns. Four of the freighters, Houston (code name Aguja), Río Escondido (code name Balena), Caribe (code name Sardina), and Atlántico (codename Tiburon), were planned to transport about 1,400 troops in seven battalions of troops and armaments near to the invasion beaches. The fifth freighter, Lake Charles, was loaded with follow-up supplies and some Operation 40 infiltration personnel. The freighters sailed under Liberian ensigns. Accompanying them were two LCIs (Landing Craft Infantry) "purchased" from Zapata Corporation then outfitted with heavy armament at Key West, then exercises and training at Vieques Island. The LCIs were Blagar (code-name Marsopa) and Barbara J (code-name Barracuda), sailing under Nicaraguan ensigns. The CEF ships were individually escorted (outside visual range) to Point Zulu by US Navy destroyers USS Bache, USS Beale, USS Conway, USS Cony, USS Eaton, USS Murray, USS Waller. A task force had already assembled off the Cayman Islands, including aircraft carrier USS Essex with task force commander John A. Clark (Admiral) onboard, helicopter assault carrier USS Boxer, destroyers USS Hank, USS John W. Weeks, USS Purdy, USS Wren, and submarines USS Cobbler and USS Threadfin. Command and control ship USS Northampton and carrier USS Shangri-La were also reportedly active in the Caribbean at the time. USS San Marcos was a Landing Ship Dock that carried three LCUs (Landing Craft Utility) and four LCVPs (Landing Craft, Vehicles, Personnel). San Marcos had sailed from Vieques Island. At Point Zulu, the seven CEF ships sailed north without the USN escorts, except for San Marcos that continued until the seven landing craft were unloaded when just outside the 5 km (3mi) Cuban territorial limit. [5][17][41] Invasion Invasion day (17 April)

158 During the night of 16/17 April, a mock diversionary landing was organized by CIA operatives near Bahia Honda, Pinar del Rio Province. A flotilla of small boats towed rafts containing equipment broadcasting sounds and other effects of a shipborne invasion landing. That was the source of Cuban reports that briefly lured Fidel Castro away from the Bay of Pigs battlefront area. [5][27] At about on April 17, 1961, the two CIA LCIs Blagar and Barbara J, each with a CIA "operations officer" and an Underwater Demolition Team (UDT) of five frogmen, entered the Bay of Pigs (Bahía de Cochinos) on the southern coast of Cuba. They headed a force of four transport ships (Houston, Río Escondido, Caribe, and Atlántico) carrying about 1,300 Cuban exile ground troops of Brigade 2506, plus tanks and other armour in the landing craft. At about 01.00, the Blagar, as the battlefield command ship, directed the principal landing at Playa Girón (Blue Beach), led by the frogmen in rubber boats followed by troops from Caribe in small aluminum boats, then LCVPs and LCUs. The Barbara J, leading Houston, similarly landed troops 35 km further northwest at Playa Larga (Red Beach), using small fiberglass boats. Unloading troops at night was delayed, due to engine failures and boats damaged by unseen coral reefs. The few militia in the area succeeded in warning Cuban armed forces via radio soon after the first landing, before the invaders overcame their token resistance. [27] At daybreak at about 06.30, FAR Sea Furies, B-26s and T-33 jets started attacking those CEF ships still unloading troops. At about 06.50, and 8 km south of Playa Larga, Houston was damaged by several rockets from a Sea Fury and a T-33, and about two hours later captain Luis Morse intentionally beached it on the western side of the bay. About 270 troops had been unloaded, but about 180 men either drowned or struggled ashore, where they were incapable of taking part in further action. At about 07.00, two FAL B-26s attacked and sank the Cuban Navy Patrol Escort ship El Baire at Nueva Gerona on the Isle of Pines. [38] They then proceeded to Giron to join two other B-26s to attack Cuban ground troops and provide distraction air cover for the paratroop C-46s and the CEF ships under air attack. At about 07.30, five C-46 and one C-54 transport aircraft dropped 177 paratroops from the parachute battalion of Brigade 2506 in an action code-named Operation Falcon. [42] About 30 men plus heavy equipment were dropped south of Australia sugar mill on the road to Palpite and Playa Larga, but the equipment was lost in the swamps and the troops failed to block the road. Other troops were dropped at San Blas, at Jocuma between Covadonga and San Blas, and at Horquitas between Yaguaramas and San Blas. Those positions to block the roads were heavily maintained for two days, reinforced by ground troops from Playa Girón. [13] At about 08.30, a FAR Sea Fury piloted by Carlos Ulloa Arauz crashed in the bay, due to stalling or anti-aircraft fire, after encountering a FAL C-46 returning south after dropping paratroops. By 09.00, Cuban troops and militia from outside the area had started arriving at Australia sugar mill, Covadonga and Yaguaramas. Throughout the day they were reinforced by more troops, heavy armour and tanks often carried on flat-bed trucks. [13] At about 09.30, FAR Sea Furies and T-33s attacked with rockets the Rio Escondido, that 'blew up' and sank about 3 km south of Girón. [14] At about 11.00, a FAR T-33 attacked a FAL B-26 (serial number 935) piloted by Matias Farias who then survived a crashlanding on the Girón airfield, his navigator Eduardo Gonzales already killed by gunfire. His companion B-26 suffered damage and diverted to Grand Cayman Island; Pilot Mario Zúñiga (the "defector") and navigator Oscar Vega returned to Puerto Cabezas via CIA C-54 on 18 April. By about 11.00, the two remaining freighters Caribe and Atlántico, and the CIA LCIs and LCUs, started retreating south to international waters, but still pursued by FAR aircraft. At about 12.00, a FAR B-26 exploded due to heavy anti-aircraft fire from Blagar, and pilot Luis Silva Tablada (on his second sortie) and his crew of three were lost. [16] By 12.00, hundreds of militia cadets from Matanzas had secured Palpite, and cautiously advanced on foot south towards Playa Larga, suffering many casualties during attacks by FAL B- 26s. By dusk, other Cuban ground forces were gradually advancing southwards from Covadonga and southwest from Yaguaramas towards San Blas, and westwards along coastal tracks from

159 Cienfuegos towards Girón, all without heavy weapons or armour. During the day three FAL B-26s were shot down by T-33s, with the loss of pilots Raúl Vianello, José Crespo, Osvaldo Piedra and navigators Lorenzo Pérez-Lorenzo and José Fernández. Vianello's navigator Demetrio Pérez bailed out and was picked up by USS Murray. Pilot Crispín García Fernández and navigator Juan González Romero, in B-26 serial 940, diverted to Boca Chica, but late that night they attempted to fly back to Puerto Cabezas in B-26 serial 933 that Crespo had flown to Boca Chica on 15 April. In October 1961, the remains of the B-26 and its two crew were finally found in dense jungle in Nicaragua. [38][43] One FAL B-26 diverted to Grand Cayman with engine failure. By 16.00, Fidel Castro had arrived at the central Australia sugar mill, joining José Ramón Fernández whom he had appointed as battlefield commander before dawn that day. [13] On April 17, 1961, Osvaldo Ramírez (then chief of the rural resistance to Castro) was captured in Aromas de Velázquez and immediately executed. [44] The CIA was unaware or unconcerned at this repression's effects on the planned operation. [17] At about on 17 April 1961, a night air strike by three FAL B-26s on San Antonio de Los Baños airfield failed, reportedly due to incompetence and bad weather. Two other B-26s had aborted the mission after take-off. [16][40] Other sources allege that heavy anti-aircraft fire scared the aircrews, the resultant smoke perhaps a convenient excuse for "poor visibility". [13] Invasion day plus one (D+1) 18 April By about on 18 April, Cuban troops and militia, supported by tanks, took Playa Larga after Brigade forces had fled towards Girón in the early hours. During the day, Brigade forces retreated to San Blas along the two roads from Covadonga and Yaguaramas. By then, both Fidel Castro and José Ramón Fernández had re-located to that battlefront area. [13] At about on 18 April, FAL B-26s attacked a Cuban column of 12 civilian buses leading trucks carrying tanks and other armour, moving southeast between Playa Larga and Punta Perdiz. The vehicles, loaded with civilians, militia, police and soldiers, were attacked with bombs, napalm and rockets, suffering heavy casualties. The six B-26s were piloted by two CIA contract pilots plus four pilots and six navigators from Brigade 2506 air force. [27][38] The column later reformed and advanced to Punta Perdiz, about 11 km northwest of Giron. [13] Invasion day plus two (D+2) 19 April During the night of 18 April, a FAL C-46 delivered arms and equipment to the Girón airstrip occupied by Brigade 2506 ground forces, and took off before daybreak on 19 April. [45] The C-46 also evacuated Matias Farias, the pilot of B-26 serial '935' (code-named Chico Two) that had been shot down and crash-landed at Girón on 17 April. [42] The final air attack mission (code-named Mad Dog Flight) comprised five B-26s, four of which were manned by American CIA contract air crews and pilots from the Alabama Air Guard. One FAR Sea Fury (piloted by Douglas Rudd) and two FAR T-33 (piloted by Rafael del Pino and Alvaro Prendes) shot down two of these B-26s, killing four American airmen. [17] Combat air patrols were flown by Douglas A4D-2N Skyhawk jets of VA-34 squadron operating from USS Essex, with nationality and other markings removed. Sorties were flown to reassure Brigade soldiers and pilots, and to intimidate Cuban government forces without directly engaging in acts of war. [38] Without direct air support, and short of ammunition, Brigade 2506 ground forces retreated to the beaches in the face of considerable onslaught from Cuban government artillery, tanks and infantry. [14][46][47][48] Late on 19 April, destroyers USS Eaton (code-named Santiago) and USS Murray (code-named Tampico) moved into Cochinos Bay to evacuate retreating Brigade soldiers from beaches, before

160 opportunist firing from Cuban army tanks caused Commodore Crutchfield to order a withdrawal. [27] Invasion day plus three (D+3) 20 April From 19 April until about 22 April, sorties were flown by A4D-2Ns to obtain visual intelligence over combat areas. Reconnaissance flights are also reported of Douglas AD-5Ws of VFP-62 and/or VAW-12 squadron from USS Essex or another carrier, such as USS Shangri-La that was part of the task force assembled off the Cayman Islands. [27][38] On 21 April, Eaton and Murray, joined on 22 April by destroyers USS Conway and USS Cony, plus USS Threadfin (submarine) and a CIA PBY-5A Catalina flying boat, continued to search the coastline, reefs and islands for scattered Brigade survivors, about being rescued. [45] Aftermath Casualties Aircrews killed in action totalled 6 from the Cuban air force, 10 Cuban exiles and 4 American airmen. [16] American paratrooper Eugene Herman Koch was killed in action, and the American airmen shot down were Thomas W Ray, Leo F Baker, Riley W Shamburger and Wade C Gray. [27] In 1979, the body of Thomas 'Pete' Ray was repatriated from Cuba. In the 1990s, the CIA admitted to his links to the agency, and awarded him the Intelligence Star. [49] 114 Cuban exiles from Brigade 2506 were reportedly killed in action. [27] Cuba's losses during the conflict are variously reported as 4,000 killed,wounded or missing [6], or about 5,000. [7] Cuban sources report over 2,200 casualties [50]. The final toll reported was 176 killed in action in Cuban armed forces during the conflict. [5] That number might be for Cuban army losses only, not including militia or armed civilian loyalists, so a total of around 2,000 (perhaps as many as 5,000, see above) Cuban militia may have been killed, wounded or missing in action. The 15 April airfield attacks left 7 Cuban dead and 54 wounded. [5] Prisoners On 18 April, 1961, at least seven Cubans plus two CIA-hired US citizens (Angus K. McNair and Howard F. Anderson) were executed in Pinar del Rio province. On 20 April, Humberto Sorí Marin was executed at Fortaleza de la Cabana, having been arrested on 18 March following infiltration into Cuba with 14 tons of explosives. His fellow conspirators Rogelio Gonzalez Corzo (alias "Francisco Gutierrez"), Rafael Diaz Hanscom, Eufemio Fernandez, Arturo Hernandez Tellaheche and Manuel Lorenzo Puig Miyar were also executed. [6][13][24][35][51] Between April and October 1961, hundreds of executions took place in response to the invasion. They took place at various prisons, including the Fortaleza de la Cabaña and El Morro Castle. [6] Infiltration team leaders Antonio Diaz Pou and Raimundo E. Lopez, as well as underground students Virgilio Campaneria, Alberto Tapia Ruano, and more than one hundred other insurgents were executed. [10] About 1,204 Brigade 2506 members were captured, of which nine died from asphyxiation during transfer to Havana in a closed truck. In May 1961, Fidel Castro proposed to exchange the surviving Brigade prisoners for 500 large farm tractors. The trade rose to US$28 million. [8] On 8 September 1961, 14 Brigade prisoners were convicted of torture, murder and other major crimes committed in Cuba before the invasion, five being executed and nine jailed for 30 years. [3] Three confirmed as executed were Ramon Calvino, Emilio Soler Puig ('el Muerte') and Jorge King Yun ('el Chino'). [14][35] On 29 March 1962, 1,179 men were put on trial for treason. On 7 April 1962, all were convicted and sentenced to 30 years in prison. On 14 April 1962, 60 wounded and sick prisoners were freed and transported to the US. [3] On December 21, 1962, Cuban Prime Minister

161 Fidel Castro and James B. Donovan, a US lawyer, signed an agreement to exchange 1,113 prisoners for US$53 million in food and medicine; the money was raised by private donations. On 24 December 1962, some prisoners were flown to Miami, others following on the ship African Pilot, plus about 1,000 family members also allowed to leave Cuba. On 29 December 1962, President John F. Kennedy attended a 'welcome back' ceremony for Brigade 2506 veterans at the Orange Bowl in Miami, Florida. [14] Political reaction Robert F. Kennedy's Statement on Cuba and Neutrality Laws, April 20, 1961 The failed invasion severely embarrassed the Kennedy Administration and made Castro wary of future US intervention in Cuba. In August 1961, during an economic conference of the Organization of American States in Punta del Este, Uruguay, Che Guevara sent a note to Kennedy via Richard N. Goodwin, a secretary of the White House. It said: "Thanks for Playa Girón. Before the invasion, the revolution was weak. Now it's stronger than ever." [52] Additionally, Guevara answered a set of questions from Leo Huberman of Monthly Review following the invasion. In one reply, Guevara was asked to explain the growing number of Cuban counter-revolutionaries and defectors of the regime, to which he replied that the repelled invasion was the climax of counter revolution and that afterwards such actions "fell drastically to zero." [53] In regards to the defections of some prominent figures within the Cuban government, Guevara remarked that the this was because "the socialist revolution left the opportunists, the ambitious, and the fearful far behind and now advances toward a new regime free of this class of vermin." [53] Later analysis Maxwell Taylor survey On 22 April 1961, President Kennedy asked General Maxwell D. Taylor, Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, Admiral Arleigh Burke and Director of Central Intelligence Allen Dulles to report on

162 the lessons to be learnt from the failed operation. On 13 June, General Taylor submitted the report of the Board of Inquiry to President Kennedy. The defeat was attributed to lack of early realization of the impossibility of success by covert means, inadequate aircraft, limitations of armaments, pilots and air attacks to attempt plausible deniability, and ultimately, loss of important ships and lack of ammunition. [54] CIA report In November 1961, CIA inspector general Lyman B Kirkpatrick, authored a report 'Survey of the Cuban Operation', that remained classified top secret until Conclusions were: [55] 1. The CIA exceeded its capabilities in developing the project from guerrilla support to overt armed action without any plausible deniability. 2. Failure to realistically assess risks and to adequately communicate information and decisions internally and with other government principals. 3. Insufficient involvement of leaders of the exiles. 4. Failure to sufficiently organize internal resistance in Cuba. 5. Failure to competently collect and analyze intelligence about Cuban forces. 6. Poor internal management of communications and staff. 7. Insufficient employment of high-quality staff. 8. Insufficient Spanish-speakers, training facilities and material resources. 9. Lack of stable policies and contingency plans. In spite of vigorous rebuttals by CIA management of the findings, CIA Director Allen Dulles, CIA Deputy Director Charles Cabell, and Deputy Director for Plans Richard Bissell were all forced to resign by early [56] In later years, the CIA's behaviour in the episode became the prime example cited for the psychology paradigm known as Groupthink syndrome. [27] CIA operative E. Howard Hunt had interviewed Cubans in Havana prior to the invasion; in a later interview with CNN, he said, " all I could find was a lot of enthusiasm for Fidel Castro." [57] Invasion legacy in Cuba The invasion is often criticized as making Castro even more popular, adding nationalistic sentiments to the support for his economic policies. Following the initial attacks by 8 CIA-owned B-26s on Cuban airfields, he declared the revolution "Marxist-Leninist". [25] After the invasion, he pursued closer relations with the Soviet Union, partly for protection, which helped pave the way for the Cuban Missile Crisis a year and a half later. Castro was now increasingly wary of further US intervention and more susceptible to Soviet suggestions of placing nuclear weapons on Cuba to ensure its security. There are still yearly nationwide drills in Cuba during the 'Dia de la Defensa' (Defense Day) to prepare the population for an invasion. Invasion legacy for Cuban exiles Many who fought for the CIA in the Bay of Pigs remained loyal after the conflict. Some Bay of Pigs veterans became officers in the US Army in Vietnam, including 6 colonels, 19 lieutenant colonels, 9 majors, and 29 captains. [58] By March 2007, about half of the Brigade had died. [59] Playa Girón today Little remains of the original village, which in the 1960s was small and remote. It is still remote, with just a single road to the village and out again, but it has grown markedly since the invasion. Few people there today were residents at the time. The road from the north is marked by frequent memorials to the Cuban dead. There are billboards marking where invaders were rounded up and showing pictures of their being led away. Another at the entrance to the village quotes Castro's

163 comment that the Bay of Pigs was the "first defeat of Yankee imperialism." A two-room museum, with aircraft and other military equipment outside, shows pictures, arms and maps of the attack and photos of Cuban soldiers who died. Billboards and other material also remember the US financed "mercenaries". Museum of the invasion with a preserved Hawker Sea Fury. Notes See also Escambray Rebellion (War Against the Bandits, ) Cuba-United States relations Guantánamo Bay (Cuba) Swan Islands Related conflicts Cuban Revolution (1959) Cuban Project (Operation Mongoose, ) United States embargo against Cuba Operation Northwoods (1962) Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) Operation Ortsac (1962) 1. ^ Kellner 1989, p Historians give Guevara, who was director of instruction for Cuba s armed forces, a share of credit for the victory (p.69) 2. ^ Szulc (1986), p "The revolutionaries won because Castro's strategy was vastly superior to the CIA's; because the revolutionary morale was high; and because Che Guevara as the head of the militia training programme and Fernandez as commander of the militia officers' school, had done so well in preparing 200,000 men and women for war." 3. ^ a b c d e f g Szulc (1986) 4. ^ a b FRUS X 5. ^ a b c d e f g Fernandez (2001) 6. ^ a b c d e f Triay (2001), pp ^ a b Lynch (2000), p ^ a b c d Schlesinger (1965) 9. ^ Holland, Max. The Atlantic magazine. June 2004, p.91 The Assassination Tapes ^ a b c Faria (2002), pp ^ a b c d e Kornbluh (1998) 12. ^ Bethell (1993) 13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Rodriguez (1999) 14. ^ a b c d e f g Johnson (1964) 15. ^ Overall, Mario E. (2003). Bay of Pigs: The Guatemalan Connection ^ a b c d e Hagedorn (2006) 17. ^ a b c d e "Bay of Pigs, 40 Years After: Chronology". The National Security Archive. The George Washington University ^ Kellner 1989, p ^ Welch and Blight, p ^ Montaner (1999). "Viaje al Corazón de Cuba" (in es) (PDF). Plaza & Janés ^ "The New York Times" p ^ Inter-American Commission on Human Rights ( ). "The Situation of Human Rights in Cuba, Seventh Report Chapter V". Organization of American States. Retrieved

164 23. ^ LINK 24. ^ a b c d e Corzo (2003), pp ^ a b Kellner 1989, p ^ Rodriguez (1999), p ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Wyden (1979) 28. ^ Alfonso, Pablo 2001 Los Ultimos Castristas. Centro de Documentacion y Formacion, Caracas. ISBN , pp ^ Paz-Sanchez (2001), pp ^ Dreke (2002), pp , 90, ^ del Pino, Rafael ( ). "Como te Paga un Dictador" (in es). Network /COMO+TE+PAGA+UN+DICTADOR. Retrieved ^ British Foreign Office. Chancery American Department, Foreign Office, London September 2, 1959 (2181/59) to British Embassy Havana classified as restricted Released 2000 by among British Foreign Office papers. Foreign Offices Files for Cuba Part 1: Revolution in Cuba in our letter 1011/59 May 6 we mentioned that a Russian workers' delegation had been invited to participate in the May Day celebrations here, but had been delayed. The interpreter with the party, which arrived later and stayed in Cuba a few days, was called Vadim Kotchergin although he was at the time using what he subsequently claimed was his mother's name of Liston (?). He remained in the background, and did not attract any attention. These two agents went on to train overseas personnel including Carlos the Jackal (Ilich Ramírez Sánchez) and subcomandante Marcos (Rafael Sebastián Guillén). 33. ^ "El campo de entrenamiento "Punto Cero" donde el Partido Comunista de Cuba (PCC) adiestra a terroristas nacionales e internacionales" (in es). Cuban American Foundation Retrieved ^ Dreke (2002), pp ^ a b c d Thomas (1971) 36. ^ Rodriguez (1999), pp ^ FRUS X, Document ^ a b c d e f g h Ferrer (1975) 39. ^ Szulc, Tad. ( ). Asylum Granted to Three Airmen ^ a b MacPhall, Doug & Acree, Chuck (2003). Bay of Pigs: The Men and Aircraft of the Cuban Revolutionary Air Force ^ FRUS X, Document ^ a b Cooper, Tom (2007). Clandestine US Operations: Cuba, 1961, Bay of Pigs ^ FOIA document ^ "Nuevo Acción" (in es) ^ a b FRUS X, document ^ Lynch (2000) 47. ^ De Paz-Sánchez (2001) 48. ^ Vivés (1984) 49. ^ Thomas, Eric. "Local Man Forever Tied To Cuban Leader: Father Frozen, Displayed by Fidel Castro". KGO ABC7, KGO-TV/DT. Retrieved ^ Castro (2002) My_Life_(Fidel_Castro_autobiography) 51. ^ Ros (1994), pp ^ Anderson (1997), p ^ a b Cuba and the U.S. by Che Guevara, Monthly Review, September ^ Kornbluh (1998), p ^ Kornbluh (1998), p ^ Higgins (1987)

165 57. ^ Hunt, Howard (1998). "Backyeard". Cold War. CNN. Retrieved DEAD LINK 58. ^ Ros, Enrique (1994), pp ^ Iuspa-Abbott, Paola. "Palm Beach County Bay of Pigs veterans remember invasion of Cuba". South Florida Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved References Anderson, Jon L. 1997,1998. Che Guevara: A Revolutionary Life. Grove/Atlantic ISBN ISBN Andrade, John Latin-American Military Aviation. Midland Counties. ISBN Bethell, Leslie Cuba. Cambridge University Press. ISBN Corzo, Pedro Cuba Cronología de la lucha contra el totalitarismo. Ediciones Memorias, Miami. ISBN Dreke, Victor From Escambray to the Congo: In the Whirlwind of the Cuban Revolution. Pathfinder. New York. ISBN ISBN Faria, Miguel, A Cuba in Revolution Escape from a Lost Paradise. Hacienda Publishing, pp , notes# 16 and 24. ISBN Fernandez, Jose Ramon Playa Giron/Bay of Pigs: Washington's First Military Defeat in the Americas. Pathfinder ISBN X ISBN Ferrer, Edward B. 1975(sp), 1982(en). Operation Puma: The Air Battle of the Bay of Pigs. International Aviation Consultants. ISBN Franqui, Carlos (foreword by G. Cabrera Infante and translated by Alfred MacAdam from Spanish 1981 version) Family portrait with Fidel edition Random House First Vintage Books, New York. ISBN ISBN pp FRUS - Foreign Relations of the United States Volume X Cuba, Department of State Documents and Memoranda Hagedorn, Dan Central American and Caribbean Air Forces. Air-Britain. ISBN Hagedorn, Dan and Hellström, Leif Foreign Invaders - The Douglas Invader in foreign military and US clandestine service. UK: Midland Publishing Limited. ISBN Hagedorn, Dan Latin American Air Wars & Aircraft. Hikoki. ISBN Higgins, Trumbull. 1987, The Perfect Failure: Kennedy, Eisenhower, and the CIA at the Bay of Pigs. Norton, New York. ISBN ISBN Hunt, E. Howard Give us this day. Arlington House, New Rochelle, NY. ISBN Johnson, Haynes The Bay of Pigs: The Leaders' Story of Brigade W. W. Norton & Co Inc. New York edition ISBN Jones, Howard Bay of Pigs (Pivotal Moments in American History). OUP USA. ISBN X ISBN Kellner, Douglas (1989). Ernesto Che Guevara (World Leaders Past & Present). Chelsea House Publishers (Library Binding edition). pp ISBN Kornbluh, Peter Bay of Pigs Declassified: The Secret CIA Report on the Invasion of Cuba. The New Press. New York. ISBN ISBN Lagas, Jacques Memorias de un capitán rebelde. Editorial del Pácifico. Santiago, Chile. ASIN B0014VJ2KS

166 Lazo, Mario. 1968, Dagger in the heart: American policy failures in Cuba. Twin Circle. New York edition Library of Congress number , 1970 edition, ASIN B0007DPNJS Lynch, Grayston L Decision for Disaster: Betrayal at the Bay of Pigs. Potomac Books Dulles Virginia ISBN de Paz-Sánchez, Manuel Zona de Guerra, España y la revolución Cubana ( ), Taller de Historia, Tenerife Gran Canaria ISBN Priestland, Jane (editor) British Archives on Cuba: Cuba under Castro Archival Publications International Limited, London ISBN de Quesada, Alejandro; Walsh, Stephen The Bay of Pigs: Cuba Osprey Elite series #166, Oxford & New York. ISBN Rodriguez, Juan Carlos Bay of Pigs and the CIA. Ocean Press Melbourne. ISBN Ros, Enrique (1998). Giron la verdadera historia. Ediciones Universales (Colección Cuba y sus jueces) third edition Miami ISBN Schlesinger, Arthur M. Jr A Thousand days: John F Kennedy in the White House. Houghton Mifflin. Boston. ISBN ISBN Jean Edward Smith. Bay of Pigs: The Unanswered Questions. The Nation, (Apr. 13, 1964), p Somoza Debayle, Anastasio and Jack Cox Nicaragua Betrayed. Western Islands Publishers, pp ISBN ISBN Szulc, Tad, and Karl E. Meyer The Cuban Invasion. The chronicle of a disaster. Praegar. New York. ASIN B0018DMAV0 Szulc, Tad Fidel - A Critical Portrait. Hutchinson. ISBN Thomas, Hugh. 1971, The Cuban Revolution. Weidenfeld and Nicolson. London. (Shortened version of Cuba: The Pursuit of Freedom, includes all history ) ISBN Thomas, Hugh Cuba: The Pursuit of Freedom. Da Capo Press, New York. ISBN Thompson, Scott Douglas A-26 and B-26 Invader. UK. Crowood Press ISBN Trest, Warren A. and Dodd, Donald B Wings of Denial: The Alabama Air National Guard's Covert Role at the Bay of Pigs. NewSouth Books ISBN ISBN Triay, Victor Andres Bay of Pigs: An Oral History of Brigade University Press of Florida, Gainesville ISBN ISBN Vivés, Juan (Pseudonym, of a former veteran and Castro Intelligence Official; Translated to Spanish from 1981 Les Maîtres de Cuba. Opera Mundi, Paris by Zoraida Valcarcel) 1982 Los Amos de Cuba. EMCÉ Editores, Buenos Aires. ISBN Welch, David A and James G Blight (editors) Intelligence and the Cuban Missile Crisis. Frank Cass Publishers, London and Portland Oregon ISBN ISBN Wyden, Peter Bay of Pigs - The Untold Story. Simon and Schuster. New York. ISBN ISBN ISBN External links Kennedy and the Bay of Pigs Invasion from the JFK Library Bay of Pigs: Invasion and Aftermath - slideshow by LIFE magazine Bay of Pigs Museum and Library in Miami, Florida

167 José Martí José Martí José Julián Martí Pérez (January 28, 1853 May 19, 1895) was a Cuban national hero and an important figure in Latin American literature. In his short life he was a poet, an essayist, a journalist, a revolutionary philosopher, a translator, a professor, a publisher, and a political theorist. Through his writings and political activity, he became a symbol for Cuba's bid for independence against Spain in the 19th century, and is referred to as the "Apostle of Cuban Independence". He also fought against the threat of United States expansionism into Cuba. From adolescence, he dedicated his life to the promotion of liberty, political independence for Cuba and intellectual independence for all Spanish Americans. Born Died Occupation Nationality José Julián Martí Pérez January 28, 1853 Havana, Cuba May 19, 1895 (aged 42) Cauto, Cuba poet, writer, nationalist leader Cuban Born in Havana, Martí began his political activism at a young age. He would travel extensively in Spain, Latin America, and the United States raising awareness and support for the cause of Cuban independence. His unification of the Cuban émigré community, particularly in Florida, was crucial to the success of the Cuban War of Independence against Spain. He was a key figure in the planning and execution of this war, as well as the designer of the Cuban Revolutionary Party and its ideology. He died in military action on May 19, Literary movement Modernismo Martí is considered one of the great turn-of-thecentury Latin American intellectuals. His written Relative(s) Rachel Lluch works consist of a series of poems, essays, letters, lectures, a novel, and even a children's magazine. He wrote for numerous Latin American and American newspapers; he also founded a number of newspapers himself. His newspaper Patria was a key instrument in his campaign for Cuban independence. After his death, one of his poems from the book, "Versos Sencillos" (Simple Verses) was adapted to the song, "Guantanamera," which has become the definitive patriotic song of Cuba. The concepts of freedom, liberty, and democracy are prominent themes in all of his works, which were influential on the Nicaraguan poet, Rubén Darío and the Chilean poet, Gabriela Mistral. [1] Life Early life: Cuba José Julián Martí Pérez was born on January 28, 1853, in Havana, at 41 Paula St., to a Spanish Valencian father, Mariano Martí Navarro, and Leonor Pérez Cabrera, a native of the Canary Islands. Martí was the elder brother to seven sisters: Leonor, Mariana, Maria de Carmen, Maria

168 de Pilar, Rita Amelia, Antonia and Dolores. He was baptized on February 12 in Santo Ángel Custodio church. When he was four, his family moved from Cuba to Valencia, Spain, but two years later they returned to the island where they enrolled José at a local public school, in the Santa Clara neighborhood where his father worked as a prison guard. [2] Contents 1 Life o 1.1 Early life: Cuba o 1.2 Spain o 1.3 México and Guatemala o 1.4 The United States, Venezuela o 1.5 The United States, Central America and the West Indies o 1.6 Return to Cuba 1895 o 1.7 Death 2 Martí's Political Ideology o o 2.1 Martí and the United States 2.2 Martí and the Invention of a Latin American Identity 3 José Martí's Writing o 3.1 Style o 3.2 Translation o 3.3 José Martí and Modernismo 4 Legacy 5 List of selected works 6 Notes 7 References 8 External links Statue of José Martí on horseback in New York's Central Park - Anna Hyatt Huntington, 1959 In 1865, he enrolled in the Escuela de Instrucción Primaria Superior Municipal de Varones that was headed by Rafael María de Mendive. Mendive was influential in the development of Martí's political philosophies. Also instrumental in his development of a social and political conscience was his best friend Fermín Valdés Domínguez, the son of a wealthy slave-owning family. [3] In April the same year, after hearing the news of Abraham Lincoln's assassination, Martí and other young students expressed their pain through group mourning for the death of a man who had decreed the abolition of slavery in a neighboring country. In 1866, Martí entered the Instituto de Segunda Ensañanza where Mendive financed his studies. [2] Martí signed up at the Escuela Professional de Pintura y Escultura de La Habana (Professional School for Painting and Sculpture of Havana) in September 1867, known as San Alejandro, to take drawing classes. He hoped to flourish in this area, but did not find commercial success. In 1867, he also entered the school of San Pablo, established and managed by Mendive, where he enrolled for the second and third years of his bachelor's degree, and assisted Mendive with the school's administrative tasks. In April 1868, his poem dedicated to Mendive's wife, A Micaela. En la muerte de Miguel Ángel appeared in Guanabacoa's newspaper El Álbum. [4] When the Ten Years' War broke out in Cuba in 1868, clubs of supporters for the Cuban nationalist cause formed all over Cuba, and José and his friend Fermín joined them. Martí had a precocious desire for the independence and freedom of Cuba. He started writing poems about this vision, while, at the same time, trying to do something to achieve this dream. In 1869, he published his first political writings in the only edition of the newspaper El Diablo Cojuelo, published by Fermín Valdés Domínguez. That same year he published "Abdala", a patriotic drama in verse form in the one-volume La Patria Librenewspaper, which he published himself. "Abdala" is about a fictional country called Nubia which struggles for liberation. [5] His famous

169 sonnet "10 de octubre", later to become one of his most famous poems, was also written during that year, and was published later in his school newspaper. [4] Despite this success, in March of that year, colonial authorities shut down the school, interrupting Martí's studies. He came to resent Spanish rule of his homeland at a young age; likewise, he developed a hatred of slavery, which was still practiced in Cuba. [6] On 21 October 1869, aged 16, he was arrested and incarcerated in the national jail, following an accusation of treason and bribery from the Spanish government upon the discovery of an "reproving" letter, which Martí and a Fermín had written to a friend when he joined the Spanish army. [7] More than four months later, Martí confessed to the charges and was condemned to six years in prison. His mother tried to free her son (who at 16 was still a minor) by writing letters to the government; his father went to a lawyer friend for legal support, but all efforts failed. Eventually Martí fell ill; his legs were severely lacerated by the chains that bound him. As a result, he was transferred to another part of Cuba known as Isla de Pinos instead of further imprisonment. Following that, the Spanish authorities decided to repatriate him to Spain. [4] In Spain, Martí, who was 18 at the time, was allowed to continue his studies with the hopes that studying in Spain would renew his loyalty to Spain. [8] Spain In January 1871, Marti embarked on the steam ship Guipuzcoa, which took him from Havana to Cadiz. He settled in Madrid in a guesthouse in Desengaño St. # 10. Arriving at the capital he contacted fellow Cuban Carlos Sauvalle, who had been deported to Spain a year before Martí and whose house served as a center of reunions for Cubans in exile. On March 24, Cadiz s newspaper La Soberania Nacional, published Martí's article Castillo in which he recalled the sufferings of a friend he met in prison. This article would be reprinted in Sevilla s La Cuestion Cubana and New York s La Republica. At this time, Martí registered himself as a member of independent studies in the law faculty of the Central University of Madrid. [9] While studying here, Martí openly participated in discourse on the Cuban issue, debating through the Spanish press and circulating documents protesting Spanish activities in Cuba. José's maltreatment at the hands of the Spaniards and consequent deportation to Spain in 1871 inspired a tract, Political Imprisonment in Cuba, published in July. This pamphlet's purpose was to move the Spanish public to do something about its government's brutalities in Cuba and promoted the issue of Cuban independence. [10] In September, from the pages of El Jurado Federal, Marti and Sauvalle accused the newspaper La Prensa of having calumniated the Cuban residents in Madrid. During his stay in Madrid, Marti frequented the Ateneo and the National Library, the Café de los Artistas, and the British, Swiss and Iberian breweries. In November he became sick and had an operation, paid for by Sauvalle. [9] On the 27 of November 1871, eight medical students, who had been accused (without evidence) of the desecration of a Spanish grave, were executed in Havana. [9] In June 1872, Fermín Valdés was arrested because of the November 27 incident. His six years of jail were pardoned and he was exiled to Spain where he reunited with Martí. On November 27, 1872, the printed matter Dia 27 de Noviembre de 1871 (27 November 1871) written by Martí and signed by Fermín Valdés Domínguez, and Pedro J. de la Torre circulated Madrid. A group of Cubans held a funeral in the Caballero de Gracia church, the first anniversary of the medical students execution. [11] In 1873, Martí's A mis Hermanos Muertos el 27 de Noviembre was published by Fermín Valdés. In February, for the first time, the Cuban flag appeared in Madrid, hanging from Martí s balcony in Concepción Jerónima, where he lived for a few years. In the same month, the Proclamation of the First Spanish Republic by the Cortes on February 11, 1873 reaffirmed Cuba as inseparable to Spain, Martí responded with an essay, The Spanish Republic and the Cuban Revolution, and sent it to the Prime Minister, pointing out that this new freely elected body of deputies that had proclaimed a republic based on democracy had been hypocritical not to grant Cuba its

170 freedom. [12] He sent examples of his work to Nestor Ponce de Leon, a member of the Junta Central Revolucionaria de Nueva York (Central revolutionary committee of New York), to whom he would express his will to collaborate on the fight for the independence of Cuba. [11] In May, he moved to Zaragoza, accompanied by Fermín Valdés to continue his studies in law at the Universidad Literaria. The newspaper La Cuestión Cubana of Sevilla, published numerous articles from Martí. [11] In June 1874, Marti graduated with a degree in Civil Rights and Canonical Law. In August he signed up as an external student at the Facultad de Filosofia y Letras de Zaragoza, where he finished his degree by October. In November he returned to Madrid and then left to Paris. There he met Auguste Vacquerie, a poet, and Victor Hugo. In December 1874 he embarked from Le Havre for Mexico. [13] Prevented from returning to Cuba, Martí went instead to Mexico and Guatemala. During these travels, he taught and wrote, advocating continually for Cuba's independence. [14] México and Guatemala In 1875, Martí lived on Calle Moneda in Mexico City near the Zócalo, a prestigious address of the times. One floor above him lived Manuel Mercado, Secretary of the Distrito Federal, who would become one of Martí s best friends. On March 2, 1875, he published his first article for Vicente Villada's Revista Universal, a broadsheet discussing politics, literature, and general business commerce. On March 12, his Spanish translation of Victor Hugo's [[Mes Fils]] (1874) began serialization in Revista Universal. Martí then joined the editorial staff, editing the Boletín section of the publication. In these writings he expressed his opinions about current events in Mexico. On May 27, in the newspaper Revista Universal, he responded to the anti-cuban-independence arguments in the Mexican newspaper La Colonia Española. In December, Sociedad Gorostiza (Gorostiza Society), a group of writers and artists, accepted Martí as a member, where he met his future wife, Carmen Zayas Bazán during his frequent visits to her Cuban father s house to meet with the Gorostiza group. [15] On January 1, 1876, in Oaxaca, elements contrary to Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada's government led by Gen. Porfirio Díaz proclaimed the Plán de Tuxtepéc, thence instigating a bloody civil war. Martí and fellow Mexican colleagues established the Sociedad Alarcón, composed of dramatists, actors, and critics. At this point, Martí began collaboration with the newspaper El Socialista as leader of the Gran Círculo Obrero (Great Labour Circle) organization of liberals and reformists who supported Lerdo de Tejada. In March, the newspaper proposed a series of candidates as delegates, including Martí, to the first Congreso Obrero, or congress of the workers. On June 4, La Sociedad Esperanza de Empleados (Employees' Hope Society) designated Martí as delegate to the Congreso Obrero. On December 7, Martí published his article Alea Jacta Est in the newspaper El Federalista, bitterly criticizing the Porfiristas' armed assault upon the constitutional government in place. On December 16, he published the article "Extranjero" (foreigner; abroad), in which he repeated his denunciation of the Porfiristas and bade farewell to Mexico. [15] In 1877, using his patronymic and matronymic surnames [16] Julián Pérez as pseudonym, Martí embarked for Havana, hoping to there arrange moving his family away from Mexico City. He returned to Mexico, however, entering at the port of Progreso from which, via Isla de Mujeres and Belize, he travelled south to progressive Guatemala City. He took residence in the prosperous suburb of Ciudad Vieja, home of Guatemala's artists and Intelligentsia of the day, on Cuarta Avenida (fourth avenue), 3 km south of Guatemala City. Commissioned then by the government, he wrote the play Patria y Libertad (Drama Indio) (Country and Liberty (an Indian Drama)). He met personally the president, Justo Rufino Barrios about this project. On April 22, the newspaper El Progreso published his article "Los códigos nuevos" (The New Laws) pertaining to the then newly enacted Civil Code. On May 29, he was appointed head of the Department of French,

171 English, Italian and German Literature, History and Philosophy, on the faculty of philosophy and arts of the Universidad Nacional. On July 25, he lectured for the opening evening of the literary society 'Sociedad Literaria El Porvenir', at the Teatro Colón (the since-renamed Teatro Nacional [17] ), at which function he was appointed vice-president of the Society, and acquiring the moniker "el doctor torrente," or Doctor Torrent, in view of his rhetorical style. Martí taught composition classes free at the academia de niñas de centroamérica girls' academy, among whose students he enthralled young María García Granados, daughter of Guatemalan president Miguel García Granados. The schoolgirl's crush was unrequited, however, as he went again to México, where he met Carmen Zayas Bazán and whom he later married. [18] In 1878, Martí returned to Guatemala and published his book Guatemala, edited in Mexico. On May 10, socialite María García Granados died of lung disease; her unrequited love for Martí branded her, poignantly, as 'la niña de Guatemala, la que se murió de amor' (the Guatemalan girl who died of love). Following her death, Martí returned to Cuba. There, he finished signing the Pact of Zanjón which ended the Cuban Ten Years' War, but had no effect on Cuba's status as a colony. During this same journey he married Carmen Zayas Bazán on Havana's Calle Tulipán Street. In October, his application to practice law in Cuba was refused, and thence immersed himself in radical efforts, such as for the Comité Revolucinario Cubano de Nueva York (Cuban Revolutionary Committee of New York). On November 2, 1878 his son José Francisco, known fondly as "Pepito", was born. [19] The United States, Venezuela After a short time in New York, Martí travelled to Venezuela in 1881 and founded the Revista Venezolana, or Venezuelan Review. The journal provoked the wrath of Venezuela's dictator, Antonio Guzmán Blanco, and Martí was forced to leave for New York. [20] Back in New York Martí joined General Calixto García's Cuban revolutionary committee, made up of exiled Cubans who wanted independence for Cuba. Here Martí supported Cuban independence freely. He worked as a newspaper reporter and was also a correspondent for La Nación of Buenos Aires and for different Central American journals, [14] especially La Opinion Liberal in Mexico City. [21] At the same time, Martí wrote poems and translated novels to Spanish. He worked for Appleton and Company and, "on his own, translated and published Helen Hunt Jackson's Ramona. His repertory of original work included plays, a novel, poetry, a children's magazine, La Edad de Oro, and a newspaper, Patria, which became the official organ of the Cuban Revolutionary party". [22] Also, he worked very hard by serving as a consul for Uruguay, Argentina, and Paraguay. Throughout this work, he preached the "freedom of Cuba with an enthusiasm that swelled the ranks of those eager to strive with him for it". [14] Within the revolutionary committee, there was tension between Martí and his Cuban military compatriots. Martí thought it was of utmost importance that a military dictatorship not be established in Cuba upon independence, and suspected Cuban General Máximo Gómez of having these very intentions. [23] Martí knew that the independence of Cuba needed careful planning and would take time. This is why Martí refused to cooperate with Máximo Gómez and Antonio Maceo Grajales, two Cuban military leaders from the Ten Years' War, when they wanted to invade immediately in Martí knew that it was too early to attempt to win back Cuba, and later events proved him right. [14] The United States, Central America and the West Indies On January 1, 1891, Martí's essay "Nuestra America" was published in New York's Revista Ilustrada, and on the 30th of that month in Mexico's El Partido Liberal. He actively participated in the Conferencia Monetaria Internacional (The International Monetary Conference) in New York during that time as well. On June 30 his wife and son arrived to New York. After a short time, in which Carmen Zayas Balán realized that Martí's dedication to Cuban independence surpassed that of supporting his family, she returned to Havana with her son on 27 August. Martí would

172 never see them again. The fact that his wife never shared the convictions central to his life was an enormous personal tragedy for Martí. [24] He turned for solace to Carmen Miyares de Mantilla, a Venezuelan who ran a boardinghouse in New York, and he is presumed to be the father of her daughter María Mantilla, who was in turn the mother of the actor Cesar Romero, who proudly claimed to be Martí's grandson. In September Martí became sick again. He intervened in the commemorative acts of The Independents, causing the Spanish consul in New York to complain to the Argentine and Uruguayan governments. Consequently, Martí resigned from the Argentinean, Paraguayan, and Uruguayan consulates. In October he published his book Versos Sencillos. On the 26 of November, he was invited by the Club Ignacio Agramonte of Tampa, Florida, a celebration to collect funding for the cause of Cuban independence. There he gave a lecture known as "Con Todos, y para el Bien de Todos". The following night, another lecture, " Los Pinos Nuevos", was given by Martí in a gathering in the honor of the medical students killed in In November artist Herman Norrman painted a portrait of José Martí. [25] On January 5, 1892, Martí participated in a reunion of the emigration representatives, in Cayo Hueso, where the Bases del Partido Revolucionario (Basis of the Cuban Revolutionary Party) was passed. He began the process of organizing the newly formed party. To raise support and collect funding for the independence movement, he visited tobacco factories, where he gave speeches to the workers and united them in the cause. In March 1892 the first edition of the Patria newspaper, related to the Cuban Revolutionary Party, was published, funded and directed by Martí. On April 8, he was chosen delegate of the Cuban Revolutionary Party by the Cayo Hueso Club in Tampa and New York. From July to September 1892 he traveled through Florida, Washington, Philadelphia, Haiti, the Dominican Republic and Jamaica on an organization mission among the exiled Cubans. On this mission, Martí made numerous speeches and visited various tobacco factories. On December 16 he was poisoned in Tampa. [26] Jose Marti (center) with cigar workers in Ybor City, Tampa, Florida in 1893 In 1893, Marti traveled through the United States, Central America and the West Indies, visiting different Cuban clubs. His visits were received with a growing enthusiasm and raised badly needed funds for the revolutionary cause. On May 24 he met Rubén Darío, the Nicaraguan poet in a theatre act in Hardman Hall, New Mexico. On June 3 he had an interview with Máximo Gómez in Montecristi, Dominican Republic, where they planned the uprising. In July he met with General Antonio Maceo Grajales in San Jose, Costa Rica. [27] In 1894 he continued traveling for propagation and organizing the revolutionary movement. On January 27 he published " A Cuba!" in the newspaper Patria where he denounced collusion between the Spanish and American interests. In July he visited the Mexican president of the Republica, Porfirio Díaz, and travelled to Veracruz. In August he prepared and arranged the armed expedition that would begin the Cuban revolution. [28] Return to Cuba 1895 January 12, 1895, the North American authorities stopped the steamship Lagonda and two other suspicious ships, Amadis, and Baracoa at the Fernandina port in Florida, confiscating weapons and ruining Plan de Fernandina (Fernandina Plan). On January 29, Martí drew up the order of the uprising, signing it with general Jose Maria Rodriguez and Enrique Collazo. They decided to move to Montecristi, to join Máximo Gómez and to plan out the uprising. [29] Martí had persuaded Gómez to lead an expedition into Cuba. The expedition finally took place on February 24, A

173 month later, Martí and Gómez declared the Manifesto de Montecristi, an "exposition of the purposes and principles of the Cuban revolution". [30] Before leaving for Cuba, Martí wrote his "literary will" on April 1, 1895, leaving his personal papers and manuscripts to Gonzalo de Quesada, with instructions for editing. Knowing that the majority of his writing in newspapers in Honduras, Uruguay, and Chile would dissipate, Martí instructed Quesada to arrange his papers in volumes. The volumes were to be arranged in the following way: volumes one and two, North Americas; volume three, Hispanic Americas; volume four, North American Scenes; volume five, Books about the Americas (this included both North and South America); volume six, Literature, education and painting. Another volume included his poetry. [30] The expedition, composed of Martí, Gómez, Ángel Guerra, Francisco Borreo, Cesar Salas and Marcos del Rosario, left Montecristi for Cuba on April 1, [31] Despite delays and desertion by some members, they got to Cuba. They landed at Playitas, near Maisi Cape, Cuba, on April 11. Once there, they made contact with the Cuban rebels, who were headed by the Maceo brothers, and started fighting against Spanish troops. By May 13, the expedition reached Dos Rios. On May 19, Gomez faced Ximenez de Sandoval's troops and ordered Martí to stay rearguard, but Martí separated from the bulk of the Cuban forces, and entered the Spanish line. [32] Death José Martí was killed in battle against Spanish troops at the Battle of Dos Ríos, near the confluence of the rivers Contramaestre and Cauto, on May 19, Gómez had recognized that the Spaniards had a strong position between palm trees, so he ordered his men to disengage. Martí was alone and seeing a young courier ride by he said: "Joven, a la carga" meaning: "Young man, let's charge!" This was around midday, and he was, as always, dressed in a black jacket, riding a white horse, which made him an easy target for the Spanish. The young trooper, Angel de la Guardia, lost his horse and returned to report the loss. The Spanish took possession of the body, buried it close by, then exhumed the body upon realization of its identity. They are said not to have burned him because they were scared that the ashes would get into their throats and asphyxiate them. He is buried in Cementerio Santa Efigenia in Santiago de Cuba. Many have argued that Maceo and others had always spurned Martí for never participating in combat, which may have compelled Martí to that ill-fated suicidal two-man charge. Some of his Versos sencillos bore premonition: "No me entierren en lo oscuro/ A morir como un traidor/ Yo soy bueno y como bueno/ Moriré de cara al sol." ("Do not bury me in darkness / to die like a traitor / I am good, and as a good man / I will die facing the sun.") The death of Marti was a blow to the "aspirations of the Cuban rebels,inside and outside of the island, but the fighting continued with alternating successes and failures until the entry of the United States into the war in 1898". [33] Martí's Political Ideology Martí dedicated his life to the cause of Cuban independence. To him, it was unnatural that Cuba be controlled and oppressed by the Spanish government, when it had its own unique identity and culture. In his pamphlet from February 11, 1873, called "The Spanish Republic and the Cuban Revolution", he argued that "Cubans do not live as Spaniards live(...). They are nourished by a different system of trade, have links with different countries, and express their happiness through quite contrary customs. There are no common aspirations or identical goals linking the two peoples, or beloved memories to unite them [...]. Peoples are only united by ties of fraternity and love.". [34] Martí was totally opposed to slavery and criticized Spain for failing to abolish the institution. In a speech to Cuban immigrants in Steck Hall, New York, on January 24, 1879, he stated that the war against Spain needed to be fought, recalled the heroism and suffering of the Ten Years' War,

174 which, he declared, had qualified Cuba as a real nation with a right to independence. Spain hadn't ratified the conditions of the peace treaty, had falsified elections, continued excessive taxation, and had failed to abolish slavery. Cuba needed to be free. [35] Statue of Jose Marti in Havana, Cuba Martí wanted Cuba to be a democratic republic. [36] For this to occur, legitimate political steps needed to be taken. He had proposed in a letter to Máximo Gómez in 1882 the formation of a revolutionary party, which he considered essential in the prevention of Cuba falling back on the Home Rule Party (Partido Autonomista)after the Pact of Zanjón. [37] The Home Rule Party was a peace-seeking party that would stop short of the outright independence that Martí thought Cuba needed. But he was aware that there were social divisions in Cuba, especially racial divisions, that needed to be addressed as well, as he stated in a letter to Maceo on July 20, 1882: "the Cuban problem needs, rather than a political solution, a social solution [which] cannot be achieved except through mutual love and forgiveness between the two races [...]. To create [...] a country where, despite its having had great experience of hatred, all its diverse elements will begin [...] to enjoy real rights." [38] He thought war was necessary to achieve Cuba's freedom, despite his basic ideology of conciliation, respect, dignity, and balance. The establishment of thepatria (fatherland) with a good government would unite Cubans of all social classes and colours in harmony. [39] Together with other Cubans resident in New York, Martí started laying the grounds for the Revolutionary Party, stressing the need for a democratic organization as the basic structure before any military leaders were to join. The military would have to subordinate themselves to the interests of the fatherland. Gómez later rejoined Martí's plans, promising to comply. At this point, Martí became increasingly alarmed about the United States' intentions for Cuba. The United States desperately needed new markets for its industrial products because of the economic crisis they were experiencing, and the media was talking about the purchase of Cuba from Spain. [40] Cuba was a profitable, fertile country with an important strategic position in the Gulf of Mexico. In an Interamerican Congress summoned in Washington in October 1889 to discuss U.S. position on Cuba, purchase, annexation, and seizure were discussed. [41] Martí was strongly opposed to this expansionism, reiterating his constant position: full independence for Cuba and nothing else. The interests of Cuba's future lay with its sister nations in Latin America, and were opposite to those of the United States. [42] Martí's consolidation of support among the Cuban expatriates, especially in Florida, was key in the planning and execution of the invasion of Cuba. His speeches to Cuban tobacco workers in Tampa and Key West motivated and united them; this is considered the most important political achievement of his life. [43] At his point he refined his ideological platform, basing it on a Cuba held together by pride in being Cuban, a society that ensured "the welfare,and prosperity of all Cubans". [44] independently of class, occupation or race. Faith in the cause could not die, and the military would not try for domination. All pro-independence Cubans would participate, with no sector predominating. From this he established the Cuban Revolutionary Party in early The Cuban Revolutionary Party's 'Bases and Statutes' aimed at: 1) Winning absolute independence for Cuba and aiding that of Puerto Rico; 2) ordering a 'generous and brief war' that would ensure peace and happiness for all Cuba's inhabitants; 3) organizing this war so that it should be 'republican in spirit and methods', and lead to a society fulfilling 'in the historical life of the continent'; 4) ensuring that no 'authoritarian spirit and bureaucratic make-up of the colony' would exist in the new Cuba; 5) preventing any one particular group from having more power than other groups; 6) creating a harmonious fatherland with economic prosperity ensured by allowing

175 outlets for the economic activities of all its inhabitants; 7) maintaining friendly relations with the U.S.; and, 8) bringing the above intentions through a set of concrete aims: to unite all Cubans living abroad, to bring together all factions inside and outside of Cuba, to prepare inside Cuba the knowledge and spirit of the revolution, to collect funds, to establish relations with friendly peoples to accelerate the success of the war, and finally, to organize the Cuban Revolutionary Party according to the secret rules agreed upon by the founding organizations. [45] Elections within the party would designate positions within, the first being held April 8-10, Marti was elected delegado (delegate) for the Cuban Revolutionary Party in 1892, as he refused to be called president. [46] From this moment, Martí and the CRP were devoted to secretly organizing the anti-spanish war. Martí's newspaper, Patria, was a key instrument of this campaign, where Martí delineated his final plans for Cuba. Through this medium he argued against the exploitative colonialism of Spain in Cuba, criticized the Home Rule (Autonomista) Party for having aims that fell considerably short of full independence, and warned against U.S. annexationism which he felt could only be prevented by Cuba's successful independence. [47] He specified his plans for the future Cuban Republic, a multi-class and multi-racial democratic republic based on universal suffrage, with an egalitarian economic base to develop fully Cuba's productive resources and an equitable distribution of land among citizens, with enlightened and virtuous politicians. [48] From Martí's 'Campaign Diaries', written during the final expedition in Cuba, it seems evident that Martí would have reached the highest position in the future Republic of Arms. [49] This was not to be; his death occurred before the Assembly of Cuba was set up. Until his very last minute, Martí dedicated his life to achieve full independence for Cuba. His uncompromising belief in democracy and freedom for his fatherland is what characterized his political ideology. Martí and the United States Martí demonstrated an anti-imperialist attitude from a young age, and besides that he was conscious of the danger the United States created for Latin America. At the same time he recognized the advantages of the European or North American civilizations, open to the reformist forms that the Latin American countries lacked to detach themselves from the colonial heritage, Spain. Martí's distrust of North American politics had developed during the 1880s, due to the intervention threats that loomed on Mexico and Guatemala, and indirectly on Cuba's future. In that time Cuba was dangerously situated, which determined its definitive analysis on the two realities in conflict. In his essays on Discurso de la Sociedad Literaria Hispanoamercana and Madre America (1891), he had referred to the " magnanimous warrior of the North" and to the "volcanic hero of the South", and he had pointed out major differences that distance them starting from their origins. [50] Marti's attitude towards North American society is marked by controversy. It "ha[s] been used as an example of a profound Cuban-U.S. friendship, while others have underlined his bitter denunciations of North America". [51] Marti's first observations of America were written while he worked for the newspaper The Hour. He was happy to finally be in a free democratic nation: "'I am, at last, in a country where everyone looks like his own master. One can breathe freely, freedom being here the foundation, the shield, the essence of life'". [52] Another trait that Marti admired was the work ethic that characterized American society. On various occasions Marti conveyed his deep admiration for the immigrant-based society, "whose principal aspiration he interpreted as being to construct a truly modern country, based upon hard work and progressive ideas." Marti stated that he was "never surprised in any country of the world [he had] visited. Here [he] was surprised... [he] remarked that no one stood quietly on the corners, no door was shut an instant, no man was quiet. [He] stopped [him]self, [he] looked

176 respectfully on this people, and [he] said goodbye forever to that lazy life and poetical inutility of our European countries". [52] Marti found American society to be so great, he thought Latin America should consider imitating America. Marti argued that if the US "could reach such a high standard of living in so short a time, and despite, too, its lack of unifying traditions, could not the same be expected of Latin America?" [52] Education had benefited from the attitude of America's society. Marti was amazed at how education was directed towards helping the development of the nation and once again encouraged Latin American countries to follow the example set by North American society. [53] Another major characteristic that struck Marti was the agricultural advancement of the United States. He found amazing the "common-sense attitude of the Dean of the School of Agriculture in Michigan who defended the advantages of manual work for the students of his college". At the same time, he criticized the elitist educational systems of Cuba and the rest of Latin America. Often, Marti recommended countries in Latin America to "send representatives to learn more relevant techniques in the United States". Once this was done, Marti hoped that this representatives would bring a "much-needed modernization to the Latin American agricultural policies". [54] However not everything was to be admired by Marti. When it came to politics Marti wrote that politics in the US had "adopted a carnival atmosphere...especially during election time". [55] He saw acts of corruption among candidates like for example bribing "the constituents with vast quantities of beer, while impressive parades wound their way through New York's crowded streets, past masses of billboards, all exhorting the public to vote for the different political candidates". [55] Marti criticized and condemned the elites of the United States as they "pulled the main political strings behind the scenes". According to Marti, the elites "deserved severe censure" as they were the biggest threat to the "ideals with which the United States was first conceived". [55] Marti started to become aware that the US had abused its potential. Racism was abundant. Different races were being discriminated against; political life "was both cynically regarded by the public at large and widely abused by the 'politicos de oficio'; industrial magnates and powerful labor groups faced each other menacingly". All of this made Marti predict that in the United States a big social battle would occur. [56] On the positive side, Marti was astonished by the "inviolable right of freedom of speech which all U.S. citizens possessed". Marti applauded the United States' Constitution which allowed freedom of speech to all its citizens, no matter what political beliefs they had. In May 1883, while attending political meetings he heard "the call for revolution - and more specifically the destruction of the capitalist system". Marti could not believe that revolution was advocated and was amazed that this could happen because this "could have led to its own destruction". Marti also gave his support to the women's suffrage movements, and was "pleased that women ere [took] advantage of this privilege in order to make their voices heard". According to Marti, free speech was essential if any nation was to be civilized and he expressed his "profund admiration for these many basic liberties and opportunities open to the vast majority of American citizens". [57] The works of Marti contain many comparisons between the ways of life of North and Latin America. The former was seen as " hardy, 'soulless', and, at times, cruel society, but one which, nevertheless, had been based upon a firm foundation of liberty and on a tradition of liberty". [57] Although North American society had its flaws, they tended to be "of minor importance when compared to the broad sweep of social inequality, and to the widespread abuse of power prevalent in Latin America". [57]

177 Although Marti admired the United Stated and its society, he thought that America's "dealings with 'Nuestra America' left a great deal to be desired". [58] Also he was preoccupied that America was becoming "increasingly intent upon extending its dominion over Latin America". [58] Marti alerted and informed Latin Americans that the United states was "totally ignorant of the culture and history of her southern neighbours, and this, combined with the ever increasing phenomenon regarded euphemistically as 'pioneer spirit', augured badly for future relations between the Americas". [58] By the end of 1889 Marti had changed his "sympathetic attitude" towards America. This was due to America wanting to expand their territories into Latin America. By this time, Marti was getting ready to prepare a campaign that would liberate Cuba. However, this campaign was in danger as talks "re-surfaced in the United States as to whether that country should purchase Cuba from the Spanish government in order to turn the Island into an American protectorate". [59] Marti argued that "any attempt to sell his patria as if it were some negotiable merchandise, and of course, without taking into account the wishes of people, was completely unacceptable - particularly when the prospective purchaser was the United States". [59] Once it was apparent that the United States were actually going to purchase Cuba and intended to Americanise it, Marti "spoke out loudly and bravely against such action, stating the opinion of many Cubans on the United States of America. [59] Marti became distressed as he knew that in order for him to gain independence for Cuba not only did he had to defeat the Spanish but also had to keep the Americans out. [60] Martí and the Invention of a Latin American Identity Martí as a liberator believed that the Latin American countries needed to know the reality of their own history. Martí also saw the necessity of a country having its own literature. These reflections started in Mexico from 1875 and are connected to the Mexican Reform, where prominent people like Ignacio Manuel Altamirano and Guillermo Prieto had situated themselves in front of a cultural renovation in Mexico, taking on the same approach as Esteban Echeverría thirty years before in Argentina. In the second Boletin that Martí published in the Revista Universal(May 11, 1875) one can already see Martí s approach, which was fundamentally Latin American. His wish to build a national or Latin American identity was nothing new or unusual in those days; however, no Latin-American intellectual of that time had approached as clearly as Martí the task of building a national identity. He insisted on the necessity of building institutions and laws that matched the natural elements of each country, and recalled the failure of the applications of French and American civil codes in the new Latin American republics. Martí believed that el hombre del sur, the man of south, should choose an appropriate development strategy matching his character, the peculiarity of his culture and history, and the nature that determined his being. [61] José Martí's Writing Martí as a writer covered a range of genres. In addition to producing newspaper articles and keeping up and extensive correspondence (his letters are included in the collection of his complete works), he wrote a serialized novel, composed poetry, wrote essays and published four issues of a children's magazine, La Edad de Oro (The Golden Age, 1889). His essays and articles occupy more than fifty volumes of his complete works. His prose was extensively read and influenced the modernist generation, especially Ruben Darió, whom Martí used to call "my son" when they met in New York in [62] Martí did not publish any books: only two notebooks (cuadernos) of verses, in editions outside of the market, and a number of political tracts. The rest (an enormous amount) was left dispersed in numerous newspapers and magazines, in letters, in diaries and personal notes, in other unedited texts, in frequently improvised speeches, and some lost forever. Five years after his death, the first volume of his Obras was published. A novel appeared in this collection in 1911: Amistad funesta, which Martí had made known was published

178 under a pseudonym in In 1913, also in this edition, his third poetic collection that he had kept unedited: Versos Libres. His Diario de Campaña (Campaign Diary) was published in Later still, in 1980, Ernesto Mejia Sánchez produced a set of about thirty of Martí's articles written for the Mexican newspaper El Partido Liberal that weren't included in any of his so called Obras Completas editions. From , Martí collaborated in La Nación, a Buenos Aires newspaper. His texts from La Nación have been collected in Anuario del centro de Estudios Martianos. Over the course of journalistic career, he wrote for numerous newspapers, starting with El Diablo Cojuelo (The Limping Devil) and La Patria Libre (The Free Fatherland), both of which he helped to found in 1869 in Cuba and which established the extent of his political commitment and vision for Cuba. In Spain he wrote for La Colonia Española,in Mexico for La Revista Universal, and in Venezuela for Revista Venezolana, which he founded. In New York he contributed to Venezualan periodical La Opinión Nacional, Buenos Aires newspaper La Nación, Mexico's La Opinion Liberal, and America's The Hour. [63] The first critical edition of Martí s complete works began to appear in 1983 in José Martí: Obras completas. Edición crítica. The critical edition of his complete poems was published in 1985 in José Martí: Poesía completa. Edición critica. Volume two of his Obras Completas includes his famous essay 'Nuestra America' which "comprises a variety of subjects realting to Spanish America about which Marti studied and wrote. Here it is noted that after Cuba his interest was directed mostly to Guatemala, Mexico and Venezuela. The various sections of this part are about general matters and international conferences; economic, social and political questions; literature and art; agrarian and industrial problems; immigration; education; relations with the United States and Spanish America; travel notes". [64] According to Marti, the intention behind the publication of "La edad de oro" was "so that American children may know how people used to live, and how they live nowadays, in America and in other countries; how many things are made, such as glass and iron, steam engines and suspension bridges and electric light; so that when a child sees a coloured stone he will know why the stone is coloured...we shall tell them about everything which is done in factories, where things happen which are stranger and more interesting than the magic in fairy stories. These things are real magic, more marvelous than any...we write for children because it is they who know how to love, because it is children who are the hope for the world". [65] Marti's "Versos Sencillos" was written "in the town of Haines Falls, New York, where his doctor has sent [him] to regain his strength 'where streams flowed and clouds gathered in upon themeselves'". [66] The poetry encountered in this work is "in many [ways] autobiographical and allows readers to see Marti the man and the patriot and to judge what was important to him at a crucial time in Cuban history". [67] Style Martí's style of writing is difficult to categorize. He used many aphorisms - short, memorable lines that convey truth and/or wisdom - and long complex sentences. He is considered a major contributor to the Spanish American literary movement known as Modernismo and has been linked to Latin American consciousness of the modern age and modernity. [68] His chronicles combined elements of literary portraiture, dramatic narration, and a dioramic scope. His poetry contained "fresh and astonishing images along with deceptively simple sentiments". [69] As an orator (for he made many speeches) he was known for his cascading structure, powerful aphorisms, and detailed descriptions. More important than his style is how he uses that style to put into service his ideas, making "advanced" convincing notions. Throughout his writing he made reference to historical figures and events, and used constant allusions to literature, current news and cultural matters. For this reason, he may be difficult to read and translate. [70]

179 His didactic spirit encouraged him to establish a magazine for children, La Edad de Oro (1889) which contained a short essay titled "Tres Heroes" (three heroes), representative of his talent to adapt his expression to his audience; in this case, to make the young reader conscious of and amazed by the extraordinary bravery of the three men, Bolivar, Hidalgo, and San Martín. This is his style to teach delightfully. [71] Translation José Martí is usually honored as a great poet, patriot and martyr of Cuban Independence, but he was also a translator of some note. Although he translated literary material for the sheer joy of it, much of the translating he did was imposed on him by economic necessity during his many years of exile in the United States. Martí learned English at an early age, and had begun to translate at thirteen. He continued translating for the rest of his life, including his time as a student in Spain, although the period of his greatest productivity was during his stay in New York from 1880 until he returned to Cuba in [72] In New York he was what we would call today a "freelancer" as well as an "in house" translator. He translated several books for the publishing house of D. Appleton, and did a series of translations for newspapers. As a revolutionary activist in Cuba's long struggle for independence he translated into English a number of articles and pamphlets supporting that movement. [73] In addition to fluent English, Martí also spoke French, Italian, Latin and Classical Greek fluently, the latter learned so he could read the Greek classical works in the original. [74] There was clearly a dichotomy in Martí's feeling about the kind of work he was translating. Like many professionals, he undertook for money translation tasks which had little intellectual or emotional appeal for him. Although Martí never presented a systematic theory of translation nor did he write extensively about his approach to translation, he did jot down occasional thoughts on the subject, showcasing his awareness of the translator's dilemma of the faithful versus the beautiful and stating that "translation should be natural, so that it appears that the book were written in the language to which it has been translated". [75] José Martí and Modernismo The modernists, in general, use a subjective language. Martí's stylistic creed is part of the necessity to de-codify the logic rigor and the linguistic construction and to eliminate the intellectual, abstract and systematic expression. There is the deliberate intention and awareness to expand the expressive system of the language. The style changes the form of thinking. Without falling in to unilateralism, Martí values the expression because language is an impression and a feeling through the form. Modernism mostly searches for the visions and realities, the expression takes in the impressions, the state of mind, with out reflection and without concept. this the law of subjectivity. We can see this in works of Martí, one of the first modernists, who conceives the literary task like an invisible unity, an expressive totality, considering the style like "a form of the content" (forma del contenido). [76] Martí searches for the platonic idea in the word, which is a representation of the world, the universe as it is, and badly used. Martí guides himself through the law of universal harmony, which is the great aesthetic and essential law. Through the principal analogue of the universal harmony's theory he carried out a perfect symbiosis between prose and poem. Both prose and poems serve as an artistic function. His discourses, speeches, essays, letters, articles, poems, novels, dramas, and stories are poetic creation. [77] The difference that Martí established between prose and poetry are conceptual. Poetry, as he believes, is a language of the permanent subjective: the intuition and the vision. The prose is an instrument and a method of spreading the ideas, and has the goal of elevating, encouraging and animating these ideas rather than having the expression of tearing up the heart, complaining and moaning. The prose is a service to his people. [77]

180 Martí produces a system of specific signs "an ideological code" (código ideológico). These symbols claim their moral value and construct signs of ethic conduct. Martí's modernism was a spiritual attitude that was reflected on the language. All his writing defines his moral world. One could also say that his ideological and spiritual sphere is fortified in his writing. [77] The similarity between Martí and Manuel González Prada and the difference between Martí and the other modernist initiators, Manuel Gutiérrez Nájera, Julian del Casal or José Asunción Silva lies in other aspects and in the profound and transcendent value that Martí converted the prose to a daily article, the work of a journalist. This hard work was decisive for giving literature, which inspired itself as an authentic and independent value, distancing it from a mere formal amusement. Manuel Gutiérez Nájera, Rubén Darío, Miguel de Unamuno and José Enrique Rodó saved the Martinian articles, which will have an endless value in the writings of the American continent. [78] Apart from Martinian articles. essay writing and literature starts to authorize itself as an alternative and privileged way to talk about politics. Literature starts to apply itself the only hermeneutics able to resolve the enigmas of a Latin American identity. [78] Legacy Statue of Marti in Cienfuegos, Cuba José Martí's life-long dedication to the cause of Cuban independence and his passionate belief in democracy and justice has made him a hero for all Cubans, a symbol of unity, the "Apostle", [79] a great leader. His ultimate goal of building a democratic, just, and stable republic in Cuba and his obsession with the practical execution of this goal led him to become the most charismatic leader of the 1895 colonial revolution. His work with the Cuban émigré community, enlisting the support of Cuban workers and socialist leaders to form the Cuban Revolutionary Party, put into motion the Cuban war of independence. [80] His foresight into the future, shown in his warnings against American political interests for Cuba, was confirmed by the swift occupation of Cuba by the United States following the Spanish-American War. His belief in the inseparability of Cuban and Latin American sovereignty and the expression thereof in his writings have contributed to the shape of the modern Latin American Identity. His works are a cornerstone of Latin American and political literature and his prolific contributions to the fields of journalism, poetry, and prose are highly acclaimed. [81] Martí's writings on the concepts of Cuban nationalism fuelled the 1895 revolution and have continued to inform conflicting visions of the Cuban nation. The Cuban nation-state under Fidel Castro has consistently claimed Martí as a crucial inspiration for its Marxist revolutionary government. His nuanced, often ambivalent positions on the most important issues of his day [82] have led Marxist interpreters to see a class conflict between the proletariat and the bourgeousie as the main theme of his works, while others, namely the Cuban diasporic communities in Miami and elsewhere have identified a liberal-capitalist emphasis. [83] These Cuban exiles still honor Martí as a figure of hope for the Cuban nation in exile and condemn Castro's regime for manipulating his works and creating a "Castroite Martí" to justify its intolerance and abridgments of human rights. [84] His writings thus remain a key ideological weapon in the battle over the fate of the Cuban nation.

181 List of selected works Martí's fundamental works published during his life 1869 January Abdala 1869 January "10 de octubre" 1871 El presidio político en Cuba 1873 La República Española ante la revolución cubana 1875 Amor con amor se paga 1882 Ismaelillo 1882 February Ryan vs. Sullivan 1882 February Un incendio 1882 July El ajusticimiento de Guiteau 1883 January "Batallas de la Paz" 1883 March " Que son graneros humanos" 1883 March Karl Marx ha muerto 1883 March El Puente de Brooklyn 1883 September "En Coney Island se vacia New York" 1883 December " Los Politicos de oficio"*1883 December "Bufalo Bil" 1884 April "Los Caminadores" 1884 November Norteamericanos 1884 November El juego de pelota de pies 1885 Amistad Funesta 1885 January Teatro en Nueva York 1885 March "Una gran rosa de bronce encendida" 1885 March Los fundadores de la constitucion 1885 June "Somos pueblo original" 1885 August "Los politicos tiene sus pugiles" 1886 May Las revueltas anarquistas de Chicago 1886 September " La ensenanza" 1886 October "La Estatua de la Libertad" 1887 April El poeta Walt Whitman 1887 April El Madison Squar 1887 November Ejecucion de los dirigentes anarquistas de Chicago 1887 November La gran nevada 1888 May El ferrocarril elevado 1888 August Verano en Nueva York 1888 November " Ojos abiertos, y gargantas secas" 1888 November "Amanece y ya es fragor" 1889 'La edad de oro' 1889 May El centenario de George Washington 1889 July Banistas 1889 August "Nube Roja" 1889 September "La caza de negros" 1890 November " El jardin de las orquideas" 1891 October Versos Sencillos 1891 January "Nuestra America" 1894 January " A Cuba!" 1895 Manifiesto de Montecristi- coautor con Máximo Gómez Martí's major posthumous works Adúltera Versos libres

182 Notes 1. ^ Garganigo, John F. Huellas de las literaturas hispanoamericanas Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, P ^ a b Alborch Bataller 1995, p ^ Fidalgo 1998, p ^ a b c Alborch Bataller 1995, p ^ López 2006, p ^ J. A. Sierra "End of Slavery in Cuba", history of cuba.com 7. ^ Jones 1953, p ^ Alborch Bataller 1995, p ^ a b c Alborch Bataller 1995, p ^ Martí 1963a, p ^ a b c Alborch Bataller 1995, p ^ Pérez-Galdós Ortiz 1999, p ^ Alborch Bataller 1995, p ^ a b c d Jones 1953, p ^ a b Alborch Bataller 1995, p ^ It is common, and in fact legal, practice in Spanish-speaking societies to use and include the maternal surname as the "second" last name, such that both surnames are the legal and customary surname of an individual. E.g., Pérez López means that in non- Spanish societies esp. anglophone societies, Pérez is the correct surname to which to refer; else, 'both' names together are the legal surname. 17. ^ Guatemala was one of the first regions of the New World to be exposed to European music 18. ^ Alborch Bataller 1995, p ^ Alborch Bataller 1995, p ^ Alborch Bataller 1995 P ^ Gray 1966, p ^ Gray 1966, p ^ García Cisneros 1986, p ^ Fountain 2003, p ^ Alborch Bataller 1995 P ^ Alborch Bataller 1995 P ^ Alborch Bataller 1995 P ^ Alborch Bataller 1995 P ^ Alberch Bataller 1995 P ^ a b Gray 1966, p ^ Alberch Bataller 1995 P ^ Alberch Bataller 1995 P ^ Gray 1966, p ^ Martí 1963b, pp ^ Scott 1984, p ^ Abel 1986, p ^ Ramos 2001, pp ^ Martí 1963c, p ^ Martí 1963d, p ^ Holden & Zolov 2000, p ^ Turton 1986, p ^ Holden & Solov 2000, p ^ Ronning 1990, p ^ Martí 1963e, p ^ Turton 1986, pp ^ Turton 1986, p ^ Bueno 1997, p. 158

183 48. ^ Abel 1986, p ^ Turton 1986, p. 57 [page needed] 50. ^ Fernández 1995, p.??? 51. ^ Kirk 1977, p ^ a b c Kirk 1977, p ^ Kirk 1977, p ^ Kirk 1977, p ^ a b c Kirk 1977, p ^ Kirk 1977, p ^ a b c Kirk 1977, p ^ a b c Kirk 1977, p ^ a b c Kirk 1977, p ^ Kirk 1977, p. 285 [clarification needed] 61. ^ Fernández 1995, p. 46 [clarification needed] 62. ^ Garganigo et al., p. 272 [clarification needed] 63. ^ Martí 1992, p ^ Roscoe 1947, p ^ Nassif 1994, p ^ Oberhelman 2001, p ^ Oberhelman 2001, p ^ Fernández Retamar 1970, p ^ Fountain 2003, p ^ Hernández Pardo 2000, p. 146 [clarification needed] 71. ^ Garganigo, p ^ Fountain 2003, p ^ Fountain 2003, p ^ Fernández Retamar 1970, p ^ "la traducción debe ser natural, para que parezca como si el libro hubiese sido escrito en la lengua al que lo traduces." De la Cuesta 1996, p ^ Serna 2002, p ^ a b c Serna 2002, p ^ a b Serna 2002, p ^ Lopez 2006, p ^ Ronning 1990, p ^ Cairo 2003, p ^ Lopez 2006, p ^ Ripoll 1984, p ^ Ripoll 1984, p. 40 References Abel, Christopher. José Martí: Revolutionary Democrat. London: Athlone Alborch Bataller, Carmen, ed. (1995), José Martí: obra y vida, Madrid: Ministerio de Cultura, Ediciones Siruela, ISBN Bueno, Salvador (1997), José Martí y su periódico Patria, Barcelona: Puvill, ISBN Cairo, Ana. Jose Marti y la novela de la cultura cubana. Santiago de Compostela: Universidade de Santiago de Compostela De La Cuesta, Leonel Antonio. Martí, Traductor. Salamanca: Universidad Pontificia de Salamanca Fernández, Teodosio (1995), "José Martí y la invención de la identidad hispanoamericana", in Alemany Bay, Carmen; Muñoz, Ramiro; Rovira, José Carlos, José Martí: historia y literatura ante el fin del siglo XIX, Alicante: Universidad de Alicante, [page needed] pp.??-??, ISBN

184 Fernández Retamar, Roberto (1970), Martí, Montevideo: Biblioteca de Marcha, OCLC Fidalgo, Jose Antonio. "El Doctor Fermín Valdés-Domínguez, Hombre de Ciencias y Su Posible Influencia Recíproca Con José Martí" journal= Cuadernos de Historia de la Salud Pública year= 1998 issue= 84 pp Fountain, Anne (2003), José Martí and U.S. Writers, Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, ISBN García Cisneros, Florencio (1986), Máximo Gómez: caudillo o dictador?, Miami, FL: Librería & Distribuidora Universal, ISBN Garganigo, John F.; Costa, Rene; Heller, Ben, eds. (1997), Huellas de las literaturas hispanoamericanas, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, ISBN 978- [clarification needed] Gray, Richard B. (April 1966), "The Quesadas of Cuba: Biographers and Editors of José Martí y Pérez", The Americas 22 (4): , retrieved (JSTOR subscription required for online access.) Hernández Pardo, Héctor (2000), Luz para el siglo XXI: actualidad del pensamiento de José Martí, Madrid: Ediciones Libertarias, ISBN Holden, Robert H.; Zolov, Eric (2000), Latin America and the United States: A Documentary History, New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN Jones, Willis Knapp (December 1953), "The Martí Centenary", The Modern Language Journal 37 (8): , retrieved (JSTOR subscription required for online access.) Kirk, John M. (November 1977), "Jose Marti and the United States: A Further Interpretation", Journal of Latin American Studies 9 (2): , retrieved (JSTOR subscription required for online access.) Kirk, John M. José Martí, Mentor of the Cuban Nation. Tampa: University Presses of Florida, c1983. López, Alfred J. (2006), José Martí and the Future of Cuban Nationalisms, Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, ISBN Martí, José (1963a), "El presidio político en Cuba. Madrid 1871", Obras Completas, 1, Havana: Editorial Nacional de Cuba, pp , OCLC Martí, José (1963b), "La República española ante la revolución cubana", Obras Completas, 1, Havana: Editorial Nacional de Cuba, pp , OCLC Martí, José (1963c), "Letter to Antonio Maceo, 20 July 1882", Obras Completas, 1, Havana: Editorial Nacional de Cuba, pp , OCLC Martí, José (1963d), "Letter to Enrique Trujillo, 6 July 1885", Obras Completas, 1, Havana: Editorial Nacional de Cuba, OCLC Martí, José (1963e), "Speech known as "Con todos y para el bien de todos" given in Tampa, 26 November 1891", Obras Completas, 4, Havana: Editorial Nacional de Cuba, [page needed] pp , OCLC Martí, José (1992), Fernández Retamar, Roberto, ed., La edad de oro: edición crítica anotada y prologada, Mexico: Fondo de cultura económica, ISBN 978- [clarification needed] Nassif, Ricardo. "Jose Martí ( ) ". Originally published in Prospects:the quarterly review of comparative education(paris, UNESCO: International Bureau of Education), vol. XXIV, no. 1/2, 1994, p Oberhelman, Harley D. (September 2001), "Reviewed work(s): Versos Sencillos by José Martí. A Translation by Anne Fountain", Hispania 84 (3): , retrieved (JSTOR subscription required for online access.) Pérez-Galdós Ortiz, Víctor. José Martí: Visión de un Hombre Universal. Barcelona: Puvill Libros Ltd Ripoll, Carlos. Jose Marti and the United States, and the Marxist interpretation of Cuban History. New Jersey: Transaction Inc

185 Ronning, C. Neale. Jose Marti and the emigre colony in Key West. New York: Praeger Roscoe, Hill R. (October 1947), "Book Reviews", The Americas 4 (2): , retrieved (JSTOR subscription required for online access.) Scott, Rebecca J. "Explaining Abolition: Contradiction, Adaptation, and Challenge in Cuban Slave Society, ". Comparative Studies in Society and History, Vol. 26, No. 1 (Jan., 1984), pp Serna, Mercedes (2002), Del modernismo y la vanguardia: José Martí, Julio Herrera y Reissig, Vicente Huidobro, Nicanor Parra, Lima: Ediciones El Santo Oficio, ISBN Turton, Peter (1986), José Martí: Architect of Cuba's Freedom, London: Zed, ISBN Vincent, Jon S. "Jose Marti: Surrealist or Seer?" Latin American Research Review, Vol. 13, No. 1 (1978), pp External links Literature portal (Spanish) Portal José Martí - Cuban website (Spanish) Jose Marti: Conociendo poco a poco su obra A 3 cuban's Proyect for getting close step by step to Martí's writings. (Spanish) Las ideas republicanas de José Martí (Spanish) La Pagina de José Martí Works that can be read at Biblioteca Virtual Manuel de Cervantes Works by José Martí at Project Gutenberg José Martí Chautauqua Performer

186 Antonio Maceo Grajales Lt. General Antonio de la Caridad Maceo y Grajales (June 14, 1845 December 7, 1896) was second-incommand of the Cuban Army of Independence. José Antonio Maceo y Grajales June 14, 1845 December 7, 1896 Fellow Cubans gave Maceo the sobriquet of the "Bronze Titan" (Spanish: El Titan de Bronce), which was a reference to his skin color, stature and status. [1] Spaniards referred to Maceo as the "Greater Lion" (El Leon mayor). Maceo was one of the most noteworthy guerrilla leaders in 19th century Latin America, comparable to José Antonio Páez of Venezuela in military acumen. Contents [ 1 Early years 2 Ten Years' War ( ) 3 The fruitful truce ( ) 4 Cuban War of Independence 5 Death 6 Legacy 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links Early years Maceo was the son of a Venezuelan farmer and dealer in agricultural products, Marcos Maceo and an Afro-Cuban woman, Mariana Grajales y Coello. His father moved from Caracas, Venezuela to Antonio Maceo Grajales El Precursor Nickname El Primer Venezolano Universal Hijo de la Panadera Place of birth Santiago de Cuba, Cuba Place of death Allegiance Years of service Rank Battles/wars Killed in action at Punta Brava, Cuba Cuba Lt. General Venezuelan War of Independence Cuban War of Independence Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, in 1823, after some of his comrades were exiled from South America. José Antonio Maceo y Grajales (full name) was born in June, 14, 1845, in a rural farm not far from Santiago de Cuba. Although his father taught him skills in the use of arms and management of their small properties, it was his mother, Mariana Grajales, who inculcated in him a sense of order. This maternal discipline would be important in the development of Maceo's character and would be reflected later in his acts as a military leader. At the age of sixteen, Maceo went to work for his father, delivering products and supplies by mule. He was a successful entrepreneur and farmer. As the oldest of the children, he inherited his father's leadership qualities and later would become a decorated general. Maceo developed an active interest in the political issues of his time and was initiated in the mysteries of Freemasonry.

187 The Cuban Freemasonry movement was influenced by the principles of the French Revolution - "Liberty, Equality and Fraternity" - as well as the Masons' main guidelines: God, Reason Virtue. Ten Years' War ( ) Approximately two weeks after the October 10, 1868 revolt led by Carlos Manuel de Céspedes against Spain known as "The cry of Yara" ("El grito de Yara"), Maceo, together with his father and brothers joined the war. Mariana Grajales, followed her family members into the manigua (the woods and most thick countryside) in order to support the mambises, as Cuban rebels were known in the nineteenth century. The Maceos enlisted as privates when the Ten Years' War ( ) began. Within five months, Antonio Maceo was promoted to Commander (or Major), and within a matter of weeks after that he was again promoted to Lieutenant Colonel. Later, a promotion to Colonel followed, and five years later he was promoted to the rank of Brigadier General because of his bravery and ability to outmanoeuvre the Spanish Army. Maceo participated in more than 500 battles. However, the humble origin of Maceo and the colour of his skin, delayed his raising to the Major General degree, due principally to the racist and class exclusiveness tendencies of several other patriots of an aristocratic or bourgeois origin. Men under Maceo's command began to name him The Bronze Titan, because of his exceptional physical strength and resistance to bullet or blade injuries. He recovered from more than 25 war injuries over the course of some 500 military battles, and none of Maceo's wounds diminished his willingness to lead his troops into combat. He had special recognition and admiration, as chief and war teacher, of the great Dominican strategist Máximo Gómez, who would become, in the years to come, the General-in-Chief of the Cuban Liberator Army. The use of the machete as a war weapon by Gómez as a substitute for the Spanish sword (also due to the scarcity of firearms and ammunition) was rapidly adopted by Maceo and his troops. Antonio Maceo rejected the military seditions of Lagunas de Varona and Santa Rita, which undermined the independent troops' unity and favoured a regionalism in Las Villas. This stood in contrast with the style of leadership exhibited by Vicente Garcia González, who eschewed front line heroics in favor of planning from behind the lines, and who also advocated a regional approach to secession. Divisionism and the imprecise designs of García were plainly rejected by Maceo when the former asked for support to constitute a New Revolutionary Government. Divisions, regionalism, and indiscipline were the main reasons for the decline of the Revolution, of which the Spanish General Arsenio Martínez Campos y Antón, then already named Captain General of Cuba, drew considerable advantage. An officer of honour, he offered peace guarantees, amnesty for revolutionary men and legal reforms, in exchange for a cease of hostilities, which had already lasted 10 years (in 1878). At the same time, the Spanish Government continued the concentration of more forces to enclose the diminishing Cuban rebel forces. Antonio Maceo was one of the officers who opposed the signing of the Pact of Zanjón, which ended the Ten Years War. He and other mambises (independence soldiers) met with General Arsenio Martínez Campos on March 15, 1878, to discuss the peace terms, but Maceo argued that no peace could be achieved if none of the objectives of the war had been accomplished; chief among these aims was the abolition of slavery in Cuba and Cuban independence. The only immediate benefit was amnesty for those involved in the conflict and liberty for the black soldiers who had fought in the "Liberator Army." Maceo did not recognize the treaty as valid and did not adhere to the proposed amnesty. This meeting, known as the Protest of Baraguá ("Protesta de Baraguá"), began when a messenger was sent to Maceo from another Cuban high officer, who proposed an ambush against the Spanish general. Maceo rejected the plan, informing the wouldbe conspirator via letter: I don t want victory if it goes accompanied with dishonor.

188 After respecting the truce time for the interview (a few days), Maceo resumed hostilities. In order to save his life, the government of the Republic of Cuba gave him the task of gathering money, arms and men for an expedition from the exterior. Maceo's movements were useless, however, due to the dismay of the exiled sympathizers who were unhappy with the Zanjón pact. Later in 1879, Maceo and Major General Calixto García Íñiguez planned from New York a new invasion to Cuba, which initiated the short-lived Little War. Maceo did not personally fight in these battles, for he had sent Calixto García as highest commander. This avoided exacerbating the racist prejudices of fellow Cuban officers that were inflamed by Spanish propaganda. The Spanish tried to create the impression that Maceo was trying to start a racial war against white Cubans, though their propaganda efforts did little damage to Maceo's reputation. The fruitful truce ( ) After a short stay in Haiti, where he was pursued by the Spanish and faced assassination attempts by the Spanish consulates, and also in Jamaica, Maceo eventually settled in the Costa Rican province of Guanacaste. The president of Costa Rica assigned Maceo to a military unit and provided him with a small farm to live on. Maceo was contacted by José Martí and urged to initiate the Guerra del 95 (War of 1895), called by Martí as the necessary war. Maceo, with the experience and wisdom gained from previous revolutionary failures, argued that there were a number of impediments to military success in a brief but intense epistolary exchange with Martí, warning about the causes of the partial defeat in the Ten Years' War ( ). Martí responded with his formula of the army, free; but the country, as a country with all its dignity represented, and convinced Maceo of the high probabilities of success if the war was to be prepared carefully. As a precondition, Maceo demanded that highest command should be in the hands of Gómez, which was approved without reservation by the Delegate of the Cuban Revolutionary Party (Martí). In Costa Rica, he faced, gun in hand, another attempt of assassination at the exit of a theatre, with fatal result for one of the aggressors. Cuban War of Independence In 1895, together with Flor Crombet and other lesser officers, Maceo disembarked in the vicinity of Baracoa (close to the eastern tip of Cuba) and after repelling a Spanish attempt at capturing or killing him, he got into the mountains of that region. After many difficulties, he managed to gather a small contingent of armed men, which rapidly grew with other rebel groups of the Santiago de Cuba region. In the farm of "La Mejorana", Maceo had a historic, but unfortunate, meeting with Gómez and Martí, because of the disagreements between him and Martí, regarding the question of the relationship between the military movements and the civilian government, against which constitution was Maceo, but Martí, knowing both sides of the problem, stood on his formula. Several days later, Martí, treated as a non-military Doctor by Maceo, would fall in battle in Dos Ríos (confluence between the rivers Contramaestre and Cauto). After Gómez was designated General in Chief of the Cuban Liberation Army, Maceo was named Lieutenant General (second in Maceo in uniform command after the General in Chief). Starting from Mangos de Baraguá (place of the historical protest in front of Martinez Campos), Maceo and Gómez, on command of two long mambises columns, took brilliantly the task of invading the west of Cuba, riding or walking more than 1000 miles in 96 days. After several months bleeding the Spanish forces in Havana and Pinar del Río Maceo arrived at Mantua, in the western extreme of Cuba, on October, 1896, after defeating for many times the technically and numerically superior forces of the Spaniards (five times the Cuban forces on occasions).

189 Using alternately the tactics of guerrilla and open warfare, they exhausted the Spanish Army of more than a quarter million soldiers and traversed all the island, even through the military trails, walls and fences built by the Spanish Army with the purpose of stopping them and dealing with an overwhelming technical and numerical superiority of the Spaniards. The level of coordination and cohesiveness of Cuban forces was driven by the fact that Máximo Gómez had clearly established a chain of command that subordinated all Major Generals to Maceo, his executive officer. The invasion of Western Cuba had been previously attempted by Brigadier General Henry Reeve during the Ten Years' War but faltered (and collapsed) between the easternmost section of the province of Matanzas and the westernmost section of the province of Havana and Reeve perished. At the time Maceo had collaborated with Reeve under the direction of Máximo Gómez. The eagerness for independence and the cruelty of the Spanish high officers made rural inhabitants of the western half of the island eager to give support in men and logistics to the Liberation Army. This was the cause of the institution, by Valeriano Weyler, of the reconcentration. Hundreds of thousands of peasants were forcibly carried to the cities, mainly Havana, Pinar del Río and Matanzas, besides several minor cities in these three provinces. In the concentration camps createdfor them, very similar to those later built in Europe by the Nazis, almost a third part of the Cuban rural population lost their lives. Contrary to the expectations of Weyler, the cruel and fascist-like reconcentration encouraged many people to join to the Liberation army, preferring to die in battle than in starvation. In 1896, after meeting Gómez in Havana (crossing once more the trail from Mariel to Majana via Mariel Bay), he returned to the fields of Pinar del Río, where he faced bloody clashes with outnumbering forces, led by Spanish generals famous for their victories in Africa and Filipinas, and provided with artillery and the most modern weapons for infantry. After decimating them in the westernmost mountains of Cuba, he turned eastward again, crossing the mentioned trail in order to travel to Las Villas or Camagüey. There he was planning to meet Gómez to plan the ulterior course of war, and with the Government in Arms, to establish an agreement between it and the forces in action, in relation with two main subjects: the raisings of medium and high officers in the Liberation Army and the recognition of belligerence by foreign countries and acceptation of direct military aid. His position was, at that time, acquiescent with accepting economical aid and packages with weapons and ammunitions from Europe or even from the United States, but was strongly opposed to the acceptance of a military intervention by the US in Cuba. Death His plans for meeting with Gómez and the Government in Arms never took place. In the vicinity of Punta Brava, Maceo was advancing into the farm of San Pedro, only accompanied by his personal escort (two or three men), the physician of his Headquarters, the Brigade General José Miró Argenter and a small troop of no more than twenty men. When they attempted to cut a fence for facilitating the march of horses through those lands, they were detected by a strong Spanish column, which opened an intense fire. Maceo was hit by two shots, one in the chest and another that broke his jaw and penetrated his skull. His companions could not carry him because of the intensity of the firefight and Maceo's size. The only rebel who stayed by him was the Lieutenant Francisco Gómez (known as Panchito), son of Máximo Gómez, who faced the Spanish column for the sole purpose of protecting the body of his general. After being shot several times, the Spaniards killed Gómez with machete strikes, leaving both bodies abandoned, not knowing the identity of the fallen. The corpses of Maceo and Panchito were picked up the next days by Colonel Aranguren, from Havana, who ran immediately to the battle scene after hearing the news. They were later buried in secret in the farm of two brothers who swore to keep the burial place in secrecy until Cuba would be free and independent and the correspondent military honors could be given to the hero. Nowadays, the remains of Antonio Maceo and Grajales and Francisco Gómez Toro lie in the

190 monument of the Cacahual, close to the limits of the former farm of San Pedro, and the site is one of pilgrimage for Cuban people. Legacy In addition to his role as a soldier and statesman in the Cuban movement for independence, Maceo was an influential political strategist and military planner, and José Martí is among Cuban leaders who were inspired by Maceo. Being a member of masonry, in his correspondence one can read more than once his credo base on "God, Reason and Virtue". He was quoted as having a strict motto: "My duties Antonio Maceo Monument in to country and to my own political convictions are above all Santiago de Cuba, Cuba human effort; with these I shall reach the pedestal of freedom or I shall perish fighting for my country's redemption." (November 3, 1890). Martí, speaking about him, said that "Maceo has as much strength in his mind as in his arm." Of democratic political adherence, he expressed many times his sympathy for the republican form of government, but insisted on seeking for the formula of "liberty; equality and fraternity", recalling the well-known but almost never applied principles of the French Revolution and defining a policy on the search for social justice. Being in a dinner meeting in a very short visit made to Santiago de Cuba during the "Fruitful Truce", he was invited to make a toast and a phrase was said by a young man for a wish to annex Cuba to the United States and turn Cuba into "...another star into the constellation of the United States...". His answer was: I think, young man, that this would be the only occasion in which I would place my sword at the same side with the Spanish ones. And foreseeing the North American expansionism (he was absolutely convinced of the inevitable victory of Cuban Arms) he expressed in a letter to a friend of arms: "That who attempts to seize Cuba, will gather the dust of its ground soaked in blood, if he does not perish in fight." Notes 1. ^ Foner, Philip Sheldon (1978). Antonio Maceo: The "Bronze Titan" of Cuba's Struggle for Independence. Monthly Review Press. References Foner, Philip Sheldon. Antonio Maceo: The "Bronze Titan" of Cuba's Struggle for Independence. New York: Monthly Review Press, Helg, Aline. Our Rightful Share: The Afro-Cuban Struggle for Equality, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, Scott, Rebecca J. Degrees of Freedom: Louisiana and Cuba after Slavery. New York: Belknap Press, Wade, Peter. Race And Ethnicity In Latin America. London: Pluto Press, Whitten Norma E. and Torres, Arlene. Blackness in Latin America & the Caribbean: Social Dynamics and Cultural Transformations (2 volumes). Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, External links Cuba portal Excerpt about Antonio Maceo from History of Negro soldiers in the Spanish-American War, and other items of interest. published 1899, hosted by the Portal to Texas History.

191 Carlos Manuel de Céspedes Carlos Manuel de Céspedes del Castillo (April 18, 1819 Bayamo, Oriente February, 1874 San Lorenzo, Oriente) was a Cuban planter who freed his slaves, and made the declaration of Cuban independence in 1868 which started the Ten Years' War. [1] The Ten Years' War Carlos Manuel de Céspedes Céspedes was a landowner and lawyer in Eastern Cuba, near Bayamo, who purchased La Demajagua, an estate with a tobacco plantation, in 1844 after returning from Spain. On October 10, 1868, he made the Grito de Yara (Cry of Yara), declaring Cuban independence, which began the Ten Years' War. That morning, after sounding the slave bell that indicated to his slaves it was time for work, they stood before him waiting for orders, and Cespedes announced they were all free men, and were invited to join him and his fellow conspirators in war against the Spanish government of Cuba. For this, he is called Padre de la Patria (Father of the Country). In April 1869 he was chosen President of the Republic of Cuba in Arms. The Ten Years' War was the first serious attempt to achieve independence from Spain, and to free all slaves. The war was fought between two groups. In the East of Cuba the tobacco planters and farmers, joined by mulattos and some slaves, fought against the West of Cuba, with its sugarcane plantations (which required many slaves) and the forces of the Spanish Governor- General. Hugh Thomas summarises thus: The war was a conflict between criollos (creoles, born in Cuba) and peninsulares (recent immigrants from Spain). The Spanish forces and the peninsulares, backed by rich Spanish merchants, were at first on the defensive, but in the longer run their greater resources told. [2] Céspedes was deposed in 1873 in a leadership coup. Spanish troops killed him in February 1874 in a mountain refuge, as the new Cuban government would not let him go into exile and denied him an escort. The war ended in 1878 with the Pact of Zanjón. The pact did make concessions: liberation of all slaves and Chinese who had fought with the rebels, no action for political offences; but not freedom for all slaves, and no independence. The Grita de Yara had achieved something, though not enough; but it had lit a long-burning fuse. Lessons learned there were later put to good use in the Cuban War of Independence. Personal life Céspedes was married twice. The first to Maria del Carmen de Cespedes y del Castilo and they had Maria del Carmen, Oscar, and Carlos Manuel de Cespedes y Cespedes. He married the second time to Ana Maria de Quesada y Loinaz ( ) and they had 3 children, Gloria (1871?), Oscar and Carlos Manuel de Céspedes y Quesada ( ), who was briefly President of Cuba after Gerardo Machado was deposed in In San Lorenzo before he died, Carlos Manuel met a widow, Francisca (Panchita) Rodriguez. Carlos Manuel and Panchita became lovers and produced a son, Manuel Francisco de Cespedes y Rodriguez.

192 He named Oscar, his fifth son, after his late second child Oscar, who was shot by a Spanish firing squad. The Spanish authorities wanted to exchange Oscar's life for Cespedes' resignation as President of the Republic of Cuba. He famously answered that Oscar was not his only son, because every Cuban who had died for the revolution he started, was also his son. He had been, before the conflict, something of a musician, and he was part-composer of a romantic song called La Bayamesa. [3] His portrait was on the 10 pesos bills in Cuba until 1959 when it was moved to the 100 pesos bill. A municipality in Camagüey Province, Carlos M. de Cespedes was named after him. Birthplace of Carlos Manuel de Cespedes References 1. ^ Guerra Sánchez, Ramiro Guerra de los 10 años. 2 vols, La Habana. 2. ^ Thomas, Hugh Cuba, or the pursuit of freedom. Eyre & Spottiswoode, London. Revised and abridged edition 2001, Picador, London. Chapters 16 & ^ About 1851, lyrics José Fornaris, score by Francisco Castillo Moreno and Carlos Manuel de Céspedes. Canizares, Dulcila La trova tradicional. 2nd ed, La Habana. p14 Céspedes y Quesada, Carlos Manuel Carlos Manuel de Céspedes. Dupont, París. Portell Vila, Herminio Céspedes, el padre de la patria cubana. Espasa-Calpe, Madrid, De Céspedes, Carlos Manuel & Galliano Cancio, Miguel (ed) En La Demajagua. La Habana. De Céspedes, Carlos Manuel & Leal Spengler, Eusebio (ed) El diario perdido. La Habana. Statue of Carlos Manuel de Cespedes in Cespedes Park in Bayamo

193 Dominican Republic The Dominican Republic (Spanish: República Dominicana, pronounced [repuβlika ðominikana]) is a nation on the island of Hispaniola, part of the Greater Antilles archipelago in the Caribbean region. The western third of the island is occupied by the nation of Haiti, making Hispaniola one of two Caribbean islands that are occupied by two countries. Both by area and population, the Dominican Republic is the second largest Caribbean nation (after Cuba), with 48,442 km² and an estimated 10 million people. [2][5] Inhabited by Taínos since the seventh century, what is now the Dominican Republic was reached by Christopher Columbus in 1492 and became the site of the first permanent European settlement in the Americas, namely Santo Domingo, the country's capital and Spain's first capital in the New World. In Santo Domingo stand, among other firsts in the Americas, the first university, cathedral, and castle, the latter two in the Ciudad Colonial area, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. [2][6] After three centuries of Spanish rule, with French and Haitian interludes, the country became independent in 1821 but was quickly taken over by Haiti. It attained independence in 1844, but mostly suffered political turmoil and tyranny, and as well a brief return to Spanish rule, over the next 72 years. United States occupation and a subsequent, calm six year period were followed by the military dictatorship of Rafael Dominican Republic República Dominicana (Spanish) Flag Motto: "Dios, Patria y libertad" (Spanish) "God, Fatherland, Liberty" Anthem: Himno Nacional Capital (and largest city) Santo Domingo N W19 N W Official languages Spanish Ethnic groups 73% Mixed Race, 16% White (Spanish, French, Italian), 11% Black Demonym Dominican [1] Democratic Government Republic [1][2] /Representative Democracy [2] - President Leonel Fernández [2] - Vice President Rafael Alburquerque [2] Independence From Spain - Date December 1, 1821 [2] - Date From Haiti February 27, Date From Spain (second time) 16 August 1865 [2]

194 Leonidas Trujillo Molina to The last civil war, in 1965, ended with U.S. intervention, followed by the authoritarian rule of Joaquin Balaguer, to Since 1978, the Dominican Republic has moved toward representative democracy. [1] The Dominican Republic has also adopted a liberal economic model, which has made it perhaps the largest economy in the region. [7][8] Though long known for sugar production, the economy is now dominated by services. [1] The country's economic progress is exemplified by its advanced telecommunication system. [9] Nevertheless, unemployment, [1] government corruption, income maldistribution, [1] and inconsistent electric service remain major Dominican problems. Migration is a major issue affecting the country, as it both receives and sends large flows of migrants. Haitian immigration and the integration of Dominicans of Haitian descent are major issues in the Dominican Republic. The total population of Haitian origin is estimated to be 800,000. [10] A large Dominican diaspora exists, most of it in the United States, where it comprises 1.1 million. [11] They contribute to the development of the Dominican Republic, as they send billions of dollars to family members in the country, amounting to one-tenth of its GDP. [1][8] The Dominican Republic has become the Caribbean's largest tourist destination; the country's year round golf courses are among the top attractions. [9] In this mountainous country is located the Caribbean's highest mountain, Pico Duarte, as is Lake Enriquillo, the Caribbean's largest lake. Quisqueya, as Dominicans often call their country, has a mild average temperature (26 C) and is outstanding for its great biological diversity. [9] History Main articles: History of the Dominican Republic and Colony of Santo Domingo The Taínos Area - Total 48,442 km 2 (130th) 18,704 sq mi - Water (%) 0.7 [1] Population estimate 10,090,000 [3] (80th) census 9,823,569 - Density 208.2/km 2 (57th) 539.4/sq mi GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate - Total $ billion [4] - Per capita $8,619 [4] GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate - Total $ billion [4] - Per capita $4,992 [4] Gini (2005) 49.9 [1] (high) HDI (2008) (medium) (91th) Currency Peso [2] (DOP) Time zone Atlantic (UTC-4 [1] ) Drives on the right Internet TLD.do [1] Calling code , , Sources for: area, capital, coat of arms, coordinates, flag, language, motto, and names: [2]. For an alternate area figure of 48,730 km 2 : [1] calling code 809, Internet TLD : [1] The inhabitants of Hispaniola were displaced by the Taínos, an Arawakan-speaking people, circa A.D [12] The Taínos called the island Kiskeya or Quisqueya, meaning "mother of the earth", as well as Haití or Aytí, and Bohio. [13] They engaged in farming and fishing, [14] and hunting and

195 Contents 1 History o 1.1 The Taínos o 1.2 Spanish rule o 1.3 French rule o 1.4 Ephemeral independence and Haitian occupation o 1.5 Independence o 1.6 The voluntary colony and the Restoration republic o 1.7 U.S.-attempted annexation of the Dominican Republic o 1.8 The Heureaux Era o 1.9 U.S. interventions and occupation o 1.10 The Trujillo Era o 1.11 Post-Trujillo o to present 2 Government o 2.1 Politics 3 Provinces and municipalities 4 Geography o 4.1 Climate o 4.2 Environmental issues 5 Symbols and name 6 Economy o 6.1 Currency o 6.2 Tourism 7 Demographics o 7.1 Population o 7.2 Ethnic composition o 7.3 Racial issues o 7.4 Religions o 7.5 Education o 7.6 Health statistics o 7.7 Crime o 7.8 Immigration Illegal Haitian immigration o 7.9 Emigration 8 Culture o 8.1 Cuisine o 8.2 Music o 8.3 Sports o 8.4 Holidays 9 Military 10 Services and transportation o 10.1 Communications o 10.2 Highways o 10.3 Ports o 10.4 Electricity 11 See also 12 References 13 External links gathering. [12] For much of the 15th century, the Taíno tribe was being driven to the Northeast in the Caribbean (out of what is now South America) because of raids by fierce Caribs. [15] There are widely varying estimates of the population of Hispaniola in 1492, including one hundred thousand, [16] three hundred thousand, [12] and four hundred thousand to two million. [17] By 1492 the island was divided into five chiefdoms. [18] Within a few years following the arrival of Europeans, the population of Taínos had declined drastically, due to changes in lifestyle, as well as due to smallpox and other diseases that arrived with the Europeans, [19] intermarriage, and enslavement. By 1711 the Taíno numbered just 21,000. [20] The last record of pure Taíno natives in the country was from an 1864 account by a Spanish soldier during the Dominican Restoration War, who wrote of Taínos shooting at Spanish soldiers and fleeing. Taíno cave paintings can still be seen in a variety of caves around the country. [21] Remnants of the Taino culture still live on. Their designs of ancient pottery are still used today by skilled ceramic artisans in the small artisan village of Higüerito, Moca. Spanish rule Christopher Columbus landed at Môle Saint- Nicolas, in northwest present-day Haiti, on December 5, 1492, during his first voyage. He claimed the island for Spain and named it La Española. Eighteen days later his flagship the Santa María ran aground near the present site of

196 Cap-Haitien. Columbus was forced to leave 39 men, who built a fort named La Navidad (Christmas, or The Nativity). He then sailed east, exploring the northern coast of what is now the Dominican Republic, after which he returned to Spain. He sailed back to America three more times, and was buried in Santo Domingo upon his death in After initially friendly relations, the Taínos resisted the conquest. One of the earliest leaders to seek a fight against the Spanish was the female Chief Anacaona of Xaragua, in the southwest, who married Chief Caonabo of Maguana, of the center and south of the island. She was captured by the Spanish and executed in front of her people. Other notables who resisted include Chief Guacanagari, Chief Guamá, and Chief Hatuey, the latter of whom later fled to Cuba and helped fight the Spaniards there. Chief Enriquillo fought victoriously against the Spanish in the Baoruco Mountain Range, in the southwest, to gain freedom for himself and his people in a part of the island for a time. By the late 1500s, the majority of Taíno people had died from European infectious diseases to which they had no immunity, from abuse, suicide, the breakup of family, starvation, [12] forced labor, torture, terrorism, and war with the Spaniards. Most scholars now believe that, among the various contributing factors, infectious disease was the overwhelming cause of the Taíno population decline. [22] The Taíno survived mostly in racially mixed form, and today most Dominicans have Taíno ancestry. [23][24] Some scholars believe that Bartolomé de las Casas exaggerated [25] the Indian population decline in an effort to persuade King Carlos to intervene, and that encomenderos also exaggerated it, in order to receive permission to import more African slaves. Moreover, censuses of the time did not account for the number of Indians who fled into remote communities, [23] where they often joined with runaway Africans, called cimarrones, producing zambos. There were also confusing issues with racial categorization, as Mestizos who were culturally Spanish were counted as Spaniards. In addition some Zambos were categorized as black and some Indians as Mulattos. [23] In 1496 Bartholomew Columbus, Christopher's brother, built the city of Nueva Isabela (New Isabella), now Santo Domingo, in the south of Hispaniola. It was one of the first Spanish settlements (the previous ones had also been on Hispaniola), and became Europe's first permanent settlement in the "New World". The Spaniards created a plantation economy on Hispaniola, particularly from the second half of the 16th century. [16] The island became a springboard for European conquest of the Caribbean islands, called Las Antillas (The Antilles), and soon after, the American mainland. For decades, Santo Domingo was the headquarters of Spanish colonial power in the New World. But after the Spanish conquest of the mainland empires of the Aztecs and Incas, the importance of Hispaniola declined and Spain paid less attention to it. French buccaneers settled in the western part of the island, and by the 1697 Treaty of Ryswick, Spain ceded the area to France. With colonial settlement and the development of a plantation economy dependent on slave labor, it grew into the wealthy colony of Saint-Domingue (now Haiti), with four times (500,000 vs. 125,000) as much population as Spanish Santo Domingo by the end of the 18th century. By then, enslaved Africans in Saint-Domingue outnumbered whites and freedmen by nine to one. [26] French rule France came to own the whole island in 1795, when by the Peace of Basel Spain ceded Santo Domingo as a consequence of the French Revolutionary Wars. At the time, Saint Domingue's slaves, led by Toussaint Louverture, were in revolt against France. In 1801 Toussaint Louverture captured Santo Domingo from the French, thus gaining control of the entire island. In 1802 an army sent by Napoleon captured Toussaint Louverture and sent him to France as prisoner. However, Toussaint Louverture's successors, and yellow fever, succeeded in expelling

197 the French again from Saint-Domingue. There the rebels declared the independence of Haiti in 1804, while to the east France continued to rule Spanish Santo Domingo. In 1808, following Napoleon's invasion of Spain, the criollos of Santo Domingo revolted against French rule and, with the aid of Great Britain (Spain's ally) and Haiti, [27] returned Santo Domingo to Spanish control. [28] Ephemeral independence and Haitian occupation After a dozen years of Spanish rule and failed independence plots by various groups, Santo Domingo's former administrator, Lieutenant Governor José Núñez de Cáceres, declared the colony's independence as the state of Haití Español (Spanish Haiti), on November 30, He requested admission to Simón Bolívar's nation of Gran Colombia, but Haitian forces, led by Jean- Pierre Boyer, invaded just nine weeks later, in February [29] As Toussaint Louverture had done the first time, the Haitians abolished slavery. But they also nationalized all public property; most private property, including all the property of landowners who had left in the wake of the invasion; much Church property; as well as all property belonging to the former rulers, the Spanish Crown. All levels of education suffered collapse; the university was shut down, as it was starved both of resources and students, since young Dominican men from 16 to 25-years-old were drafted into the Haitian army. Haiti imposed a "heavy tribute" on the Dominican people. [30] Many whites fled Santo Domingo for Puerto Rico and Cuba (both still under Spanish rule), Venezuela, and elsewhere. Boyer changed the Dominican economic system to place more emphasis on cash crops to be grown on large plantations, reformed the tax system, and allowed foreign trade. But the new system was widely opposed by Dominican farmers, although it produced a boom in sugar and coffee production. Boyer's troops, which included many Dominicans, were unpaid, and had to "forage and sack" from Dominican civilians. In the end the economy faltered and taxation became more onerous. Rebellions occurred even by freed Dominican slaves, while Dominicans and Haitians worked together to oust Boyer from power. Anti Haitian movements of several kinds pro independence, pro Spanish, pro French, pro British, pro United States gathered force following the overthrow of Boyer in [30] Independence In 1838 Juan Pablo Duarte founded a secret society called La Trinitaria, which sought the complete independence of Santo Domingo without any foreign intervention. [31] Ramón Matías Mella and Francisco del Rosario Sánchez (the latter of partly African ancestry), [32] despite not being among the founding members of La Trinitaria, were decisive in the fight for independence. Duarte and they are the three Founding Fathers of the Dominican Republic. On February 27, 1844, the Trinitarios (Trinitarians), declared the independence from Haiti. They were backed by Pedro Santana, a wealthy cattle rancher from El Seibo, who became General of the army of the nascent Republic. The Dominican Republic's first Constitution was adopted on November 6, 1844, and was modeled after the United States Constitution. [14] The decades that followed were filled with tyranny, factionalism, economic difficulties, rapid changes of government, and exile for political opponents. Threatening the nation's independence were renewed Haitian invasions occurring in 1844, , , and [30] Meanwhile, archrivals Santana and Buenaventura Báez held power most of the time, both ruling arbitrarily. They promoted competing plans to annex the new nation to another power: Santana favored Spain, and Báez the United States.

198 The voluntary colony and the Restoration republic General Gregorio Luperón, Restoration hero and later President of the Republic. In 1861, after imprisoning, silencing, exiling, and executing many of his opponents and due to political and economic reasons, Santana signed a pact with the Spanish Crown and reverted the Dominican nation to colonial status, the only Latin American country to do so. His ostensible aim was to protect the nation from another Haitian annexation. [33] But opponents launched the War of the Restoration in 1863, led by a group of men including Santiago Rodríguez and Benito Monción, among others. General Gregorio Luperón distinguished himself at the end of the war. Haitian authorities, fearful of the reestablishment of Spain as colonial power on their border, gave refuge and supplies to Dominican revolutionaries. [33] The United States, then fighting its own Civil War, vigorously protested the Spanish action. After two years of fighting, Spain abandoned the island in [33] U.S.-attempted annexation of the Dominican Republic In 1869, it was Báez's turn to act on his plan of annexing the country to the United States, and President Grant was supportive; he wanted land to resettle newly freed slaves on, as they faced continuing discrimination, harassment and lynchings. [34] An agreement was made, which included a U.S. a payment of 1.5 million dollars for Dominican debt repayment. [14][29] Grant's cabinet did not approve,[1] so he took the proposal directly to the U.S. Senate.[2] Charles Sumner, powerful chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, vigorously opposed the deal, arguing that blacks shouldn't have to leave their land to protect themselves, the government should do that. He also thought it unfair for the U.S. to effectively dissolve one of only two black-led nations in the Western Hemisphere (the other being Haiti). [34] On June 30, 1870, the Senate voted down the plan [29] [3] 28-28, two-thirds being required. [35][36] This was the United States' second failed attempt to annex the Dominican Republic. To get land for Abraham Lincoln's similar slave relocation plan, Secretary of State William H. Seward had previously tried to negotiate a purchase. [37] The Heureaux Era Báez was toppled in 1874, returned, and was toppled for good in A new generation was thence in charge, with the passing of Santana (he died in 1864) and Báez from the scene. Relative peace came to the country in the 1880s, which saw the coming to power of General Ulises Heureaux. [38] Ulises 'Lilís' Heureaux, President of the Republic , "Lilís," as the new president was nicknamed, enjoyed a period of popularity. He was, however, "a consummate dissembler", who put the nation deep into debt while using much of the proceeds for his personal use and to maintain his police state. Heureaux's rule became progressively more despotic and he all the more unpopular. [38][39] In 1899 he was assassinated. However, the relative calm over which he presided allowed improvement in the Dominican economy. The sugar industry was modernized, [40] and the country attracted foreign workers and immigrants, both from the Old World and the New. From 1902 on, short lived governments were again the norm,

199 with their power usurped by caudillos in parts of the country. Furthermore, the national government was bankrupt and, unable to pay Heureaux's debts, faced the threat of military intervention by France and other European creditor powers. [41] U.S. interventions and occupation See also: United States occupation of the Dominican Republic U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt sought to prevent European intervention, largely to protect the routes to the future Panama Canal, as the canal was already under construction. He made a small military intervention to ward off the European powers, proclaimed his famous Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, and in 1905 obtained Dominican agreement for U.S. administration of Dominican customs, then the chief source of income for the Dominican government. A 1906 agreement provided for the arrangement to last 50 years. The United States agreed to use part of the customs proceeds to reduce the immense foreign debt of the Dominican Republic, and assumed responsibility for said debt. [14][41] After six years in power, President Ramón Cáceres (who had himself assassinated Heureaux) [38] was assassinated in The result was several years of great political instability and civil war. U.S. mediation by the William Howard Taft and Woodrow Wilson administrations achieved only a short respite each time. A political deadlock in 1914 was broken after an ultimatum by Wilson telling Dominicans to choose a president or see the U.S. impose one. A provisional president was chosen, and later the same year relatively free elections put former president ( ) Juan Isidro Jimenes Pereyra back in power. In order to achieve a more broadly supported government, Jimenes named opposition individuals to his Cabinet. But this brought no peace and, with his former Secretary of War Desiderio Arias maneuvering to depose him and despite a U.S. offer of military aid against Arias, Jimenes resigned on May 7, [42] The 1916 occupation by U.S. Marines Wilson thus ordered the U.S. occupation of the Dominican Republic. U.S. Marines landed on May 16, 1916, and had control of the country two months later. The military government established by the U.S., led by Rear Admiral Harry Shepard Knapp, was widely repudiated by Dominicans. Some Cabinet posts had to be filled by U.S. naval officers, as Dominicans refused to serve in the administration. Press and radio censorship was imposed, as were limits on public speech. Guerrilla war against the U.S. forces was met with a vigorous, "often brutal" response. [42] But the occupation regime, which kept most Dominican laws and institutions, had its positive effects. It largely pacified the country, revived the economy, reduced the Dominican debt, built a road network that at last connected all regions of the country, and created a professional National Guard to replace the warring partisan units. [42] Opposition to the occupation continued, however, and after World War I it increased in the U.S. as well. There, President Warren G. Harding ( ), Wilson's successor, worked to end the occupation, as he had promised to do during his campaign. U.S. government ended in October 1922, and elections were held in March [42] The victor was former president ( ) Horacio Vásquez Lajara, who had cooperated with the U.S. He was inaugurated on July 13, and the last U.S. forces left in September. Vásquez gave the country six years of good government, in which political and civil rights were respected and the economy grew strongly, in a peaceful atmosphere. [42][43]

200 The Trujillo Era When Vásquez attempted to win another term, opponents rebelled in February, 1930, in secret alliance with the commander of the National Army (the former National Guard), General Rafael Leonidas Trujillo Molina, by which the latter remained 'neutral' in face of the rebellion. Vásquez resigned. Trujillo then stood for election himself, and in May was elected president virtually unopposed, after a campaign of violence in which he eliminated his strongest opponents. [43] There was considerable economic growth during Trujillo's long and iron-fisted regime, although a great deal of the wealth was taken by the dictator and other regime elements. There was progress in healthcare, education, and transportation, with the building of hospitals and clinics, schools, and roads and harbors. Trujillo also carried out an important housing construction program and instituted a pension plan. He finally negotiated an undisputed border with Haiti in 1935, and achieved the early end, in 1941, of the 1906 agreement with the U.S. He made the country debt-free in 1947, [14] a proud achievement for Dominicans for decades to come. This was accompanied by absolute repression and the copious use of murder, torture, and terrorist methods against the opposition. Moreover, Trujillo's megalomania was on display in his renaming after himself the capital city Santo Domingo to Ciudad Trujillo (Trujillo City), [14] the nation's and the Caribbean's highest mountain Pico Duarte (Duarte Peak) to Pico Trujillo, and many towns and a province. Some other places he renamed after members of his family. In 1937 Trujillo (who was himself one-quarter Haitian), [44] in an event known as the Parsley Massacre or, in the Dominican Republic, as El Corte (The Cutting), [45] ordered the Army to kill Haitians living on the Dominican side of the border. The Army killed an estimated 17,000 to 35,000 Haitians over six days, from the night of October 2, 1937 through October 8, To avoid leaving evidence of the Army's involvement, the soldiers used machetes rather than bullets. [29][44][46] The soldiers of Trujillo were said to have interrogated anyone with dark skin, using the shibboleth perejil (parsley) to tell Haitians from Dominicans; the trilled 'R' of perejil was of difficult pronunciation for Haitians. [45] As a result of the massacre, the Dominican Republic agreed to pay Haiti US$750,000, later reduced to US$525,000. [33][43] This also caused many Dominicans to deny their own African roots in which is very present to this day due to Trujillo's ideal of a "whiter" Dominican Republic. On November 25, 1960 Trujillo killed three of the four Mirabal sisters, nicknamed Las Mariposas (The Butterflies). The victims were Patria Mercedes Mirabal (born on February 27, 1924), Argentina Minerva Mirabal (born on March 12, 1926), and Antonia María Teresa Mirabal (born on October 15, 1935). Minerva was an aspiring lawyer who was extremely opposed to Trujillo's dictatorship since Trujillo had begun to make rude sexual advances towards her. The sisters have received many honors posthumously, and have many memorials in various cities in the Dominican Republic. Salcedo, their home province, changed its name to Hermanas Mirabal Province (Mirabal Sisters Province). The International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women is observed on the anniversary of their deaths. The lives and resistance of Las Mariposas is told in In the Time of Butterflies by Julia Alvarez. For a long time, the US supported the Trujillo government, as did the Roman Catholic Church, and the Dominican elite. This support persisted despite the assassinations of political opposition, the massacre of border Haitians, and Trujillo's plots against other countries. The US believed Trujillo was the lesser of two or more evils. [45] The U.S. finally broke with Trujillo in 1960, after Trujillo's agents attempted to assassinate the Venezuelan president, Rómulo Betancourt. Trujillo was assassinated on May 30, 1961 in Santo Domingo. [43][47] It has been postulated that "the CIA arranged, planned and executed the assassination using their elite paramilitary operations officers" from the Special Activities Division. [48]

201 Post-Trujillo A democratically elected government under leftist Juan Bosch took office in February, 1963, but was overthrown by the CIA in September. After nineteen months of military rule, a pro-bosch revolt broke out in April, U.S. president Lyndon Johnson, concerned over the possible takeover of the revolt by pro-castro or other communists who might create a "second Cuba", sent the Marines days later, in Operation Powerpack. "We don't propose to sit here in a rocking chair with our hands folded and let the Communist set up any government in the western hemisphere", Johnson said. [49] The forces were soon joined by comparatively small contingents from the Organization of American States. They remained in the country for over a year and left after supervising elections in 1966 won by a repressive military junta led by Joaquín Balaguer, who had been Trujillo's last puppet president. [14][50] Balaguer remained in power as president for 12 years, the shortest presidency in the island's history. His tenure was a period of repression of human rights and civil liberties, ostensibly to prevent pro Castro or pro communist parties from gaining power in the country. His rule was further criticized for a growing disparity between rich and poor. It was, however, praised for an ambitious infrastructure program, which included large housing projects, sports complexes, theaters, museums, aqueducts, roads, highways, and the massive Columbus Lighthouse, completed in a subsequent tenure in Balaguer's sister, Ema, helped in these efforts. She became well known amongst the poor for donating sewing machines, toys and building schools. [51] 1978 to present In 1978, Balaguer was succeeded in the presidency by opposition candidate Antonio Guzmán Fernández, of the Dominican Revolutionary Party (PRD). Another PRD win in 1982 followed, under Salvador Jorge Blanco. Under the PRD presidents, the Dominican Republic experienced a period of relative freedom and basic human rights. Balaguer regained the presidency in 1986, and was re-elected in 1990 and 1994, this last time just defeating PRD candidate José Francisco Peña Gómez, a former mayor of Santo Domingo. The 1994 elections were flawed, bringing on international pressure, to which Balaguer responded by scheduling another presidential contest in [1] This time Leonel Fernández achieved the first ever win for the Dominican Liberation Party (PLD), which Bosch founded in 1973 after leaving the PRD (also founded by Bosch). In 2000 the PRD's Hipólito Mejía won the election when his main opponents Danilo Medina (PLD) and a very old Joaquín Balaguer decided not to force a runoff after Mejía got 49.8% in the first round. In 2004 Fernández was elected again, defeating President Mejía, and re-elected in 2008 against the PRD's Miguel Vargas Maldonado, a former minister in Mejía's government. [8] Fernández and the PLD are credited with a number of initiatives that have moved the country forward technologically, such as the construction of the Metro Railway ("El Metro"), available for public use since January His government has also being plagued by innumerous accusation for corruption and bad administration from the President and his functionaries. Government Main article: Government of the Dominican National Palace in Santo Domingo Republic The Dominican Republic is a representative democracy, with national powers divided among independent executive, legislative, and judicial branches. The President of the Dominican Republic appoints the Cabinet, executes laws passed by the Congress, and is commander in

202 chief of the armed forces. The president and vice president run for office on the same ticket and are elected by direct vote for 4 year terms. Legislative power is exercised by a bicameral Congress composed of the Senate (with 32 members) and the Chamber of Deputies (with 178 members). [8] The Dominican Republic has a multi party political system with national elections every 2 years (alternating between presidential elections and congressional/municipal elections). Presidential elections are held in years evenly divisible by four. Congressional and municipal elections are held in even numbered years not divisible by four. International observers have found that presidential and congressional elections since 1996 have been generally free and fair. Elections are supervised by a Central Elections Board (JCE) of 9 members chosen for a four year term by each newly elected Senate. JCE decisions on electoral matters are final. [8] Under the constitutional reforms negotiated after the 1994 elections, the 16 member Supreme Court of Justice is appointed by a National Judicial Council, which comprises the President, the leaders of both houses of Congress, the President of the Supreme Court, and an opposition or non governing party member. One other Supreme Court Justice acts as secretary of the Council, a non voting position. The Supreme Court has sole authority over management of the court system and alone hears actions against the president, designated members of his Cabinet, and members of Congress when the legislature is in session. The Supreme Court hears appeals from lower courts and chooses members of lower courts. [8] The president appoints the governors of the thirty-one provinces. Mayors and municipal councils administer the 124 municipal districts and the National District (Santo Domingo). They are elected at the same time as congressional representatives. [8] Politics The country becomes highly politicized during election campaigns, as millions of dollars are spent in propaganda. The political system is characterized by clientelism, which has corrupted it throughout the years. [52] There are many political parties and interest groups and, new on the scene, civil organizations. The three major parties are the conservative Social Christian Reformist Party (Spanish: Partido Reformista Social Cristiano [PRSC]), in power and ; the social democratic Dominican Revolutionary Party (Spanish: Partido Revolucionario Dominicano [PRD]), in power in 1963, , and ); and the increasingly conservative Dominican Liberation Party (Spanish: Partido de la Liberación Dominicana [PLD]), in power and since The presidential elections of 2008 were held on May 16, 2008, with incumbent Leonel Fernandez winning with 53% of the vote. [53] He defeated Miguel Vargas Maldonado, of the PRD, who achieved a 40.48% share of the vote. Amable Aristy, of the PRSC, achieved 4.59% of the vote. Other minority candidates, which includes former Attorney General Guillermo Moreno from the Movement for Independence, Unity and Change (Movimiento Independencia, Unidad y Cambio [MIUCA]) and PRSC former presidential candidate and defector Eduardo Estrella obtained less than 1% of the vote. Provinces and municipalities Main articles: Provinces of the Dominican Republic and Municipalities of the Dominican Republic The Dominican Republic is divided into 31 provinces. Additionally, the national capital, Distrito Nacional (National District), is contained within Santo Domingo. The provinces are divided into municipalities (municipios; singular municipio). They are the second level political and administrative subdivisions of the country.

203 1. Azua 2. Bahoruco 3. Barahona 4. Dajabón 5. Distrito Nacional 6. Duarte 7. Elías Piña 8. El Seibo 9. Espaillat 10. Hato Mayor 11. Hermanas Mirabal 12. Independencia 13. La Altagracia 14. La Romana 15. La Vega 16. María Trinidad Sánchez 17. Monseñor Nouel 18. Monte Cristi 19. Monte Plata 20. Pedernales 21. Peravia 22. Puerto Plata 23. Samaná 24. Sánchez Ramírez 25. San Cristóbal 26. San José de Ocoa 27. San Juan 28. San Pedro de Macorís 29. Santiago 30. Santiago Rodríguez 31. Santo Domingo 32. Valverde The national capital is the city of Santo Domingo, in the Distrito Nacional (DN) Geography Main article: Geography of the Dominican Republic See also: Hydroelectricity and dams in the Dominican Republic The Dominican Republic is situated on the eastern part of the second-largest island in the Greater Antilles, Hispaniola. It shares the island roughly at a 2:1 ratio with Haiti. The whole country measures an area of 48,442 km² [2] (or 48,730 km², [1] or 48,921 km² [54] ) making it the second largest country in the Antilles, after Cuba. The country's capital and greatest metropolitan area, Santo Domingo, is located on the southern coast. There are many small offshore islands and cays that are part of the Dominican territory. The two largest islands near shore are Saona, in the southeast, and Beata, in the southwest. To the north, at distances of kilometres ( mi), are three extensive, largely submerged banks, which geographically are a southeast continuation of the Bahamas: Navidad Bank, Silver Map of the Dominican Republic Bank, and Mouchoir Bank. Navidad Bank and Silver Bank have been officially claimed by the Dominican Republic. The country's mainland has four important mountain ranges. The most northerly is the Cordillera Septentrional ("Northern Mountain Range"), which extends from the northwestern coastal town of Monte Cristi, near the Haitian border, to the Samaná Peninsula in the east, running parallel to the Atlantic coast. The highest range in the Dominican Republic indeed, in the whole of the West Indies is the Cordillera Central ("Central Mountain Range"). It gradually bends southwards and finishes near the town of Azua, on the Caribbean coast. In the Cordillera Central are found the four highest peaks in the Caribbean: Pico Duarte (3,098 metres/10,160 feet above sea level), La Pelona (3,094 metres/10,150 feet, La Rucilla (3,049 metres/10,000 feet) and Pico Yaque (2,760 metres/9,100 feet). In the southwest corner of the country, south of the Cordillera Central, there are two other ranges. The more northerly of the two is the Sierra de Neiba, while in the south the Sierra de Bahoruco is a continuation of the Massif de la Selle in Haiti. There are other, minor mountain ranges, such as

204 the Cordillera Oriental ("Eastern Mountain Range"), Sierra Martín García, Sierra de Yamasá and Sierra de Samaná. Between the Central and Northern mountain ranges lies the rich and fertile Cibao valley. This major valley is home to the city of Santiago and most of the farming areas in the nation. Rather less productive is the semi-arid San Juan Valley, south of the Central Cordillera. Still more arid is the Neiba Valley, tucked between the Sierra de Neiba and the Sierra de Bahoruco. Much of the land in the Enriquillo Basin is below sea level, with a hot, arid, desert-like environment. There are other smaller valleys in the mountains, such as the Constanza, Jarabacoa, Villa Altagracia, and Bonao valleys. Cayo Levantado in Samana Bay is one of the Bust of Duarte on top of Pico Duarte, with many cays in the D.R. La Pelona in the background. The Llano Costero del Caribe ("Caribbean Coastal Plain") is the largest of the plains in the Dominican Republic. Stretching north and east of Santo Domingo, it contains many sugar plantations in the savannahs that are common there. West of Santo Domingo its width is reduced to 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) as it hugs the coast, finishing at the mouth of the Ocoa River. Another large plain is the Plena de Azua ("Azua Plain"), a very dry region in Azua Province. A few other small coastal plains are in the northern coast and in the Pedernales Peninsula. South shore of Lake Enriquillo, looking northward to the Sierra de Neiba Four major rivers drain the numerous mountains of the Dominican Republic. The Yaque del Norte is the longest and most important Dominican river. It carries excess water down from the Cibao Valley and empties into Monte Cristi Bay, in the northwest. Likewise, the Yuna River serves the Vega Real and empties into Samaná Bay, in the northeast. Drainage of the San Juan Valley is provided by the San Juan River, tributary of the Yaque del Sur, which empties into the Caribbean, in the south. The Artibonito is the longest river of Hispaniola and flows westward into Haiti. There are many lakes and coastal lagoons. The largest lake is Enriquillo, a salt lake at 40 metres (130 ft) below sea level, the lowest point in the Caribbean. Other important lakes are Laguna de Rincón or Cabral, with freshwater, and Laguna de Oviedo, a lagoon with brackish water. Climate The climate is tropical and sunny most of the time.it can get hot and sticky.

205 Environmental issues Bajos de Haina, 12 miles (19 km) west of Santo Domingo, was included on the Blacksmith Institute's list of the world's 10 most polluted places, released in October 2006, due to lead poisoning by a battery recycling smelter closed in Cleanup of the site began in 2008, but children continue to be born with high lead levels, causing learning disabilities, impaired physical growth and kidney failure. [55][56] Symbols and name Some of the important symbols include the flag, the coat of arms, and the national anthem, titled Himno Nacional. The flag has a large white cross that divides it into four quarters. Two quarters are red and two are blue. Red represents the blood shed by the liberators. Blue expresses God's protection over the nation. The white cross symbolizes the struggle of the liberators to bequeath future generations a free nation. An alternate interpretation is that blue represents the ideals of progress and liberty, whereas white symbolizes peace and unity amongst Dominicans. [57] In the center of the cross is the Dominican coat of arms, in the same colors as the national flag. The coat of arms pictures a red, white and blue flag-draped shield with a Bible and cross; the shield is surrounded by an olive branch (on the left) and a palm branch (on the right). A blue ribbon above the shield reads, "Dios, Patria, Libertad" (meaning "God, Fatherland, Liberty"). A red ribbon under the shield reads, "República Dominicana" (meaning "Dominican Republic"). Out of all the flags in the world, the depiction of a Bible is unique only to the Dominican flag. The national flower is that of the West Indian Mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni). [58] The national bird is the Cigua Palmera or Palmchat (Dulus dominicus). [59] For most of its history (up to independence) the colony was known as Santo Domingo, the name of its present capital, and its patron saint, Saint Dominic. The residents were called "Dominicanos" (Dominicans), the adjective form of "Domingo," and the revolutionaries named their newly independent country "La República Dominicana." At present, the Dominican Republic is one of the few countries in the world with a demonym based name (like the Czech Republic, et al.). For example, the French Republic is generally known as France, but the Dominican Republic has no such equivalent although the name "Quisqueya" is used sometimes. Economy Santo Domingo, the capital of the See also: Economy of the Dominican Republic See also: Dominican Peso The Dominican Republic has the largest [8] or second largest [7] economy in Central America and the Caribbean. It is a Republic and its largest city. lower middle-income developing country, [60] with a 2007 GDP per capita of $9,208, in PPP terms, which is relatively high in Latin America. In the trimester of January March 2007 it experienced an exceptional growth of 9.1% in its GDP, which was actually below the previous year's 10.9% in the same period. Growth was led by imports, followed by exports, with finance and foreign investment the next largest factors. [61] Santiago de los Caballeros, the second largest city in the country

206 The D.R. is primarily dependent on natural resources and government services. Although the service sector has recently overtaken agriculture as the leading employer of Dominicans (due principally to growth in tourism and Free Trade Zones), agriculture remains the most important sector in terms of domestic consumption and is in second place, behind mining, in terms of export earnings. The service sector in general has experienced growth in recent years, as has construction. Free Trade Zone earnings and tourism are the fastest-growing export sectors. Real estate tourism alone accounted for $1.5 billion in earnings for [62] Remittances from Dominicans living abroad amounted to nearly $3.2 billion in [8] Sector of NACO, in Santo Domingo, with a view of Tiradentes Avenue Economic growth takes place in spite of a chronic energy shortage, [63] which causes frequent blackouts and very high prices. Despite a widening merchandise trade deficit, tourism earnings and remittances have helped build foreign exchange reserves. The Dominican Republic is current on [citation needed] foreign private debt. Following economic turmoil in the late 1980s and 1990, during which the gross domestic product (GDP) fell by up to 5% and consumer price inflation reached an unprecedented 100%, the Dominican Republic entered a period of growth and declining inflation until 2002, after which the economy entered a recession. [8] This recession followed the collapse of the second largest commercial bank in the country, Baninter, linked to a major incident of fraud valued at $3.5 billion, during the administration of President Hipólito Mejía ( ). The Baninter fraud had a devastating effect on the Dominican economy, with GDP dropping by 1% in 2003 while inflation ballooned by over 27%. All defendants, including the star of the trial, Ramon Baez Figueroa, were found guilty and convicted; one subpoena failed to be delivered upon the [citation needed] United States denial of extradition. According to the 2005 Annual Report of the United Nations Subcommittee on Human Development in the Dominican increasing development. Republic, the country is ranked #71 in the world for resource availability, #79 for human development, and #14 in the world for resource mismanagement. These statistics emphasize national government corruption, foreign economic interference in the country, and the rift between the rich and poor. Currency La Trinitaria in Santiago de Los Caballeros is an area of The Dominican peso (DOP, or RD$) [64] is the national currency, although United States dollars (USD) and euros (EUR) are also accepted at most tourist sites. The U.S. dollar is implicated in almost all commercial transactions of the Dominican Republic; such dollarization is common in high inflation economies. The peso was worth the same as the USD until the 1980s, but has depreciated. The exchange rate in 1993 was pesos per USD and pesos in 2000, but it jumped to pesos per USD in In 2004, the exchange rate was back down to around pesos per USD. As of February 2009 the exchange rate was 1 DOP = USD, i.e DOP per USD; 1 DOP = euros (EUR, or ); and 1 DOP = 2.74 Japanese yen (JPY, or ). [64]

207 Tourism Tourism is fueling the Dominican Republic's economic growth. For example, the contribution of travel and tourism to employment is expected to rise from 550,000 jobs in % of total employment or 1 in every 7 jobs to 743,000 jobs 14.2% of total employment or 1 in every 7.1 jobs by [65] With the construction of projects like Cap Cana, San Souci Port in Santo Domingo, and Moon Palace Resort in Punta Cana, the Dominican Republic expects increased tourism activity in the upcoming year. Ecotourism has been a topic increasingly important in the nation, with towns like Jarabacoa and neighboring Constanza, and locations like the Pico Duarte, Bahia de Las Aguilas and others becoming more significant in attempts to increase direct benefits from tourism. Demographics Main article: Demographics of the Dominican Republic Population The population of the Dominican Republic in 2007 was estimated by the United Nations at 9,760,000, [66] which placed it number 82 in population among the 193 nations of the world. In that year approximately 5% of the population was over 65 years of age, while 35% of the population was under 15 years of age. There were 103 males for every 100 females in the country in [1] According to the UN, the annual population growth rate for is 1.5%, with the projected population for the year 2015 at 10,121,000. It was estimated by the Dominican government that the population density in 2007 was 192 per km² (498 per sq mi), and 63% of the population lived in urban areas. [5] The southern coastal plains and the Cibao Valley are the most densely populated areas of the country. The capital city, Santo Domingo, had a population of 3,014,000 in Other important cities are Santiago de los Caballeros (pop. 756,098), La Romana (pop. 250,000), San Pedro de Macorís, San Francisco de Macorís, Puerto Plata, and La Vega. Per the United Nations, the urban population growth rate for was 2.3%. [67] Ethnic composition Dominican girls at carnival, in Taíno garments and makeup (2005) The ethnic composition of the Dominican population is 73% multiracial, 16% white, and 11% black. [1] The multiracial population is primarily a mixture of European and African with a notable amount of Taíno influence. [23] The country's population also includes a large Haitian minority. Other ethnic groups in the country include West Asians mostly Lebanese, Syrians and Palestinians. A smaller, yet significant presence of East Asians (primarily ethnic Chinese and Japanese) can also be found throughout the population. Racial issues As elsewhere in the Spanish Empire, the Spanish colony of Hispaniola employed a social system known as casta, wherein Peninsulares (Spaniards born in Spain) occupied the highest echelon. These were followed, in descending order of status, by: criollos, castizos, mestizos, Indians, mulattoes,zambos, and black slaves. [68][69] The stigma of this stratification persisted, reaching its

208 culmination in the Trujillo regime, as the dictator used racial persecution and nationalistic fervor against Haitians. [45][70] According to a study by the CUNY Dominican Studies Institute, about 90% of the contemporary Dominican population has West African ancestry to varying degrees. [71] However, most Dominicans do not self-identify as black, in contrast to people of West African ancestry in other countries. A variety of terms are used to represent a range of skintones, such as morena (brown), canela (red/brown) ["cinnamon"], India (Indian), blanca oscura (dark white), and trigueño (literally "wheat colored", which is the English equivalent of olive skin), [72] among others. Many have claimed that this represents a reluctance to self-identify with West African descent and the culture of the freed slaves. According to Dr. Miguel Anibal Perdomo, professor of Dominican Identity and Literature at Hunter College in New York City, "There was a sense of 'deculturación' among the West Indian slaves of Hispaniola. [There was] an attempt to erase any vestiges of West Indian culture from the Dominican Republic. We were, in some way, brainwashed and we've become westernized." [73] However, this view is not universal, as many also claim that Dominican culture is simply different and rejects the racial categorizations of other regions. Ramona Hernández, director of the Dominican Studies Institute at City College of New York asserts that the terms were originally a defense against racism: "During the Trujillo regime, people who were dark skinned were rejected, so they created their own mechanism to fight it." She went on to explain, "When you ask, 'What are you?' they don't give you the answer you want... saying we don't want to deal with our blackness is simply what you want to hear." [74] The Dominican Republic is not unique in this respect, either. In a 1976 census survey conducted in Brazil, respondents described their skin color in 136 distinct terms. [68][74] Religions Main article: Religion in the Dominican Republic A Typical paint of oil on canvas The Dominican Republic is 95.2% Christian, including 88.6% Roman Catholic and 4.2% Protestant. Recent but small scale immigration, as well as proselytizing, has brought other religions, with the following shares of the population: Spiritist: 2.2%, [75] The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints: 1.0%, [76] Buddhist: 0.10%, Bahá'í: 0.1%, [75] Islam: 0.02%, Judaism: 0.01%, Chinese Folk Religion: 0.1%, [75] and Dominican Vudu (no census). Roman Catholicism was introduced by Columbus and Spanish missionaries. Religion wasn t really the foundation of their entire society, as it was in other parts of the world at the time, and most of the population didn t made in Dominican Republic attend church on a regular basis. Nonetheless, most of the education in the country was based upon the Catholic religion, as the Bible was required in the curricula of all public schools. Children would use religious based dialogue when greeting a relative or parent. For example: a child [citation needed] would say "Bless me, mother", and the mother would reply "May God bless you". The nation has two patroness saints: Nuestra Señora de la Altagracia (Our Lady Of High Grace) is the patroness of the Dominican people, and Nuestra Señora de las Mercedes (Our Lady Of Mercy) is the patroness of the Dominican Republic. The Catholic Church began to lose popularity in the late 1800s. This was due to a lack of funding, of priests, and of support programs. During the same time, the Protestant evangelical movement

209 began to gain support. Religious tension between Catholics and Protestants in the country has been rare. There has always been religious freedom throughout the entire country. Not until the 1950s were restrictions placed upon churches by Trujillo. Letters of protest were sent against the mass arrests of government adversaries. Trujillo began a campaign against the church and planned to arrest priests and bishops who preached against the government. This campaign ended before it was even put into place, with his assassination. Judaism appeared in the Dominican Republic in the late 1930s. During World War II, a group of Jews escaping Nazi Germany fled to the Dominican Republic and founded the city of Sosúa. It has remained the center of the Jewish population since. [77] Education Primary education is officially free and compulsory for children between the ages of 5 and 14, although those who live in isolated areas have limited access to schooling. Primary schooling is followed by a two year intermediate school and a four year secondary course, after which a diploma called the bachillerato (high school diploma) is awarded. Relatively few lower income students succeed in reaching this level, due to financial hardships and limitation due to location. Most of the wealthier students attend private schools, which are frequently sponsored by religious institutions. Some public and private vocational schools are available, particularly in the field of agriculture, but this too reaches only a tiny percentage of the population. [78] Health statistics In 2007 the Dominican Republic had a birth rate of per 1000, and a death rate of 5.32 per [1] Dengue is endemic to the country and there are cases of malaria. [79] There is currently a mission based in the United States to combat the AIDS rate in the Dominican Republic. [80] On the 18 December 2008, the William J. Clinton Foundation released a list of all contributors. It included COPRESIDA-Secretariado Tecnico, a Dominican Republic government agency formed to fight AIDS, which gave between US$10 25 million to the Foundation. [81] The practice of abortion is illegal in all cases in the Domican Republic, a ban that includes conceptions following rape, incest, and in situations where the health of the mother is in danger. This ban was reiterated by the Dominican government in a September 2009 provision of a constitutional reform bill. [82] Crime The Dominican Republic has become a trans-shipment point for Colombian drugs destined to Europe as well as the United States and Canada. [1][83] Money laundering via the Dominican Republic is favored by Colombian drug cartels for the ease of illicit financial transactions. [1] In 2004 it was estimated that 8% of all cocaine smuggled into the United States had come through the Dominican Republic. [84] The Dominican Republic responded with increased efforts to seize drug shipments, arrest and extradite those involved, and combat money-laundering. A 1995 report stated that social pressures and poverty which was then increasing had led to a rise in prostitution. Though prostitution is legal and the age of consent is 18, child prostitution is a growing phenomenon in impoverished areas. In an environment where young girls are often denied employment opportunities offered to boys, prostitution frequently becomes a source of supplementary income. [citation needed] UNICEF estimated in 1994 that at least 25,000 children were involved in the Dominican sex trade, 63% of that figure being girls. [85]

210 Immigration In the 20th century, many Chinese, Arabs (primarily from Lebanon and Syria), Japanese and to a lesser degree Koreans settled in the country, working as agricultural laborers and merchants. Waves of Chinese immigrants, the latter ones fleeing the Chinese Communist People's Liberation Army (PLA), arrived and worked in mines and building railroads. The current Chinese Dominican population totals 15,000. [86] The Arab community is also rising at an increasing rate. Estimates are at 3,400. [citation needed] Japanese immigrants, who mostly work in the business districts and markets, are at an estimate of 1,900 living in the country. [citation needed] The Korean presence is [citation needed] minor but evident at a population of 500. In addition, there are descendants of immigrants who came from other Caribbean islands, including St. Kitts and Nevis, Dominica, Antigua, St. Vincent, Montserrat, Tortola, St. Croix, St. Thomas, Martinique, and Guadeloupe. They worked on sugarcane plantations and docks and settled mainly in the cities of San Pedro de Macoris and Puerto Plata. They are believed to number 28,000. Before and during World War II 800 Jewish refugees moved to the Dominican Republic, and many of their descendants live in the town of Sosúa. [87] Nationwide, there are an estimated 100 Jews left. [88] Immigration from Europe and the United States is at an all time high. [citation needed] 82,000 Americans (in 1999), [89] 40,000 Italians, [90] 1,900 French, [88] 1,400 Britons, [91] and 800 Germans. [88] Illegal Haitian immigration Haiti is much poorer than the Dominican Republic. In 2003, 80% of all Haitians were poor and 48% were illiterate; in 2002, over two-thirds of the labor force lacked formal jobs. The country's per capita GDP (PPP) was $1,400 in 2008, or less than one-sixth of the Dominican figure. [1][92] As a result, hundreds of thousands of Haitians have migrated to the Dominican Republic, with some estimates speaking of 800,000 Haitians in the country, [10] while some put the Haitian born population as high as one million. [93] They usually work at lowpaying and unskilled labor jobs, including construction work, household cleaning, and in sugar plantations. [94] Children of illegal Haitian immigrants are often stateless and denied services. Their parents are denied Dominican nationality because they are deemed to be transient residents, due to their illegal or undocumented status. Haiti also denies them nationality (Haiti's Constitution states in Title II, Article 11 A border watch tower to control that "Any person born of a Haitian father or Haitian mother who illegal immigration from Haiti, are themselves native-born Haitians and have never located in the Cordillera renounced their nationality possesses Haitian nationality at the Central of the Dominican time of birth.") [95] because of a lack of proper documents or Republic witnesses. Therefore, children of illegal Haitian immigrants in the Dominican Republic are neither Haitian nor Dominican citizens. [94][96][97][98][99] A large number of Haitian women, often arriving with several health problems, cross the border to Dominican soil during their last weeks of pregnancy to obtain much-needed medical attention for childbirth, since Dominican public hospitals do not refuse medical services based on nationality or legal status. Statistics from a hospital in Santo Domingo report that over 22% of childbirths are by Haitian mothers. [100] In 2005 Dominican President Leonel Fernández criticized collective expulsions of Haitians as having taken place "in an abusive and inhuman way." [101] After a UN delegation issued a preliminary report stating that it found a profound problem of racism and discrimination against

211 people of Haitian origins, Dominican Foreign Minister Carlos Morales Troncoso issued a formal statement denouncing it and asserting that "Our border with Haiti has its problems, this is our reality and it must be understood. It is important not to confuse national sovereignty with indifference, and not to confuse security with xenophobia..." [102] Emigration Main article: Dominican American Main article: Dominican immigration to Puerto Rico The Dominican Republic has experienced three distinct waves of emigration in the second half of the twentieth century. The first period began in 1961, when a coalition of high-ranking Dominicans, with assistance from the CIA, assassinated General Rafael Trujillo, the nation's military dictator. [103] In the wake of his death, fear of retaliation by Trujillo's allies, and political uncertainty in general, spurred migration from the island. In 1965, the United States began a military occupation of the Dominican Republic and eased travel restrictions, making it easier for Dominicans to obtain American visas. [104] From 1966 to 1978, the exodus continued, fueled by high unemployment and political repression. Communities established by the first wave of immigrants to the U.S. created a network that assisted subsequent arrivals. In the early 1980s, underemployment, inflation, and the rise in value of the dollar all contributed to a third wave of emigration from the island nation. Today, emigration from the Dominican Republic remains high, facilitated by the social networks of now-established Dominican communities in the United States. [105] Culture Carnaval of La Vega, one of the most famous carnivals in the country. Main article: Culture of the Dominican Republic Main article: Dominican Spanish The culture of the Dominican Republic, like its Caribbean neighbors, is a blend of the cultures of the European colonists, African slaves, and Taíno natives. Spanish, also known as Castellano (Castilian) is the official language. Other languages, among them English, French, German, Italian, and Chinese are also spoken to varying degrees. European, African and Taíno cultural elements are most prominent in food, family structure, religion and music. Many Arawak/Taíno names and words are used in daily conversation and for many foods native to the DR. [1] Cuisine Main article: Cuisine of the Dominican Republic Dominican cuisine is predominantly made up of a combination of Spanish and African influences over the last few centuries. The typical cuisine is quite similar to what can be found in other Latin American countries, but many of the names of dishes are different. One breakfast dish consists of eggs and mangú (mashed, boiled plantain), a dish that the Dominican Republic shares with Cuba and Puerto Rico. For heartier versions, these are accompanied by deep-fried meat (typically Dominican salami) and/or cheese. Similarly to Spain, lunch is generally the largest and most

212 important meal of the day. Lunch usually consists of rice, some type of meat (chicken, beef, pork, or fish), beans, plantains, and a side portion of salad. "La Bandera" (literally, The Flag), the most popular lunch dish, consists of meat and red beans on white rice. There is a famous soup Sancocho a typical national soup made with seven kind of variety of meats. Dominican cuisine usually accommodates all the food groups, incorporating meat or seafood; rice, potatoes, or plantains; and is accompanied by some other type of vegetable or salad. However, meals usually heavily favor starches and meats over dairy products and vegetables. Many dishes are made with sofrito, which is a mix of local herbs and spices sautéed to bring out all of the dish's flavors. Throughout the south-central coast, bulgur, or whole wheat, is a main ingredient in quipes or tipili (bulgur salad). Other favorite Dominican dishes include chicharrón, yuca, casabe, and pastelitos (empanadas), batata, pasteles en hoja, (ground-roots pockets) [106] chimichurris, plátanos maduros (ripe plantain), and tostones. Some treats Dominicans enjoy are arroz con dulce (or arroz con leche), bizcocho dominicano (lit. Dominican cake), habichuelas con dulce (sweet creamed beans), flan, frío frío (snow cones), dulce de leche, and caña (sugarcane). The beverages Dominicans enjoy include Morir Soñando, rum, beer, Mama Juana, batida (smoothie), jugos naturales (freshly squeezed fruit juices), mabí, and coffee. [107] Music Main article: Music of the Dominican Republic Musically, the Dominican Republic is known for the creation of the musical style called merengue, [108] a type of lively, fast-paced rhythm and dance music consisting of a tempo of about 120 to 160 beats per minute (it varies wildly) based on musical elements like drums, brass, and chorded instruments, as well as some elements unique to the music style of the DR. It includes the use of the tambora (Dominican drum), accordion, and güira. Its syncopated beats use Latin percussion, brass instruments, bass, and piano or keyboard. Between 1937 and 1950 the merengue music was promoted internationally, by some Dominicans groups like, Billo s Caracas Boys, Chapuseaux and Damiron Los Reyes del Merengue, Joseito Mateo and others. Later on it was more popularized via television, radio and international media, well-known merengue singers include singer/songwriter Juan Luis Guerra, Fernando Villalona, Eddy Herrera, Sergio Vargas, Toño Rosario, Johnny Ventura, and Milly Quezada and Chichi Peralta. Merengue became popular in the United States, mostly on the East Coast, during the 1980s and 90s, [109] when many Dominican artists, among them Victor Roque y La Gran Manzana, Henry Hierro, Zacarias Ferraira, Aventura, Milly, and Jocelyn Y Los Vecinos, residing in the U.S. (particularly New York) started performing in the Latin club scene and gained radio airplay. The emergence of bachata, along with an increase in the number of Dominicans living among other Latino groups in New York, New Jersey, and Florida have contributed to Dominican music's overall growth in popularity. [110] Dominican singer Juan Luis Guerra in concert, Bachata, a form of music and dance that originated in the countryside and rural marginal neighborhoods of the Dominican Republic, has become quite popular in recent years. Its subjects are often romantic; especially prevalent are tales of heartbreak and sadness. In fact, the original name for the genre was amargue ("bitterness," or "bitter music", or blues music), until the rather ambiguous (and mood-neutral) term bachata became popular. Bachata grew out of, and is still closely related to, the pan-latin American romantic style called bolero. Over time, it has been influenced by merengue and by a variety of Latin American guitar styles.

213 Particularly among the young, a genre that has been growing in popularity in recent years in the Dominican Republic is Dominican rap. Also known as Rap del Patio ("yard rap") it is rap music created by Dominican crews and solo artists. Originating in the early 2000s with crews such as Charles Family, successful rappers such as Lapiz Conciente, Vakero, Toxic Crow, and R-1 emerged. The youth have embraced the music, sometimes over merengue, merengue típico, bachata, as well as salsa, and, most recently, reggaeton. It must be noted that Dominican rap differs from reggaeton in the fact that Dominican rap does not use the traditional Dem Bow rhythm frequently used in reggaeton, instead using more hip hop-influenced beats. As well, Dominican rap focuses on urban themes such as money, women, and poverty, similarly to [citation needed] American rap. Sports Main article: Sports in the Dominican Republic Dominican native and Major League Baseball player David Ortiz (facing front) Baseball is by far the most popular sport in the Dominican Republic. [111] After the United States, the Dominican Republic has the second-highest number of Major League Baseball (MLB) players. Some of these players have been regarded among the best in the game. Historically, the Dominican Republic has been linked to MLB since Ozzie Virgil, Sr. became the first Dominican to play in the league. Among the outstanding MLB players born in the Dominican are: Manny Ramirez, David Ortiz, Vladimir Guerrero, Pedro Martinez, Albert Pujols, José Reyes, Hanley Ramirez, Miguel Tejada, Juan Marichal, Rafael Furcal and Sammy Sosa. Olympic gold medalist and world champion over 400 m hurdles Félix Sánchez hails from the Dominican Republic, as does current defensive end for the San Diego Chargers (National Football League [NFL]), Luis Castillo. Castillo was the cover athlete for the Spanish language version of Madden NFL 08. [112] The National Basketball Association (NBA) also has had players from the Dominican Republic, like Charlie Villanueva, Al Horford and Francisco Garcia. Boxing is one of the more important sports after baseball, and the country has produced scores of world-class fighters and world champions. Holidays Date Name January 1 New Year's Day Non-working day. January 6 Catholic day of the Epiphany Movable. January 21 Dia de la Altagracia Non-working day. Patroness Day (Catholic). January 26 Duarte's Day Movable. Founding Father. February 27 Independence Day Non-working day. National Day. (Variable date) Holy Week May 1 Labour Day Movable. Working days, except Good Friday. A Catholic holiday.

214 Last Sunday of May Mother's Day (Variable date) Catholic Corpus Christi August 16 Restoration Day Non-working day. Non-working day. A Thursday in May or June (60 days after Easter Sunday). September 24 Virgen de las Mercedes Non-working day. A Patroness Day (Catholic) November 6 Constitution Day Movable. December 25 Christmas Day Non-working day. Birth of Jesus Christ Notes: Non-working holidays are not moved to another day. If a movable holiday falls on Saturday, Sunday or Monday then it is not moved to another day. If it falls on Tuesday or Wednesday, the holiday is moved to the previous Monday. If it falls on Thursday or Friday, the holiday is moved to the next Monday. Military Main article: Military of the Dominican Republic Congress authorizes a combined military force of 44,000 active duty personnel. Actual active duty strength is approximately 32,000. However, approximately 50% of those are used for non-military activities such as security providers for government-owned non-military facilities, highway toll stations, prisons, forestry work, state enterprises, and private businesses. The Commander in Chief of the military is the President. The principal missions are to defend the nation and protect the territorial integrity of the country. The army, larger than the other services combined with approximately 20,000 active duty personnel, consists of six infantry brigades, a combat support brigade, and a combat service support brigade. The air force operates two main bases, one in the southern region near Santo Domingo and one in the northern region near Puerto Plata. The navy operates two major naval bases, one in Santo Domingo and one in Las Calderas on the southwestern coast, and maintains 12 operational vessels. In the Caribbean, only Cuba has a larger military force. [8] The armed forces have organized a Specialized Airport Security Corps (CESA) and a Specialized Port Security Corps (CESEP) to meet international security needs in these areas. The Secretary of the Armed Forces has also announced plans to form a specialized border corps (CESEF). Additionally, the armed forces provide 75% of personnel to the National Investigations Directorate (DNI) and the Counter-Drug Directorate (DNCD). [8] The Dominican National Police force contains 32,000 agents. The police are not part of the Dominican armed forces, but share some overlapping security functions. Sixty-three percent of the force serve in areas outside traditional police functions, similar to the situation of their military counterparts. [8] Services and transportation Main article: Transportation in the Dominican Republic See also: List of airports in the Dominican Republic The Santo Domingo Metro is the first mass transit system in the country, and second in the Caribbean & Central American nations after the Tren Urbano in San Juan, Puerto Rico. On Feb 27th 2008 the incumbent president Leonel Fernandez test rode the system for the first time and

215 free service was offered thereafter several times. Commercial service started on January 30, Several additional lines are currently being planned. Boeing at Cibao International Airport in Santiago, DR The Santiago light rail system is a planned light rail system in the Dominican Republic's second largest city, still in developing stages it was said to start on mid 2008 but right now is currently on hold due to lack of approval and of central government funds. There are two transportation services in the Dominican Republic: one controlled by the government, through the Oficina Técnica de Transito Terrestre (O.T.T.T.) and the Oficina Metropolitana de Servicios de Autobuses (OMSA); and the other controlled by private business, among them, Federación Nacional de Transporte La Nueva Opción (FENATRANO) and the Confederacion Nacional de Transporte (CONATRA). The government transportation system covers large routes in metropolitan areas, such as Santo Domingo and Santiago, for very inexpensive prices. In June 2009, the price was DOP$15.00 (US$0.45), and air-conditioned bus rides were priced at DOP$15 (US$0.45). It should be noted that most OMSA buses are currently in very poor condition, and OMSA has been criticized for its inability to fully meet the people's needs. [113] FENATRANO and CONATRA offer their services with voladoras (vans) or conchos (cars), which have routes in most parts of the cities. These cars have roofs painted in yellow or green in order to identify them. The cars have scheduled days to work, depending on the color of the roof, and have been described as unsafe. The cars normally hold 6 passengers and the driver: 4 in the back and 2 in the front. There are also buses that run along major streets with callers cobradors that yell out where the bus is headed. It is truly an adventure to ride and generally fairly safe in terms of pickpocketing, if not accidents. [114] Communications Main article: Communications in the Dominican Republic The Dominican Republic's commercial radio stations and television stations are in the process of transferring to the digital spectrum via HD Radio and HDTV. The reported speeds are from 256 kbit/s / 128 kbit/s for residential services, up to 5 Mbit/s / 1 Mbit/s for residential service. For commercial service there are speeds from 256 kbit/s up to 154 Mbit/s. (Each set of numbers denotes downstream/upstream speed; i.e. to the user/from the user.) The Dominican Republic has a well developed telecommunications infrastructure, with extensive mobile phone services and landline services. The telecommunications regulator in the country is INDOTEL, Instituto Dominicano de Telecomunicaciones. The Dominican Republic offers cable Internet and DSL in most parts of the country, and many Internet service providers offer 3G wireless internet service. Projects to extend Wi-Fi hot spots have been made in Santo Domingo. On the most recent update in regards to phone subscribers (lines) in the country since 2000, when there were 1.6 million phone lines subscribers (mix land + cell users); Indotel reports that as of June , there are more than 8 million phone subscribers (lines) in the DR. That represents 80.6% out of the total population of the country. The communication sector generates about 3.0 % of the GDP (PIB). [115] On the cell phone services Indotel reports 6,807,831 prepaid cell user accounts. For post pay (under contract users) it reports 994,027 user accounts. For fixed phone lines (non-cell) it reports 678,901 dedicated lines in use for residential services. For business lines it reports 266,341. For

216 public phones/services it reports 13,639. As of the second quarter of 2008, there are no more analog lines in the trunk services by local providers. Indotel reports 2,439,997 Internet users in the country for the end of March [116] On February 1, 2007, Verizon changed the names of its wireless services to Claro and CODETEL. The company has been owned since 2006 by Carlos Slim Helú's América Móvil. Claro is now the official name of the Wireless Division, and CODETEL (the original Compañia Dominicana de Teléfonos) is the updated name for the Verizon Dominicana landline and broadband provider. Highways Main article: Highways and Routes in the Dominican Republic The Dominican Republic has five major highways, which take travelers to every important town in the country. The three major highways are Autopista Duarte, Autopista del Este, and Autopista del Sur, which go to the north, east, and western side of the country. A new, 106 kilometer toll road that connects Santo Domingo with the country s northeastern peninsula is now operating. Travelers may now arrive in the Samana Peninsula in less than two hours. Most routes interconnecting small towns in the country are unpaved, but are improving. Ports The Port of Santo Domingo, with its location in the Caribbean, is well suited for flexible itinerary planning and has excellent support, road, and airport infrastructure within the Santo Domingo region, which facilitate access and transfers. The port is suitable for both turnaround and transit calls. Haina Occidental Port, located just 20 km west of Santo Domingo, is one of the most important port in the Dominican Republic. About 70% of all cargo, excluding Caucedo and free zone exports/imports, is moved through this port. DP World s terminal Multimodal Caucedo Port maritime terminal and logistic center operates under the Free Zone Regime. Actually 85% of Free Zone exports to United States is shipped from Caucedo terminal. Multimodal Caucedo port is also able to act as a trans-shipment hub to the Caribbean and Latin America for Asia specifically Japan as a door to the American market. Port of Puerto Plata is the main commercial port on the north coast of the Dominican Republic. Port of Boca Chica is located about 20 miles east of the capital city and 5 miles of the International airport Las Americas. Currently the port is almost exclusively used for containers and some lumber, newsprint and homogeneous cargoes. Port of San Pedro de Macoris is located on the Higuamo river. This port is mainly used to discharge bulk fertilizer. Cement clinker, coal, wheat, diesel and LPG. It is also used to export sugar and molasses produced by several sugar cane mills in the region. Central Romana Port, located in La Romana, belong to Central Romana Corporation which is a private company established in 1911 and has the largest sugar mill I the country. The following six local ports are a single pier with berth facility: Cayo Levantado Port or (Arroyo Barruk/Puerto Duarte) is located in the Samana Bay. Manzanillo Port is located very close to the Haitian border. Port of Cabo Rojo is located in Cabo Rojo, southeast to the border. Port of Barahona is located in Barahona, in the bay of Neyba. Port of Azua in Azua, also called Puerto Viejo is located at Ocoa Bay. Palenque Port is located southwest of Santo Domingo. [117]

217 Electricity Electrical services have been a headache for the population, as well as the business and other areas for more than 40 years. The actual electrical system in place of the DR is centered around 75% on the same infrastructure left behind from the Trujillo Era. Even relatively newer hydro electrical plants, were partially planned or initiated during the last years of the regime. [118] The problem with the on/off poor service in the country lies within an old power grid. This is a problem that continues to create a heavy toll in loss in transmission, when compared to younger electrical grids elsewhere in the region. While the privatization of the industry sector started years ago, under a previous administration of Leonel Fernandez. [119] The only parts of the sector allowed enjoying heavy investments and upgrades, centered in power generators and main distribution hubs; this left the actual national grid in service, ripe for even faster decay due to natural elements and age/unfitness to meet rising demand. Loss in transmission accounts for a large share of billed electricity from generators. The recent investment on a "Santo Domingo-Santiago Electrical Highway" to carry 345 KV of power, with reduced losses in transmission; it s being heralded as a major capital improvement to the national grid since the mid 1960's. [120] The electrical service problem in the DR is a historic issue. During the Trujillo regime, electrical service was introduced to much of the cities in the country; still almost 95% of usage was not billed at all. Under the regime doctrine, wiring the national territory took precedence over who was to pay for the services. Rather than based on a sound economic strategy of service/demand/profit, the grid was extended well before a real billing/revenue collection capacity was introduced effectively. [121] Removed the dictatorship, the service was inherited "As Is" by each later administration; each one which faced the same limits of the public coffers to deal with any considerable success in the issue. Theft of service, along with loss in transmission account for the biggest piece of the general subsidy applied to the sector. Being the DR's government the biggest client for services, makes it even the more sense to avoid being the collected from party. The government sets the electrical rates and operates as the principal bill collector. This allows the gov to bypass the strict deadlines in 30 days net cycles, which private and commercial clients must meet in accordance. The government uses the VAT applied to fuel imports/pos per gallon sold in the country, to pay much of the piling debt to the generators in that sector. That's with the added interests for past dues it keeps, for each unpaid cycle it misses on average of over 6 to 8 cycles. The Minister of the Economy, Temístocles Montas also noted that around half of Dominican Republic s 2.1 million houses have no meters and so don t pay the service. [122] At the close of 2006, the government had exceeded its budget for electricity subsidies, spending close to U.S. $650 million. [123] Household and general electrical service is delivered at 110 volts alternating at 60 Hz; electrically powered items from the United States work with no modifications. The majority of the country has access to electricity. Still, in 2007 some areas have outages lasting as long as 20 hours a day. Tourist areas tend to have more reliable power, as do business, travel, healthcare, and vital infrastructure. The situation improved in 2006, with 200 circuits (40% of the total) providing permanent electricity, as 85% of electric demand overall was met and blackouts were reduced from 6.3 hours per day to 3.7. [124] Concentrated efforts were announced to increase efficiency of delivery to places where the collection rate reached 70%. [125] The electricity sector is highly politicized. Debts, including government debt, amount to more than U.S. $500 million. Some

218 generating companies are undercapitalized and at times unable to purchase adequate fuel supplies. [8] See also Dominican Republic portal Geography portal Main article: Outline of the Dominican Republic Index of Dominican Republic-related articles References 1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v "CIA - The World Factbook -- Dominican Republic". Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Retrieved ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Embassy of the Dominican Republic, in the United States". Retrieved ^ Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009) (.PDF). World Population Prospects, Table A revision. United Nations. Retrieved ^ a b c d "Dominican Republic". International Monetary Fund. 09&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=243&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPP PGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=89&pr.y=1. Retrieved ^ a b "Estimaciones y Proyecciones de la Población Dominicana por Regiones, Provincias, Municipios y Distritos Municipales, 2008". estimaciones_y_proyecciones/estimacionesyproyeccione s2008.zip. Retrieved Context: Estimaciones; Población en Tiempo Real 6. ^ "Colonial City of Santo Domingo". Retrieved ^ a b "CIA - The World Factbook -- Rank Order - GDP (purchasing power parity)". Retrieved ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Dominican Republic (12/08)". United States Department of State. Retrieved ^ a b c "Consulate-General of the Dominican Republic Bangkok Thailand". Retrieved ^ a b Pina, Diógenes. "DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Deport Thy (Darker-Skinned) Neighbour". Inter Press Service (IPS). Retrieved ^ "United States - Selected Population Profile in the United States (Dominican (Dominican Republic))" American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau. reg=acs_2007_1yr_g00_s0201:405;acs_2007_1yr_g00_s0201pr:405;acs_2007 _1YR_G00_S0201T:405;ACS_2007_1YR_G00_S0201TPR:405&- qr_name=acs_2007_1yr_g00_s0201&-qr_name=acs_2007_1yr_g00_s0201pr&- qr_name=acs_2007_1yr_g00_s0201t&- qr_name=acs_2007_1yr_g00_s0201tpr&-ds_name=acs_2007_1yr_g00_&- TABLE_NAMEX=&-ci_type=A&-redoLog=false&-geo_id=01000US&-geo_id=NBSP&- format=&-_lang=en. Retrieved ^ a b c d "ADN Mitocondrial Taino en la República Dominicana". Retrieved

219 13. ^ "Taino Name for the Islands". Retrieved ^ a b c d e f g "Dominican Republic". Encarta Encyclopedia. Microsoft Corporation. Retrieved ^ "1492 and Multiculturalism". by Robert Royal in "The Intercollegiate Review" (Spring 1992, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 3-10) 16. ^ a b Rawley, James A.; Behrendt, Stephen D. (2005). The Transatlantic Slave Trade: A History. University of Nebraska gnmuinhuipress. pp. 49. ISBN ntation+hispaniola&source=web&ots=t7kre0jwdt&sig=x2rrigi4nqdc6djf5uwfpuznpl 0&output=html. 17. ^ Keegan, William. "Death Toll". Millersville University, from Archaeology (January/February 1992, p. 55). Retrieved ^ "Dominican Students At Yale - Home". Yale University; Dominican Student Association. Retrieved ^ "History of Smallpox - Smallpox Through the Ages". Texas Department of State Health Services. 20. ^ Jorge Barcutei Estevez. "A Chronology of Taino Cultural and Biological Survival". Caribbean Amerindian Centrelink. Retrieved ^ "Taino Caves, the Photo Essay, by Lynne Guitar". Retrieved ^ "The Story Of... Smallpox and other Deadly Eurasian Germs". Retrieved ^ a b c d Guitar, Lynne (2002). "Documenting the Myth of Taíno Extinction". KACIKE: The Journal of Caribbean Amerindian History and Anthropology [On-line Journal], Special Issue, Lynne Guitar, Ed.. Retrieved ^ Martínez Cruzado, Juan C. (2002). "The Use of Mitochondrial DNA to Discover Pre- Columbian Migrations to the Caribbean: Results for Puerto Rico and Expectations for the Dominican Republic". KACIKE: The Journal of Caribbean Amerindian History and Anthropology [On-line Journal], Special Issue, Lynne Guitar, Ed. Retrieved ^ Zinn, Howard (2003). A People's History of the United States Present. HarperCollins. pp. 7. ISBN ^ "Dominican Republic - THE FIRST COLONY". Country Studies. Library of Congress; Federal Research Division. Retrieved ^ "Dominican Republic - HAITI AND SANTO DOMINGO". Country Studies. Library of Congress; Federal Research Division. Retrieved ^ "Dominican Republic". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.. Retrieved ^ a b c d Guitar, Lynne. "History of the Dominican Republic". Hola.com. Retrieved ^ a b c Matibag, Eugenio (2003). Haitian-Dominican Counterpoint: Nation, State, and Race on Hispaniola. Macmillan. ISBN ^ p Frank Moya Pons (in ENGLISH). The Dominican Republic: A National History (August 1, 1998 ed.). Markus Wiener Publishers; 2nd edition. pp ISBN ^ Barros, Ramón. "juan pablo duarte" (in Spanish). Historia Patria Dominicana. Retrieved

220 33. ^ a b c d Sagas, Ernesto (October 14-15, 1994). "An Apparent Contradiction? - Popular Perceptions of Haiti and the Foreign Policy of the Dominican Republic". Sixth Annual Conference of the Haitian Studies Association, Boston, MA. Webster University. Retrieved ^ a b "Ulysses S. Grant". American Experience. Public Broadcasting Service Retrieved ^ "U.S. Senate: Art & History Home > Origins & Development > Powers & Procedures > Treaties". United States Senate. Retrieved ^ Atkins, G. Pope; Larman Curtis Wilson (1998). The Dominican Republic and the United States: From Imperialism to Transnationalism. University of Georgia Press. pp. 27. ISBN , YC&pg=PA27&lpg=PA26&dq=%22The+Dominican+Republic+and+the+United+States% 22+annexation+1870&output=html. 37. ^ ^ a b c "Dominican Republic - ULISES HEUREAUX, ". Library of Congress; Federal Research Division. Retrieved ^ Langley, Lester D.. The Banana Wars. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 20. ISBN eureaux+dominican&source=web&ots=5sscqiour8&sig=vskiqvrbm5lozmdvvog8xw_9rs&output=html. 40. ^ Hall, Michael R. (2000). Sugar and Power in the Dominican Republic. Greenwood Press. pp. 10. ISBN ^ a b "Dominican Republic - RENEWED CONFLICT, ". Country Studies. Library of Congress; Federal Research Division. Retrieved ^ a b c d e "Dominican Republic: Occupation by the United States, ". Country Studies. Library of Congress; Federal Research Division. Retrieved ^ a b c d "Dominican Republic The era of Trujillo". Country Studies. Library of Congress; Federal Research Division ^ a b "Rafael Trujillo: Killer File". Moreorless.com. Retrieved ^ a b c d Wucker, Michele. "Why the Cocks Fight: Dominicans, Haitians and the Struggle for Hispaniola". Windows on Haiti. Retrieved ^ "#219: Temwayaj Kout Kouto, 1937: Eyewitnesses to the Genocide (fwd)". Retrieved ^ "Trying to Topple Trujillo - TIME". Time Magazine Retrieved ^ The Dominican Republic and the United States: from imperialism to transnationalism, By G. Pope Atkins, Larman Curtis Wilson, Contributor Larman Curtis Wilson, Published by University of Georgia Press, 1998ISBN , ^ "Dominican Revolution, Cuba - Events of Year in Review - UPI.com". Cuba/ /. Retrieved ^ "Dominican Republic - Civil War and United States Intervention, 1965". Library of Congress ^ "Article about a Foundation Event" ^ "Crisis in Dominican Republic".

221 53. ^ Brown, Tom ( ). "Election propels Dominican president to third term". The Washington Post. Retrieved ^ "Geography of the Dominican Republic". Retrieved ^ Pina, Diógenes ( ). "Hell in 'God's Paradise'". Inter Press Service News Agency. Retrieved ^ Robles, Francis ( ). "Pollution sickens children in Dominican Republic". The Miami Herald. Retrieved ^ "Ejército Nacional de la República Dominicana - Bandera Nacional" (in Spanish). National Army of the Dominican Republic Retrieved ^ "Central Bank of Dominican Republic". Retrieved ^ Pérez, Faustino. "El jardín Botánico Nacional :: Salud :: DiarioDigitalRD.com - Noticias Republica Dominicana" (in Spanish). DiarioDigitalRD.com. Retrieved ^ "Data - Country Groups". World Bank ~pagePK: ~piPK: ~theSitePK:239419,00.html#Lower_middle_inco me. Retrieved ^ "Dominican Economy grows 9.1% slightly less than before". Diariolibre Retrieved ^ "Dominican real estate tourism boom: US$1.5 billion in 2007, US$3.0 billion in 3 years". Dominican Today Retrieved ^ "Fernández Zucco anuncia celebración Semana Internacional de la Energía" (in Spanish). Retrieved ^ a b "Currency Converter - Yahoo! Finance; peso to dollar". Retrieved And peso to yen, peso to euro. 65. ^ "World Travel & Tourism Council - Dominican Republic". World Travel and Tourism Council. y_reports/dominican_republic/. Retrieved ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2006 Revision, Highlights, Working Paper No. ESA/P/WP.202." (PDF). United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division Retrieved ^ Dominican Republic - Population Encyclopedia of the Nations 68. ^ a b Soong, Roland (August 1999). "Racial Classifications in Latin America". Zona Latina. Retrieved ^ Guitar, Lynne (March 2000). "Criollos: The Birth of a Dynamic New Indo - Afro - European People and Culture on Hispaniola.". KACIKE: Journal of Caribbean Amerindian History and Anthropology. Retrieved ^ McLaughlin, John J. (September 2006). "The shadow of Trujillo.". VIEWPOINT - racism fuels political violence in Dominican Republic. National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved

222 71. ^ Torres-Saillant, Silvio (May 1998). "The Tribulations of Blackness: Stages in Dominican Racial Identity". Latin American Perspectives, Issue 100. CUNY Dominican Studies Institute. Retrieved ^ Salaam (2000). "There's No Racism Here? - A Black Woman in the Dominican Republic". Eyeball Literary Magazine. ChickenBones: A Journal. Retrieved ^ Zahka, Jeffrey ( ). "Anti-Haitian Bias Rooted in Dominican History". Worldpress.org. Retrieved ^ a b Robles, Frances ( ). "Black Denial". A Rising Voice: Afro-Latin Americans. The Miami Herald. Retrieved ^ a b c "Religious Freedom Page". Retrieved ^ "Country Profiles > Dominican Republic" ^ Haggerty, Richard (1989). "Dominican Republic - Religion". Dominican Republic: A Country Study. U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved ^ "Dominican Republic -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia" ^ "Dominican Republic". United States Department of State. Retrieved ^ "The President s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief" (PDF). OFFICE OF THE U.S. GLOBAL AIDS COORDINATOR. April 2005 Newsletter ^ Contributor Information to the William J. Clinton Foundation 82. ^ ^ Why Harlem Drug Cops Don't Discuss Race; RaceMatters.org (2001) 84. ^ Ribando, Claire ( ). "Dominican Republic: Political and Economic Conditions and Relations with the United States." (PDF). CRS Report for Congress. Retrieved ^ O'Connell Davidson, Julia (December 1995). "Child Prostitution and Sex Tourism - Dominican Republic" (PDF). ECPAT. ism_dom_rebublic.pdf. Retrieved ^ "The Chinese Community and Santo Domingo's Barrio Chino". Retrieved ^ "CCNY Jewish Studies Class to Visit Dominican Village that Provided Refuge to European Jews During World War II". City College of New York. Retrieved ^ a b c "Joshua Project People-in-Country Profile". Retrieved ^ "American Citizens Living Abroad by Country" (PDF). Retrieved ^ "* INFORM *; Giovani italiani nel Centro America e Caraibi". Retrieved ^ "BBC NEWS". Retrieved ^ "CIA - The World Factbook Haiti". Retrieved

223 93. ^ "Illegal people". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved ^ a b Ferguson, James. "Migration in the Caribbean: Haiti, the Dominican Republic and Beyond" (PDF). Minority Rights Group International. Retrieved ^ "Political Database of the Americas. Constitutions: Republic of Haiti". Retrieved ^ "Dominican Republic, Haiti, and the United States: Protect Rights, Reduce Statelessness". Refugees International. [dead link] ^ Grossman, Andrew ( ). "Birthright citizenship as nationality of convenience". Proceedings of the Third Conference on Nationality. Council of Europe. Retrieved ^ "Dominican Republic, Haiti, and the United States: Protect rights, reduce statelessness". Reuters Retrieved ^ Garcia, Michelle (2006). "No Papers, No Rights". Amnesty International. 2&n2=19&n3=358. Retrieved ^ Pantaleón, Doris ( ). "La República - El 22% de los nacimientos son de madres haitianas" (in Spanish). Editora Listín Diario. Retrieved ^ "Dominican Republic: A Life in Transit". Amnesty International Retrieved ^ Pina, Diógenes. "DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Gov t Turns Deaf Ear to UN Experts on Racism". Inter Press Service (IPS). Retrieved ^ "Justice Department Memo, 1975" (PDF). National Security Archive ^ International Migration in the Dominican Republic; Thomas K. Morrison, Richard Sinkin; International Migration Review, Vol. 16, No. 4, Special Issue: International Migration and Development (Winter, 1982), pp ; doi: / ^ Migration Trends in Six Latin American Countries 106. ^ "Pasteles en hoja (Ground-roots pockets) - Dominican Cooking". Retrieved ^ "Dominican Republic Cuisine by Hispaniola.com" ^ Harvey, Sean (January 2006). The Rough Guide to The Dominican Republic. Rough Guides. pp ISBN ^ The Rough Guide to The Dominican Republic. Rough Guides. January pp ISBN ^ The Rough Guide to The Dominican Republic. Rough Guides. January pp ISBN ^ Harvey, Sean (January 2006). The Rough Guide to The Dominican Republic. Rough Guides. pp. 59. ISBN ^ Shanahan, Tom ( ). "San Diego Hall of Champions - Sports at Lunch, Luis Castillo and Felix Sanchez". San Diego Hall of Champions. Retrieved ^ Campos, Niza ( ). "Millonarias inversiones para un precario servicio" (in Spanish). Diario Libre. Retrieved

224 114. ^ "Guaguas, publicos and motoconchos - getting around the Dominican Republic". Retrieved ^ "Listin Diario". La República. Retrieved ^ "Indicadores Telefonicos 2009". Indotel. 57/. Retrieved ^ ^ "Conf Dictada Sobre Energia RD". CDEEE Rep Dom. DCvErC5x4J: c_download%26gid%3d81+trujillo+creo+la+electricidad+en+republica+dominicana&cd=2 &hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us. Retrieved ^ "Council On Hemispheric Affairs COHA". Leonel Fernandez. Retrieved ^ "Dominican Republic Economy". Dominican Today. Retrieved ^ "Conferencia Dictada Sobre Energia en La Rep Dom Ing. Radhames Segura VP of CDEEE PDF Doc". CDEEE Rep Dom. DCvErC5x4J: c_download%26gid%3d81+trujillo+creo+la+electricidad+en+republica+dominicana&cd=2 &hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us. Retrieved ^ "Dominican Republic Economy". Dominican Today. Retrieved ^ "Dominican Republic Economy". Travel Document Systems. Retrieved ^ "Informe dice mejoró en 2006 la oferta energética" (in Spanish). Diario Libre (Grupo Omnimedia) Retrieved ^ "Los apagones toman fuerza en circuitos de barrios PRA" (in Spanish). listindiario.com (Editora Listin Diario) Retrieved External links Find more about Dominican Republic on Wikipedia's sister projects: 8Learning resources from Wikiversity Government Presidency of the Dominican Republic (Spanish) Chief of State and Cabinet Members World Bank Dominican Republic General information Dominican Republic entry at The World Factbook Dominican Republic at UCB Libraries GovPubs Dominican Republic at the Open Directory Project Wikimedia Atlas of the Dominican Republic Travel Dominican Republic Cruising Guide Official Website of the Ministry of Tourism of the Dominican Republic Dominican Republic travel guide from Wikitravel

225 Dominican Republic guide (Spanish) Dominican Republic Pilot's Guide (English) Dominican Republic Weather Compilation (Spanish) Social Development Official Website of the IDDI, Instituto Dominicano de Desarrollo Integral Provinces of the Dominican Republic Azua Baoruco Barahona Dajabón Distrito Nacional Duarte Elías Piña El Seibo Espaillat Hato Mayor Hermanas Mirabal Independencia La Altagracia La Romana La Vega María Trinidad Sánchez Monseñor Nouel Monte Cristi Monte Plata Pedernales Peravia Puerto Plata Samaná Sánchez Ramírez San Cristóbal San José de Ocoa San Juan San Pedro de Macorís Santiago de los Caballeros Santiago Rodríguez Santo Domingo Valverde

226 Santo Domingo Santo Domingo, is the capital and largest city in the Dominican Republic. Its metropolitan population was 2,084,852 in 2003, estimated at 2,253,437 in The city is located on the Caribbean Sea, at the mouth of the Ozama River. Founded by Bartholomew Columbus in 1496, it is the oldest continuously inhabited European settlement in the Americas, and was the first seat of Spanish colonial rule in the New World. Santo Domingo came to be known as the "Gateway to the Caribbean". In 1930, the city of Santo Domingo (excluding the Colonial Zone) was extensively damaged by tropical hurricane San Zenón. President Rafael Trujillo reconstructed the city and named it Ciudad Trujillo after himself. After his assassination in 1961, Ciudad Trujillo once again became Santo Domingo de Guzmán. Santo Domingo is within the boundaries of the Distrito Nacional (D.N.; "National District") and Santo Domingo Province surrounds it. Santo Domingo Santo Domingo de Guzmán Clockwise from the upper left: the skyline of Santo Domingo; Fortaleza Ozama; Malecon Center; the Dominican Supreme Court of Justice; Citibank Tower and the Acropolis Center; Anacaona Avenue; the Cathedral of Santa María la Menor; and the National Palace. Flag Coat of arms Coordinates: N W18.5 N WCoordinates: N W18.5 N W Province Distrito Nacional (National District) Founded 5 August 1496 Please note: When this article refers to Santo Domingo it is most likely Government - Mayor Roberto Salcedo referring to the Greater Santo Domingo Area (D.N plus Santo Domingo Province) to avoid

227 confusion of the terms. In some cases it may state "D.N.", which strictly refers to the city proper, i.e., excluding the surrounding province of Santo Domingo. Area - City km 2 (40.3 sq mi) Population (2006) - City 2,253,437 - Density 21,576.4/km 2 (55,882.6/sq mi) Before the arrival of - Estimate (2008) 2,987,013 Christopher Columbus in - Metro 3,600, , the Taíno people Website populated the island they called Quisqueya (mother of all lands) and Ayiti (land of high mountains), which Columbus named Hispaniola. It includes the part now occupied by the Republic of Haiti. At the time, the island's territory consisted of five chiefdoms: Marién, Maguá, Maguana, Jaragua, and Higüey. These were ruled respectively by caciques (chiefs) Guacanagarix, Guarionex, Caonabo, Bohechío, and Cayacoa. Contents [hide] 1 History 2 Geography o 2.1 Climate 3 Economic development 4 Government and politics 5 Landmarks o 5.1 Museums o 5.2 Parks and recreational areas o 5.3 Malls & Plazas 6 Transportation o 6.1 Informal o 6.2 Highways o 6.3 Rail o 6.4 Airports o 6.5 Ports 7 Communication o 7.1 Television o 7.2 Radio o 7.3 Telephone services o 7.4 Internet 8 Education 9 Photo gallery 10 Sister cities 11 Notable residents 12 See also 13 References Dating to 1496, when the Spanish settled there, and officially to 5 August 1498, Santo Domingo is the oldest European city in America. Bartholomew Columbus founded the settlement and named it La Isabela, after the Queen of Spain Isabella I. It was later renamed "Santo Domingo", in honor of Saint Dominic. History See also: History of the Dominican Republic Santo Domingo was destroyed by a hurricane in 1502, and the new Governor Nicolás de Ovando had it rebuilt on a different site nearby. [1] The original layout of the city and a large portion of its defensive wall can still be appreciated today throughout the Colonial Zone, declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in The Colonial Zone, bordered by the Río Ozama, also has an impressive collection of 16th century buildings, including palatial houses and majestic churches that reflect the architectural style of the late medieval period. The city's most important colonial buildings include the Catedral Santa María La Menor, called La Catedral Primada de América, America's First Cathedral, which states its distinction; the Alcázar de Colón, America's first castle, once the residence of Viceroy of the Indies Don Diego Colón, a son of Christopher Columbus; the Monasterio de San Francisco, the ruins of the first monastery in America; the Museo de las Casas Reales, the former Palace of the Governor General and the Palace of Royal Audiences; the Parque Colón, a historic square; the Fortaleza Ozama, the oldest fortress in America; the Pantéon Nacional, a former Jesuit edifice now hosting the remains of various renowned members of the Dominican Order; and the Iglesia del Convento Dominico, the first convent in America.

228 Throughout its first century, Santo Domingo was the launching pad for much of the exploration and conquest of [citation needed] the New World. The expeditions that led to Hernando Cortes' conquest of Mexico and Balboa's sighting of the Pacific Ocean all started from Santo Domingo. [citation needed] Columbus Park In 1586, Francis Drake captured the city, which he held for ransom. [2] Drake's invasion and pillaging of Hispaniola so weakened Spanish dominion over the island that for more than 50 years all but the capital was abandoned and left to the mercy of the pirates. [citation needed] An expedition sent by Oliver Cromwell in 1655 attacked the city of Santo Domingo, but was defeated, and withdrew and took Jamaica, instead. [3] Fortaleza Ozama, one of the historic buildings in Santo Domingo Alcázar de Colón, in the historic center of Santo Domingo's Zona Colonial From 1795 to 1822 the city changed hands several times along with the colony it headed. It was ceded to France in 1795, captured by rebellious Haitian slaves in 1801, recovered by France in 1802, recovered by Spain in In 1821 Santo Domingo became the capital of an independent nation, Haití Español. This was two months later conquered by Haiti. The city and the colony lost much of their Spanish population as a result of these events. [2][4][5] Santo Domingo was again the capital of a free nation, when Dominicans gained their independence from Haitian rule on February 27, 1844 led by their national hero Juan Pablo Duarte. The city was a prize fought over by various political factions over the succeeding decades of instability. In addition, the country had to fight multiple battles with Haiti; the Battle of March 19, Battle of March 30, Battle of Las Carreras, and Battle of Beler, are a few of the most prominent encounters, mentioned in the national anthem and with city streets named after them. [6] In 1861 Spain returned to the country, having struck a bargain with Dominican leader Pedro Santana whereby the latter was granted several honorific titles and privileges, in exchange for annexing the young nation back to Spanish rule. The Dominican Restoration War began in 1863 however, and in 1865 the country was free again after Spain withdrew. Over the next two-thirds of a century Santo Domingo and the Dominican Republic went through many revolutions, power changes, and occupation by the United States, The city was struck by hurricane San Zenón in 1930, which caused major damage. After its rebuilding, Santo Domingo was known officially as Ciudad Trujillo in honor of dictator Rafael Leónidas Trujillo, who governed from Following his assassination in 1961 the city was renamed back to Santo Domingo. The year 1992 marked the 500th anniversary, El Quinto Centenario, of Christopher Columbus' Discovery of America. The Columbus Lighthouse Faro a Colón with an approximate cost of 400 million Dominican pesos and amidst great controversy, [citation needed] was erected in Santo Domingo in honor of this occasion. [7]

229 Geography Santo Domingo National District and Santo Domingo East separated by the Ozama river Santo Domingo is separated from east to west by the Ozama River The river flows 148 kilometers before emptying into the Caribbean Sea. This position was of great importance to the city's economic development and the growth of trade during colonial times. The Ozama River is where the country's busiest port is located. Metropolitan Santo Domingo is divided into four municipal Sections mostly for administrative reasons. These sections are Santo Domingo Norte, Santo Domingo Este, Santo Domingo Oeste, which all together make part of the Santo Domingo province and Santo Domingo de Guzman which is within the D.N boundaries, all of which have different administrative orders. Santo Domingo to the north has the section of Villa Mella (Municipal District) which makes part of Santo Domingo Norte (Municipal Section). To the east it has San Isidro (Municipal District) and to the west it borders Province of San Cristobal and Bajos de Haina. The Ozama River and Isabella end at the Center of Santo Domingo. Santo Domingo is relatively low in altitude with several high hills. Climate Under the Koppen climate classification, Santo Domingo features a Tropical monsoon climate that borders on a Tropical rainforest climate. The average temperature varies little in the city, because the tropical tradewinds help mitigate the heat and humidity throughout the year. Thanks to these tradewinds, Santo Domingo seldom experiences the oppressive heat and humidity that one may expect to find in a tropical climate. December and January are the coolest months and July and August are the warmest. Santo Domingo averages 1445 mm of precipitation per year. Its driest months are from January through April, however due to the tradewinds, precipitation is seen even during these months. Because its driest month is just below 60 mm, Santo Domingo falls under the Tropical monsoon climate category. Like many other nations in the Caribbean, Santo Domingo is very susceptible to hurricanes. [hide]weather data for Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Average high C ( F) Daily mean C ( F) Average low C ( F) 29 (84) 24 (75) 19 (66) 29 (84) 24 (75) 19 (66) 29 (84) 25 (77) 20 (68) 30 (86) 26 (79) 21 (70) 30 (86) 26 (79) 22 (72) 31 (88) 27 (81) 23 (73) 31 (88) 27 (81) 23 (73) 31 (88) 27 (81) 22 (72) 31 (88) 27 (81) 22 (72) 31 (88) 27 (81) 22 (72) 31 (88) 26 (79) 21 (70) 29 (84) 25 (77) 20 (68) Precipitation mm (inches) (2.52) (2.2) (2.09) (2.8) (7.4) (5.51) (5.71) (7.01) (7.09) (7.4) (3.9) (3.31) Source: Weather Channel [8] Economic development The city is the center of economic activity in the Dominican Republic. Many national and international firms have their headquarters or regional offices in Santo Domingo. The city attracts

230 many international firms and franchises due to its geographic location, stability and vibrant economy. The infrastructure is adequate for most business operations, however power outages continue to be a problem in certain parts of the city. A key element that has helped the city thrive and compete globally is the telecommunications infrastructure. For many years the Dominican Republic has enjoyed a modern and state of the art telecommunications system due to its privatization and integration with the US system. Santo Domingo contains a wide variety of incomes, ranging from the extremely poor to the highly rich. Areas of high income families are found in the central Polygon of the city, which is bordered by the Avenida John F. Kennedy to the North, Avenida 27 de Febrero to the South, Avenida Winston Churchill to the west and Avenida Maximo Gomez to the east and is characterized by its mostly residential area and its distinguished nightlife. Santo Domingo has areas of high development like Naco, Arroyo Hondo, Piantini, Paraiso, Bella Vista, Sarasota and other neighborhoods, which mostly consist of costly buildings and luxury houses, contrasting with the outskirts of the city like Villa Mella, Los Alcarrizos and Herrera which are less economically developed. Santo Domingo Skyline Santo Domingo Skyline Bella Vista and La Esperilla are currently the neighborhoods with the highest income growth and with tall mega-construction projects sparking the city skyline. Gazcue is one of the more historic places in the city, dating back to its early construction in the 1930s until the 60's. Commercial centers in the city are mostly found in Avenida Winston Churchill, where large plazas like Acropolis Center and large supermarkets are found. This area is home to most of the banks in the city like Scotiabank, Citibank, Banco BHD, Banco del Progreso, Banreservas, to name a few. 27 de Febrero Avenue is very commercially successful and is considered the most important crosstown avenue in the city. The oldest mall plazas in the country are Plaza Central and Plaza Naco, which served as the first commercial center in the Panoramic view of Santo Domingo city until the recent construction of others, which quickly became new alternatives. Bella Vista

231 Mall and the Acropolis Center are two of the newest malls built in the city, attracting much of the high income families. Most of the city's poor live in the barrios outside the center. Some live in extreme conditions of poverty and in slums, intensifying the city's economic contrast. Santo Domingo Norte is [citation needed] statistically the poorest subdivision of the metropolitan area. Government and politics National Palace Santo Domingo Landmarks Santo Domingo is the center of the national government of the Dominican Republic. The National Palace, which is the President's office, as well as the National Congress, are located in the metropolitan area. The current mayor of the City of Santo Domingo is Roberto Esmérito Salcedo of the governing Dominican Liberation Party. The City is administered by the Ayuntamiento del Distrito Nacional (City Hall), which is responsible for municipal functions. The "Policia Nacional" (National Police) and "Policia Turística" (Tourist Police) (POLITUR) are assigned for enforcing city safety. Catedral Santa María La Menor (Catedral Primada de América), the first cathedral in America. Faro a Colón Famous landmarks in Santo Domingo include the Calle El Conde, the Puerta de la Misericordia, the Catedral Santa María La Menor (Catedral Primada de América), and the Alcázar de Colón, all of which are located within the Zona Colonial district of the city. This part was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Outside of the colonial quarters, the area surrounding the Malecón (seawall) is a vibrant commercial and tourist center, having as a centerpiece the large obelisk located at the eastern end of the George Washington avenue. Other places of interest are Plaza de la Cultura, which houses the city's most important cultural venues such as the Teatro Nacional and the Museo de Arte Moderno; the Palacio de Bellas Artes, a neoclassical theatre that is the permanent home of the Orquesta Sinfónica Nacional (National Symphony Orchestra); the Parque Mirador Sur, a six square kilometers park in the southwestern part of the city; the Faro a Colón, a cross-shaped lighthouse built in honor of Christopher Columbus; and the Boulevard 27 de Febrero, a pedestrian promenade located on the busy Avenida 27 de Febrero which displays many works of art from prominent Dominican artists and sculptors. Another attraction is the Centro Olímpico Juan Pablo Duarte a sports complex in the center of Santo Domingo. This complex was used during the 2003 Pan American Games.

232 Museums Santo Domingo is the location of numerous museums dedicated to the history of the Dominican Republic. Most of them are within the Zona Colonial District. [7] Museum of Alcázar Altar de la Patria Naval Museum of the Atarazanas Museum of the Casas Reales is dedicated to the colonial period Museum of Duarte summarizes and shows the history of the movement and struggle for independence Museum of Natural History Museum of Dominican Man World of Ambar Museum Museum of Modern Art National Museum of History and Geography is dedicated to all of Dominican history, from pre-columbian up to contemporary times Parks and recreational areas See Also:Santo Domingo Greenbelt Santo Domingo has various parks, three of which are called Miradores and are located in the North, South and east sections of the city. Even though these parks are relatively big, Santo Domingo still lacks enough recreational areas. Santo Domingo (D.N) is surrounded by the Santo Domingo Greenbelt. Dr. Rafael Ma. Moscoso National Botanical Garden's Floral Clock Botanical Garden Dominican National Zoo Barrio Chino ( Chinatown ) Parque Nuñez de Caceres Mirador Norte Park, lies in the North of the city close to Villa Mella Enriquillo Park Mirador Sur Park, located in the Southwest section of the city Mirador Este Park, located across the Ozama River near Faro Colón Independencia Park, located in Zona Colonial Colón Park, located in Zona Colonial Las Praderas Metropolitan Park The Malecon, cityfront coastal park Dr. Rafael Ma. Moscoso National Malls & Plazas Diamond Mall Bella Vista Mall Plaza Las Americas Megacentro Mall

233 Plaza Central Plaza Naco Malecon Center Mall Acropolis Center Mall Blue Mall (Under Construction) Galerias 360 Mall (Under Construction) Diandy XX (Under Construction) Sky Mall (Under Construction) Plaza Lama Transportation Informal Santo Domingo is provided with a variety of informal transportation systems. These include motoconchos (motorcycle taxis), guaguas/voladoras (public buses that are known for their generally bad conditions and the driver's reckless driving), and carros publicos/conchos (shared taxis that stop at certain intervals or wherever there are passengers on a street.).there are however several bus services like the government owned and operated OMSA which has a fleet of air conditioned buses with regular stops for about $10 Dominican.OMSA operates long routes that transverse the metro area and are very popular with poor and middle class folks. Efforts are being made to modernize the fleet and to complement the new subway system. However, due to the long hours of operation, long routes and high demand, coupled with high parts costs, these buses lifespan is usually less than ten years. Highways Main article: Highways and Routes in the Dominican Republic Santo Domingo De Guzman is the terminus for three of the five national highways, each of this three beginning around the Zona Colonial of the city. The city is connected to the Southwest of the republic by the national highway DR-2, to the northwest of the republic by DR-1 serving as a direct link to the city of Santiago de los Caballeros. DR-3 connects Santo Domingo directly to the east of the country including the cities of San Pedro de Macoris, La Romana, and major touristic sites like Punta Cana and Bavaro, and to the Samaná Province(northeast) via the Samana highway. Rail Main article: Santo Domingo Metro Santo Domingo's Metro, (The Alstom Metropolis 9000 series) The Santo Domingo Metro is a 15 km underground and elevated system consisting of six proposed lines. The first line begins elevated at Villa Mella (Santo Domingo Norte), located north of the Isabela River and north of the city center and ends at Centro de los Héroes in the southern coast of Santo Domingo, near the seawall district (Malecon). Some of the stops on the first line are the Teatro Nacional (National Theatre), the main campus of the Universidad Autónoma de Santo Domingo (UASD) and Avenida Lincoln. The first line is already in service. The second line is proposed to run in an east-west

234 direction beneath Avenida 27 de Febrero, crossing the first line. The third line will also run in an [citation needed] east-west direction, but it will run beneath Avenida John F. Kennedy. The Charles de Gaulle station is named after Dominican martyr Florinda Soriano Muñoz (Mamá Tingó). Airports Las Américas International Airport Santo Domingo is served by two international airports, the main one being Las Américas International Airport (Spanish: Aeropuerto Internacional de las Americas Dr. José Francisco Peña Gómez). The airport has two terminals, the newer one just completed in 2006 added four more gates on the northern end of the facility. The airport is currently the busiest in the country, handling over 2.5 million passengers per year. [9] The airport is located in Punta Caucedo, 15 kilometers east of the D.N on DR-3(Autopista de Las Americas) Las Américas International Airport's La Isabela International Airport Terminal A and B The Aeropuerto Internacional La Isabela is a secondary, newly constructed airport located in the northern section of the city, within kilometres of the city center. It is not currently used as a major international airport, servicing mostly domestic and charter flights. It was built to replace the obsolete Herrera Airport, which was considered by many too dangerous due to the proximity to commercial and residential areas. La Isabela Airport is also conveniently located just on the outskirts of the city and most of the internal flights of the country can be carried out here, flights to the north of the island such as Samana can be booked here with airlines serving like caribair and aerodomca. Many pilots also cited the length of the runway as inadequate for most private jets. Ports Port of Santo Domingo: Sans Souci Port of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic: Sans Souci is located in the Ozama River. Its location at the center of the Caribbean is well suited for flexible itinerary planning and has excellent support, road and airport infrastructure within the Santo Domingo region, which facilitate access and transfers. The port is suitable for both turnaround and transit calls. The port s renovation is part of a major redevelopment project, aimed at integrating the port area and the Zona Colonial and foster a cruise, yacht and high-end tourism destination. Supported by legislation approved in 2005, the project, developed by the Sans Souci Group also includes the development of a new sports marina and a 122-acre mixed-leisure real estate development adjacent to the port. Communication Phones are used for communication. Television They are 15 TV stations (both UHF and VHF) in Santo Domingo. Santo Domingo has the greatest number of TV signals in the country, followed by Santiago De los Caballeros.

235 Additional cable TV channels are provided by companies like Aster, Cable TV Dominicana, SKY Dominicana and Telecable. VHF Teleantillas (2) CERTV (4) Telemicro (5) Antena Latina (7) Color Visión (9) Telesistema (11) Telecentro (13) UHF Digital 15 (15) Telefuturo (23) RNN (27) Supercanal (33) CDN (37) Coral 39 (39) Teleradio América (canal 45) Santo Domingo TV (canal 69) Radio In Santo Domingo there are 100 different stations in AM frequency and 44 in FM frequency. Telephone services CODETEL (Compañía Dominicana de Teléfonos) was originally the provider of telephone service in the Dominican Republic since the 1940s. The company was later bought by GTE (later Verizon). By 2004 the company was named Verizon Dominicana and was later sold to América Móvil; it was named CODETEL again, because of marketing strategy. The company uses the name Claro GSM/CDMA for its cellular phones division. The second landline competitor is Tricom, which is a minor competitor, Codetel being the dominant service provider in the country. Other mobile providers include Tricom CDMA, Viva CDMA/GSM and Orange GSM, the last and Claro having the majority of the mobile phone service provider market. The national area codes are 809 and 829. In 2005 a new area code (829) was made as an overlay of 809 due to the increase of fax, internet, mobile, and ground lines created in the last decade. The Dominican Republic uses XXX-XXXX and XXX-XXXX as the official format for telephone numbers. In late May 2009, INDOTEL raised and adapted the idea of introducing a new area code (849), with the purpose of increasing the availability of more line numbers in the country. INDOTEL said they will launch a new television campaign to promote the new code. Internet.do is the internet code for The Dominican Republic. The Dominican Republic has an estimated 2,000,000 internet users. Education There are eighteen universities in Santo Domingo, the highest number of any city in the Dominican Republic. Established in 1538, Universidad Autónoma de Santo Domingo (UASD) is the oldest university in the New World and is also the only public university in the city. Santo

236 Domingo holds the nation's highest percentage of residents with a higher education degree. [citation needed]. Aula Magna at night, Autonomous University of Santo Domingo (UASD) Edad (UTE) Universidad Tecnológica de Santiago (UTESA) Universidad Nacional Pedro Henríquez Ureña (UNPHU) Instituto de Ciencias Exactas (INCE) Universidad Organización y Método (O&M) Universidad Interamericana (UNICA) Universidad Eugenio María de Hostos (UNIREMOS) Universidad Francisco Henríquez y Carvajal (UFHEC) Universidad Instituto Cultural Domínico Americano (UNICDA) Pontificia Universidad Católica Madre y Maestra (PUCMM) Instituto Tecnológico de las Americas (ITLA) Photo gallery Universidad Autonoma de Santo Domingo (UASD) Universidad Adventista Dominicana (UNAD) Universidad APEC (UNAPEC) Instituto Tecnológico de Santo Domingo (INTEC) Universidad del Caribe (UNICARIBE) Universidad Iberoamericana (UNIBE) (UNIBE) Universidad Católica Santo Domingo (UCSD) Universidad de la Tercera The coast of the City of Santo Domingo. "El Malecón" Santo Domingo's modern architecture. Section of La Esperilla, a high area of development within the D. N. Town Houses in Zona Colonial John F. Kennedy Avenue, Santo Domingo. Santo Domingo at night. 1600's Colonial style buildings in Zona Colonial Anacaona Avenue in Santo Domingo.

237 Bella Vista Mall & Plaza, the city s newest upscale mall Sister cities Downtown Area Alcazar de Colon Santo Domingo has three sister cities designated by Sister Cities International [10] : 9New York City, New York, United States [10] 9Providence, Rhode Island, United States [10] 9Miami-Dade County, Florida, United States [10] Santo Domingo also has twinning agreements with the following sister cities: 9Bern, Switzerland 9Bogotá, Colombia 9Buenos Aires, Argentina 9Caracas, Venezuela 9Curitiba, Brazil [11] 9Guadalajara, Mexico 9Haifa, Israel 9Havana, Cuba [11] 9Izmir, Turkey 9La Muela, Spain [11] 9London, United Kingdom 9Madrid, Spain [12] 9Paris, France 9Pontevedra, Spain [13] 9Providence, United States [11] 9Quito, Ecuador 9Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain 9Sarasota, United States 9Taipei, Republic of China (Taiwan) 9Toronto, Canada Notable residents Moisés Alou baseball player, outfielder for the New York Mets Adrián Beltré baseball player, infielder for the Seattle Mariners Milagros Cabral volleyball player in the Korea League Melky Cabrera baseball player, center fielder for the New York Yankees Francisco Cordero baseball player, pitcher for the Cincinnati Reds Enrique Cruz - baseball player, infielder for the Milwaukee Brewers and Cincinnati Reds Francisco García basketball player for the Sacramento Kings Juan Luis Guerra singer, composer

238 Michel Camilo jazz pianist, composer D'Angelo Jimenez second baseman for the Washington Nationals Pedro Martínez baseball player, pitcher for the Philidelphia Phillies David Ortiz baseball player, designated hitter for the Boston Red Sox Albert Pujols baseball player, infielder for the St. Louis Cardinals Manny Ramírez baseball player, left fielder for the Los Angeles Dodgers Angel Salome - baseball player, catcher for the Milwaukee Brewers Sammy Sosa baseball player, outfielder for the Texas Rangers Jose Veras baseball player, pitcher for New York Yankees Edinson Volquez baseball player, pitcher for the Cincinnati Reds Julio Iglesias Spanish singer, composer, developer Casa de Campo Oscar de la Renta fashion designer, developer Casa de Campo Roberto Pena - baseball player, shortstop for the Chicago Cubs, Philadelphia Phillies, San Diego Padres, Oakland Athletics, and the Milwaukee Brewers Santiago Perez - baseball player, Milwaukee Brewers and San Diego Padres William Suero - baseball player, infielder for the Milwaukee Brewers Candido Bidó painter Elsa Núñez painter See also 2003 Pan American Games in Santo Domingo Highways and Routes in the Dominican Republic Communications in Santo Domingo Dominican Republic Metro de Santo Domingo Colonial City of Santo Domingo Dominican Republic portal Santo Domingo Greenbelt References 1. ^ Meining 1986:9 2. ^ a b "Dominican Republic - THE FIRST COLONY". Library of Congress. Retrieved ^ Marley, David (1998). "Wars of the Americas". ABC-CLIO. pp % Penn+Venables&output=html. 4. ^ "Elections and Events ". University of California-San Diego. Retrieved ^ Mary Louise Pratt, Imperial Eyes, 2007, p ^ "[ City street map of Santo Domingo at Retrieved ^ a b "Secretaría de Estado de Cultura". Retrieved ^ "[ RXX0009?from=36hr_bottomnav_business Weather Channel: Historical Weather for

239 Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic dateformat=mdy XX0009?from=36hr_bottomnav_business. 9. ^ Aerodom Siglo XXI. "Number of Passengers by Airport in 2004 (in Spanish)". Retrieved ^ a b c d Online Directory: Dominican Republic, Caribbean Sister Cities International, Inc. (SCI) 11. ^ a b c d "Memoria Anual, Agosto 2002-Agosto 2003". Ayuntamiento del Distrito Nacional. pp Retrieved ^ "Mapa Mundi de las ciudades hermanadas". Ayuntamiento de Madrid. 19fc08a0c/?vgnextoid=4e84399a VgnVCM c205a0aRCRD&vgnextcha nnel=4e98823d3a37a010vgnvcm100000d90ca8c0rcrd&vgnextfmt=especial1&idcont enido=684a7aefd9b5b010vgnvcm100000d90ca8c0rcrd. Retrieved ^ La Guardia y Santo Domingo, dos ciudades hermanas (Spanish) Meinig, D.W. (1986). The Shaping of America: a Geographic Perspective on 500 Years of History. Volume I - Atlantic America, New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN Santo Domingo; Fragmentos De Patria by Banreservas ISBN (Spanish) Dominikan.com Blog of the Dominican Republic, videos, news, culture and music Distrito Nacional - Santo Domingo 24 de Abril 30 de Mayo Altos de Arroyo Hondo Arroyo Manzano Atala Bella Vista Buenos Aires (Independencia) Cacique Centro de Los Heroes Centro Olímpico Duarte Cerros de Arroyo Hondo Ciudad Colonial Ciudad Nueva Ciudad Universitaria Cristo Rey Domingo Sabio El Millón Ensanche Capotillo Ensanche Espaillat Ensanche La Fé Ensanche Luperón Ensanche Naco Ensanche Simón Bolívar Gazcue General Antonio Duvergé Gualey Honduras del Norte Honduras del Oeste Jardín Botanico Jardín Zoologico Jardínes del Sur Julieta Morales La Agustina La Esperilla La Hondonada La Isabela La Julia La Zurza Los Cacicazgos Los Jardínes Los Peralejos Los Prados Los Restauradores Los Ríos María Auxiliadora Mejoramiento Social Mirador Norte Mirador Sur Miraflores Miramar Nuestra Señora de la Paz Nuevo Arroyo Hondo Palma Real Paraíso Paseo de los Indíos Piantini Puerto Isabela Punta Caucedo Quisqueya Renacimiento San Carlos San Diego San Geronímo San Juan Bosco Tropical Metaldom Viejo Arroyo Hondo Villa Consuelo Villa Duarte Villa Francisca Villa Juana See also: Dominican Republic Provinces Municipalities Santo Domingo Province Boca Chica Los Alcarrizos Pedro Brand San Antonio de Guerra Santo Domingo Este Santo Domingo Norte Santo Domingo Oeste See also: Dominican Republic Provinces Municipalities Provincial capitals of the Dominican Republic

240 Azua Baní Barahona Bonao Comendador Cotuí Dajabón El Seibo Hato Mayor Higüey Jimaní La Romana La Vega Mao Moca Monte Cristi Monte Plata Nagua Neiba Pedernales Puerto Plata Sabaneta Salcedo Samaná San Cristóbal San Francisco de Macorís San José de Ocoa San Juan de la Maguana San Pedro de Macorís Santiago de los Caballeros Santo Domingo Santo Domingo Este Capitals of North America Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe 2 Basseterre, Saint Kitts and Nevis Belmopan, Belize Bridgetown, Barbados Castries, Saint Lucia Charlotte Amalie, United States Virgin Islands 3 Cockburn Town, Turks and Caicos 1 Fort-de-France, Martinique 2 George Town, Cayman Islands 1 Guatemala City, Guatemala Gustavia, Saint Barthélemy 2 Hamilton, Bermuda 1 Havana, Cuba Kingston, Jamaica Kingstown, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Managua, Nicaragua Marigot, Saint Martin 2 Mexico City, Mexico Nassau, Bahamas Nuuk, Greenland 5 Oranjestad, Aruba 4 Ottawa, Canada Panama City, Panama Brades (de facto), Plymouth (de jure), Montserrat 1 Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago Port-au-Prince, Haiti Road Town, British Virgin Islands 1 Roseau, Dominica Saint-Pierre, Saint Pierre and Miquelon 2 San José, Costa Rica San Juan, Puerto Rico 3 San Salvador, El Salvador Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic St. George's, Grenada St. John's, Antigua and Barbuda Tegucigalpa, Honduras The Valley, Anguilla 1 Washington, D.C., United States Willemstad, Netherlands Antilles 4 1 Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom. 2 Overseas Collectivity or Overseas Department of France. 3 Insular area of the United States. 4 Autonomous region within the Kingdom of the Netherlands. 5 Autonomous region within the Kingdom of Denmark. Pan American Games host cities 1951: Buenos Aires 1955: Mexico City 1959: Chicago 1963: São Paulo 1967: Winnipeg 1971: Cali 1975: Mexico City 1979: San Juan 1983: Caracas 1987: Indianapolis 1991: Havana 1995: Mar del Plata 1999: Winnipeg 2003: Santo Domingo 2007: Rio de Janeiro 2011: Guadalajara

241 Puerto Plata San Felipe de Puerto Plata, often referred to as simply Puerto Plata, is the capital of the Dominican province Puerto Plata. Puerto Plata San Felipe de Puerto Plata The city is famous for resorts such as Playa Dorada and Costa Dorada, located east of San Felipe de Puerto Plata. There are a total of 100,000 hotel beds in the city. The only aerial tramway in the Caribbean is located in Puerto Plata. With it, one can ride up to Pico Isabel de Torres, a 793 meter high mountain within the city. The top of the mountain features a botanical garden and a replica of Christ the Redeemer, the famous statue in Rio de Janeiro. Aerial view of Puerto Plata Nickname(s): La Novia del Atlantico The fortification Fortaleza San Felipe, which was built in the 16th century and served as a prison under Rafael Trujillo's dictatorship, lies close to the port of Puerta Plata. The amber museum is also a well-known attraction in this city. La Isabela, a settlement built by Christopher Columbus, is located near Puerto Plata. In April 1563 the Spanish settlement became notorious when the English privateer Sir John Hawkins brought 400 people he had abducted from Sierra Leone and enslaved. Hawkins traded his victims with the Spanish for pearls, hides and sugars, some gold. This was the start of British involvement in the trans- Atlantic Slave Trade, in which 20 million people were forced into slavery. Coordinates: Puerto Plata Puerto Plata in the Dominican Republic N W19.8 N W

242 Puerto Plata is served by Gregorio Luperón International Airport Geography The city sits on land that rises abruptly from the sea making it almost completely visible from the port. It is bordered on the north by the Atlantic Ocean and to the south and southwest by the hill Isabel de Torres. The small bay around which the - Density 319.5/km 2 (827.5/sq mi) city was built provides a natural - Urban 112,036 harbor. Puerto Plata is the largest - Demonym Puertoplateño(a) city on the northern seaboard. Its subdivisions include: El Cupey, Municipal districts 2 Maimón, Los Mameyes, Sabana Grande, El Toro, Tubagua, Yásica Abajo y San Marcos. The mountain or Loma Isabel de Torres is situated some 5 km to the southwest of the city of San Felipe. Geographically it forms part of the Cordillera Septentrional, reaching a maximum height of 800 m above sea level. It is possible to drive to the top of the hill Isabel de Torres by following the highway Don José Ginebra. The highway, upon leaving the city, continues west passing the populated areas of San Marcos, Piedra Candela and El Cruce arriving at a paved section that continues southeast and then leads directly to the top. The area surrounding Loma Isabel de Torres has been declared a National Monument with an area that covers approximately 20 km 2. At the summit is a tropical botanical garden covering about 7 acres, featuring 600 varieties of tropical plants. Contents 1 Geography 2 Hydrography 3 Economy 4 History 5 Culture 6 Education 7 Sports 8 Tourism o 8.1 Fort o 8.2 Ocean World o 8.3 Museums o 8.4 El Faro o 8.5 Teleférico o 8.6 Beaches 9 External links 10 References Hydrography The most significant rivers are: Camú del Norte, San Marcos, Corozo, Muñoz, Maimón, El Violón, San Piñez, Río Seco, as well as the streams Fú, Blanco, Caballo, Culebra, San Cristóbal. Economy The Municipality of San Felipe de Puerto Plata is prominent in the activities agribusiness, industry and tourism, making it a major contributor to the economic growth of the entire country. Other forms of income and economic development that serve to support some segments of the population include port management, sea vessel production, fishing, textiles and footwear. The port has a significant impact in the national and provincial economy. The port frequently receives cruise ships as well as general bulk freighters. They export a great variety of merchandise, including farm products and manufactured products in the duty-free zones of the region. History Country Dominican Republic Province Puerto Plata Municipality San Felipe de Puerto Plata Founded 1492 Area [1] - Total km 2 (177.5 sq mi) Elevation [2] 8 m (26 ft) Population (2002) [3] - Total 146,882

243 Historians aren't clear on the exact year of Puerto Plata's founding. Emilio Rodríguez Demorizi, Américo Lugo, Jose Bordonada, and Samuel Hazard give the year 1502 as recorded by Nicolás of Ovando. Dr. Llenas affirmed that it was Dr. Joaquín Marino Incháustegui, in his Dominican history records, Dr. Manuel Arturo Roca Batlle indicates that the city was founded in The historians, Alonso Rodriguez Demorizi (brother of Emilio) and Jacinto Gimbernard, express that it was in the year 1496 and Padre Español said that it was in Urban Puerto Plata The aforementioned Nicolás of Ovando records a port existing in the northern coast of the island near Around 1555, Puerto Plata's importance as a port town was lost and it became one of the places of the Antilles where pirates frequented. Christopher Columbus, in his first trip, called the mountain Monte de Plata, observing that since the top is frequently foggy it had a silver like appearance hence comes the name of the port. The city was designed by the brothers Christopher and Bartolomé Columbus, in the 1496 and based on the year 1502 by Frey Nicolás de Ovando. In its first phase as a Spanish Colony the town was considered the main commercial and maritime port of the island. In 1605 it was depopulated and destroyed by order of Fernando III, to hinder the advance of English piracy. The Battle of Puerto Plata Harbor, U.S. Marines landed on the island and attacked a French ship and Fortaleza de San Felipe. After capturing the French privateer Sandwich and spiking the guns of the citadel, US forces retired victorious. This was during the Quasi War, an undeclared conflict between France the United States from 1798 to A hundred years later the town was repopulated with farmers originating from the Canaries. From 1822 to 1844 the city was under Haitian control. From 1844 on begins the period of the republic in which the city began to recover its maritime and commercial boom. The city grew under the influence of European immigrants, who left a cultural and social footprint that remains unique from other cities on the island. In 1863, during the War of the Restoration, the city was razed completely. Beginning in 1865 the current Puerto Plata began to be built. This explains the Victorian style of much of its current architecture. By the end of the 18th century Puerto Plata had become important for its cultural, social, maritime, and economic development. Culture The reports on the celebration of the carnival in the Puerto Plata city, they date from ends of the 19th century, and its festivity with the arrival of Cuban immigrants was enriched at the beginning of the 20th century. The central personage is the devil cojuelo, that in Puerto Plata he becomes Taimáscaro, that produces deities Taínas in its masks, with a beautiful suit where elements of the Spanish culture they are symbolized and the African essences, in multicolored tapes in its arms, and all that is complemented with the conches of the Atlantic ocean, as natural elements of identity of the town Puertoplateño.

244 These festivities are celebrated during all the month of February and March, in the avenue of the Jetty and the streets of the city. Where, the people and adult they entertain and they enjoy the parades of disguises, the music, the popular dances and the different demonstrations of the art and the culture represented in the carnival that reflects our cultural identity. Each year the organizers of the carnival, they choose the King Momo, that represents the person of the city that more has fought for maintaining its traditions. 4,2. Victorian architecture The Puerto Plata city is characterized for their architecture in which dominates a Victorian called style, where they converge various architectural styles, giving him a various character to the process of urban development development. Inside this variety is the old style related to the colonial epoch, of which remains as an example the Fortress San Felipe. Another it is the traditional style, originated when the city was founded by immigrant canarios, and of the one that the balconies are inherited, and as an example I live is the bridge of the Guinea, of the year Then developed the Victorian model, because of the French, Italian, German, English immigrations and other European countries, which began after the War Restorer and had its height to ends of the 19th century and starts of the XX. This style was utilized in dwellings and in buildings destined to social activities. This type of construction gives an own image to the province. Finally, it develops in Puerto Plata a modern architecture, because of the American occupation (1916 and 1924) and continued under it was of Trujillo, based on constructions of blocks and cement. Currently with the tourist boom has developed a new architecture based on the environments. Education [to publish] Education By the Puerto Plata municipality there they are decollado large and illustrious educators which have left innovative tracks among the ones that can be indicated: Antera Mota, Emilio Prud Homme, Ana Isabel Jiménez, Mercedes Mota, José Dubeau, Isabel Díaz Alejo, Doña Elvia Campillo, Isabel Meyreles, María Concepción Gómez Matos, among others. Currently, the municipality of San Felipe of Puerto Plata counts on 182 Educational Centers of which the 67% corresponds to the public sector and the 39% to the private sector. This municipality counts on a total of students, of them corresponds at the Initial level, at the Basic level, 6642 at the Medium level, students to the subsystem of adults, 84 students of special education and 86 of the labor school. Besides the universities fours operation counts on itself that offer different careers of technical and upper degree. Said universities are: Papal Pontificia Universidad Católica Madre y Maestra (PUCAMM), Universidad Dominicana O & M, universidad Tecnológica de Santiago (UTESA) y el Centro Universitario Regional del Atlántico de la Universidad Autónoma de Santo Domingo (CURA- UASD). Sports From the fifties of the 20th century, the main sports institution of the municipality of San Felipe, has been the League of the Atlantic one, which was founded, August 16, 1958, prompted by Fabio Rafael González. This institution celebrates during all the year activities, main of baseball, years later him was added the basketball, with the time various clubs were incorporated; the Gustavo Behall, the Hugo Kunhard, Juan Luis Plá, among others. Since the 1970, the main activities have been the school events that are celebrated durantes all the year, in its respective dates in which competes in the different disciplines. At present, in Golden Beach, Brugal & Company celebrates periodically the Club Golf Puerto Plata tournament, with the participation of the most noticeable athletes of this discipline, so much at the local level, as national and international.

245 Tourism The city is famous for tourist centers as Playa Dorada and Costa Dorada, located to the east of San Felipe of Puerto Plata. There is a total of 100,000 beds of hotels in the city. Puerto Plata is served for the international airport of Gregorio Luperón, situated around 15 kilometers to the east of the city, near the town La Union. Fort The fort is the main colonial monument of the city of Puerto Plata, since, around it the city developed most of it's history. In the year 1540, Álvaro Caballero went to the Court to request that a fortress be constructed in Puerto Plata. In 1549 the Archbishop and governing Fuenmayor, him was entrusted with it's construction, but it was still not done even in the 1560, when the Audiencia Real ordered it commence under the charge of the French born judge Juan Echagoín to initiate its work. This work was finished in the year The Fort of san Felipe The purpose was to protect the city against the incursions of bandits, of the corsairs and French and English pirates that continuously terrified inhabitants of Puerto Plata. Its name is in honor of Felipe II, in whose reign it's costruction was finished. In 1980 it was declared a National Monument. Ocean World Water park located in the middle of the reefs of beach Cofresí, in one of the most charming places in the Dominican Republic. It is constituted in one of the main places of tourist attraction, in the largest and complete park of that nature in the area of the Caribbean. The investment of this project is valued in more than 45 million dollars what includes: a yacht marina, the permanent presence of some 14 dolphins, beach and forests, as well as fishbowls, picturesque and exotic birds tigers of the forest; and at present Hotel and Casino recently inaugurated. Ocean Ocean world cofresi puerto plata World is located inside a great tourist complex, which forms part of a paradise on the north coast of Dominican Republic. The investor and president of Ocean World, Mr. L. A. Meister, showed great interest in the tourist potential of Puerto Plata, in its first incursions in this city, directed and oriented by Juan Carlos Moral original Owner of the lands of Cofresí. Museums Museo del Ámbar: The business Costa, Inc. A cultural company of family administration, directed by Aldo Costa, founded the Museo del Ámbar Dominicano in the 1982 in the Villa Bentz, (more elegant Hotel of Puerto Plata of the year 1918, built by the famous Spanish architect Marín Gallart and Cantú). This museum is considered the first Museum of the Amber of the Dominican Republic and at the same time, a great historic monument of the city. La Zona Colonial (Casas Victorianas): From the 1857, it is initiated in Puerto Plata. The Victorian style originating from England, call thus, in honor of the Queen Victoria, manager of that epoch. This it extended to almost everyone and was considered it more modern.

246 The fundamental characteristics were, the elaboration of the wood in artistic form, for the construction of dwellings. From that moment, Puerto Plata defined clearly their architectural style, evolving to what we have nowadays as our patrimony. The rise and development of that new modality in the art of construction, was what gave start, to the buildings of the Victorian houses of the decade from the 70 of the 19th century. Creating a unique style in the city, which him is known today as Victorian architecture of Puerto Plata. El Faro It was built during the government of the General Gregorio Luperón and on the initiative of the important person Puertoplateño as cardinal point and guide of the ships that did crossing by the Atlantic and that they had like destiny the port of the city. The Lighthouse was designed with superpuertas, classical columns and striated to the Doric-Roman way, according to the description of the Dr. José Augusto Puig Ortiz and Robert S. Gamble, in its Architectural Historic trial of Puerto Plata. It has a solid base of masonry and is elevated to 137 feet above sea level. In the year 2000 was submitted to works of restoration and restructuring, what included to renew its structure integrally to re-establish him the showiness of the time of its origins. Teleférico It was inaugurated in 1975, its construction is of Italian origin. Has capacity for 17 people and the time to rise and to descend the mountain is of 8 minutes. It is moved for an electric hydraulic system, conducted by a central operator, situated in the base of its station. This small train, is welcoming; with its walls of glass protected, offers the visitor, a view pan from the city to the extent that descends of the hill which in its top is to a height of 855mts. or 2555 feet above sea level. It is one of the picturesque and most impressive excursions that can obtain a tourist upon visiting our country. The visitors can enjoy a beautiful composed landscape by a garden of 215 tasks, with all the component of the flora of the country. Visiting stores (gift shops) and a beautiful Restaurant with Dominican food. Its administration is composed by a patronage, that maintains it under the conditions of conservation and enjoyment of all the one that visits it. Beaches With its golden sands surrounded by the great beauty that emanate of its natural landscapes combining the blue color of the water that many times dress of a tone turquoise with the reflections of the sun in the day, and of moon at night. These beaches bring pleasing memories by their landscapes, stones, waves, sand, uveros, almonds, yawls, rowboats, music and dances. Many of them represent all an epoch of daydream and traditions, like they are: La Poza del Castillo, Cofresí, Costámbar, Long Beach, Marapicá, Playa Dorada, Maimón, Bergantín, among others. The beaches are you considered as one of the main tourist attractions of the city. External links Live and timelapse webcam images from Puerto Plata province References 1. ^ Superficies a nivel de municipios, Oficina Nacional de Estadistica 2. ^ De la Fuente, Santiago (1976) (in Spanish). Geografía Dominicana. Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic: Editora Colegial Quisqueyana. 3. ^ Censo 2002 de Población y Vivienda, Oficina Nacional de Estadistica This article incorporates information from the German Wikipedia.

247 Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus Posthumous portrait of Christopher Columbus by Ridolfo Ghirlandaio. There are no known authentic portraits of Columbus. Born Died Nationality Other names Occupation Title Religious beliefs c.1451 Genoa, Liguria 20 May 1506 Valladolid, Castile Genoese Genoese: Christoffa Corombo Spanish: Cristóbal Colón Portuguese: Christovam Colom Latin: Christophorus Columbus Maritime explorer for the Crown of Castile Admiral of the Ocean Sea; Viceroy and Governor of the Indies Roman Catholic Spouse(s) Filipa Moniz (c ) Children Relatives Signature Diego Fernando Giovanni Pellegrino, Giacomo and Bartolomeo Columbus (brothers)

248 Christopher Columbus (c May 1506) was a navigator, colonizer and explorer whose voyages across the Atlantic Ocean led to general European awareness of the American continents in the Western Hemisphere. With his four voyages of exploration and several attempts at establishing a settlement on the island of Hispaniola, all funded by Isabella I of Castile, he initiated the process of Spanish colonization which foreshadowed general European colonization of the "New World." Although not the first to reach the Americas from Europe he was preceded by at least one other group, the Norse, led by Leif Ericson, who built a temporary settlement 500 years earlier at L'Anse aux Meadows [1] Columbus initiated widespread contact between Europeans and indigenous Americans. The term "pre-columbian" is usually used to refer to the peoples and cultures of the Americas before the arrival of Columbus and his European successors. Academic consensus is that Columbus was born in Genoa, though there are other theories. The name Christopher Columbus is the Anglicisation of the Latin Christophorus Columbus. The original name in 15 th century Genoese language was Christoffa [2] Corombo [3] (pronounced [kriˈʃtɔffa kuˈɹuŋbu]) The name is rendered in modern Italian as Cristoforo Colombo, in Portuguese as Cristóvão Colombo (formerly Christovam Colom) and in Spanish as Cristóbal Colón. Columbus's initial 1492 voyage came at a critical time of growing national imperialism and economic competition between developing nation states seeking wealth from the establishment of trade routes and colonies. In this sociopolitical climate, Columbus's far-fetched scheme won the attention of Isabella I of Castile. Severely underestimating the circumference of the Earth, he estimated that a westward route from Iberia to the Indies would be shorter and more direct than the overland trade route through Arabia. If true, this would allow Spain entry into the lucrative spice trade heretofore commanded by the Arabs and Italians. Following his plotted course, he instead landed within the Bahamas Archipelago at a locale he named San Salvador. Mistaking the North-American island for the East-Asian mainland, he referred to its inhabitants as "Indios". In 2009, the anniversary of Columbus's 1492 landing in the Americas was observed as Columbus Day on October 12 in Spain and throughout the Americas, except that in the United States it is observed annually on the second Monday in October. Contents [1 Early life 2 Voyages o 2.1 Navigation plans o 2.2 Funding campaign o 2.3 First voyage o 2.4 Second voyage o 2.5 Third voyage o 2.6 Fourth voyage 3 Governorship and arrest 4 Later life 5 Legacy 6 Physical appearance 7 In popular culture 8 Notes 9 See also 10 References

249 11 External links Early life See also: Origin theories of Christopher Columbus It is generally, although not universally, agreed that Christopher Columbus was born between 25 August and 31 October 1451 in Genoa, part of modern Italy. [4] His father was Domenico Colombo, a middle-class wool weaver, who later also had a cheese stand where Christopher was a helper, working both in Genoa and Savona. His mother was Susanna Fontanarossa. Bartolomeo, Giovanni Pellegrino and Giacomo were his brothers. Bartolomeo worked in a cartography workshop in Lisbon for at least part of his adulthood. [5] Columbus never wrote any works in his native language, but it can be assumed this was the Genoese variety of Ligurian. In one of his writings, Columbus claims to have gone to the sea at the age of 10. In 1470 the Columbus family moved to Savona, where Domenico took over a tavern. In the same year, Columbus was on a Genoese ship hired in the service of René I of Anjou to support his attempt to conquer the Kingdom of Naples. In 1473 Columbus began his apprenticeship as business agent for the important Centurione, Di Negro and Spinola families of Genoa. Later he allegedly made a trip to Chios, a Genoese colony in the Aegean Sea. In May 1476, he took part in an armed convoy sent by Genoa to carry a valuable cargo to northern Europe. He docked in Bristol, England; Galway, Ireland and was possibly in Iceland in In 1479 Columbus reached his brother Bartolomeo in Lisbon, keeping on trading for the Centurione family. He married Filipa Moniz Perestrello, daughter of the Porto Santo governor, the Portuguese nobleman of Genoese origin Bartolomeu Perestrello. In 1479 or 1480, his son Diego was born. Some records report that Felipa died in It is also speculated that Columbus may have simply left his first wife. In either case Columbus found a mistress in Spain in 1487, a 20-year-old orphan named Beatriz Enriquez de Arana. [6] Voyages Main article: Voyages of Christopher Columbus Navigation plans "Columbus map", drawn ca in Lisbon workshop of Bartolomeo and Christopher Columbus [7]

250 Columbus' geographical concepts Europe had long enjoyed a safe land passage to China and India sources of valued goods such as silk, spices, and opiates under the hegemony of the Mongol Empire (the Pax Mongolica, or Mongol peace). With the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks in 1453, the land route to Asia became more difficult. In response to this the Columbus brothers had, by the 1480s, developed a plan to travel to the Indies, then construed roughly as all of south and east Asia, by sailing directly west across the "Ocean Sea," i.e., the Atlantic. Washington Irving's 1828 biography of Columbus popularized the idea that Columbus had difficulty obtaining support for his plan because Europeans thought the Earth was flat. [8] In fact, the primitive maritime navigation of the time relied on the stars and the curvature of the spherical Earth. The knowledge that the Earth was spherical was widespread, and the means of calculating its diameter using an astrolabe was known to both scholars and navigators. [9] A spherical Earth had been the general opinion of Ancient Greek science, and this view continued through the Middle Ages (for example, Bede mentions it in The Reckoning of Time). In fact Eratosthenes had measured the diameter of the Earth with good precision in the second century BC. [10] Where Columbus did differ from the generally accepted view of his time is his (incorrect) arguments that assumed a significantly smaller diameter for the Earth, claiming that Asia could be easily reached by sailing west across the Atlantic. Most scholars accepted Ptolemy's correct assessment that the terrestrial landmass (for Europeans of the time, comprising Eurasia and Africa) occupied 180 degrees of the terrestrial sphere, and dismissed Columbus's claim that the Earth was much smaller, and that Asia was only a few thousand nautical miles to the west of Europe. Columbus's error was put down to his lack of experience in navigation at sea. [11] Columbus' notes in Latin edition of The Travels of Marco Polo used the much longer Arabic mile (about 1,830 m). Columbus believed the (incorrect) calculations of Marinus of Tyre, putting the landmass at 225 degrees, leaving only 135 degrees of water. Moreover, Columbus believed that one degree represented a shorter distance on the Earth's surface than was actually the case. Finally, he read maps as if the distances were calculated in Italian miles (1,238 meters). Accepting the length of a degree to be 56⅔ miles, from the writings of Alfraganus, he therefore calculated the circumference of the Earth as 25,255 kilometers at most, and the distance from the Canary Islands to Japan as 3,000 Italian miles (3,700 km, or 2,300 statute miles). Columbus did not realize Alfraganus The true circumference of the Earth is about 40,000 km (25,000 mi), a figure established by Eratosthenes in the second century BC, [10] and the distance from the Canary Islands to Japan 19,600 km (12,200 mi). No ship that was readily available in the 15th century could carry enough food and fresh water for such a journey. Most European sailors and navigators concluded, probably correctly, that sailors undertaking a westward voyage from Europe to Asia non-stop would die of thirst or starvation long before reaching their destination. Catholic Monarchs, however, having completed an expensive war in the Iberian Peninsula, were desperate for a competitive edge over other European countries in trade with the East Indies. Columbus promised such an advantage.

251 While Columbus's calculations underestimated the circumference of the Earth and the distance from the Canary Islands to Japan by the standards of his peers as well as in fact, Europeans generally assumed that the aquatic expanse between Europe and Asia was uninterrupted. [citation needed] There was a further element of key importance in the plans of Columbus, a closely held fact discovered, or otherwise learned, by Columbus: the trade winds. A brisk wind from the east, commonly called an "easterly", propelled Santa María, La Niña, and La Pinta for five weeks from the Canaries. To return to Spain eastward against this prevailing wind would have required several months of an arduous sailing technique, called beating, during which food and drinkable water would have been utterly exhausted. Columbus returned home by following prevailing winds northeastward from the southern zone of the North Atlantic to the middle latitudes of the North Atlantic, where prevailing winds are eastward (westerly) to the coastlines of Western Europe, where the winds curve southward towards the Iberian Peninsula. [12] In fact, Columbus was wrong about degrees of longitude to be traversed and wrong about distance per degree, but he was right about a more vital fact: how to use the North Atlantic's great circular wind pattern, clockwise in direction, to get home. [13][14] Funding campaign In 1485, Columbus presented his plans to John II, King of Portugal. He proposed the king equip three sturdy ships and grant Columbus one year's time to sail out into the Atlantic, search for a western route to the Orient, and return. Columbus also requested he be made "Great Admiral of the Ocean", appointed governor of any and all lands he discovered, and given one-tenth of all revenue from those lands. The king submitted the proposal to his experts, who rejected it. It was their considered opinion that Columbus's estimation of a travel distance of 2,400 miles (3,860 km) was, in fact, far too short. [11] In 1488 Columbus appealed to the court of Portugal once again, and once again John invited him to an audience. It also proved unsuccessful, in part because not long afterwards Bartholomeu Dias returned to Portugal following a successful rounding of the southern tip of Africa. With an eastern sea route now under its control, Portugal was no longer interested in trailblazing a western route to Asia. Columbus travelled from Portugal to both Genoa and Venice, but he received encouragement from neither. Previously he had his brother sound out Henry VII of England, to see if the English monarch might not be more amenable to Columbus's proposal. Arms of Columbus After much carefully considered hesitation Henry's invitation came, too late. Columbus had already committed himself to Spain. He had sought an audience from the monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile, who had united many kingdoms in the Iberian Peninsula by marrying, and were ruling together. On 1 May 1486, permission having been granted, Columbus presented his plans to Queen Isabella, who, in turn, referred it to a committee. After the passing of much time, these savants of Spain, like their counterparts in Portugal, reported back that Columbus had judged the distance to Asia much too short. They pronounced the idea impractical, and advised their Royal Highnesses to pass on the proposed venture.

252 However, to keep Columbus from taking his ideas elsewhere, and perhaps to keep their options open, the Catholic Monarchs gave him an annual allowance of 12,000 maravedis and in 1489 furnished him with a letter ordering all cities and towns under their domain to provide him food and lodging at no cost. [15] Columbus and Queen Isabella. Detail of the Columbus After continually lobbying at the Spanish court and two years of negotiations, he finally had success in Ferdinand and Isabella had just conquered Granada, the last Muslim stronghold on the Iberian peninsula, and they received Columbus in Córdoba, in the Alcázar castle. Isabella turned Columbus down on the advice of her confessor, and he was leaving town by mule in despair, when Ferdinand intervened. Isabella then sent a royal guard to fetch him and Ferdinand later claimed credit for being "the principal cause why those islands were discovered". About half of the financing was to come from private Italian investors, whom Columbus had already lined up. Financially broke after the Granada campaign, the monarchs left it to the monument in Madrid (1885). royal treasurer to shift funds among various royal accounts on behalf of the enterprise. Columbus was to be made "Admiral of the Seas" and would receive a portion of all profits. The terms were unusually generous, but as his son later wrote, the monarchs did not really expect him to return. According to the contract that Columbus made with King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, if Columbus discovered any new islands or mainland, he would receive many high rewards. In terms of power, he would be given the rank of Admiral of the Ocean Sea and appointed Viceroy and Governor of all the new lands. He had the right to nominate three persons, from whom the sovereigns would choose one, for any office in the new lands. He would be entitled to 10% of all the revenues from the new lands in perpetuity; this part was denied to him in the contract, although it was one of his demands. Additionally, he would also have the option of buying one-eighth interest in any commercial venture with the new lands and receive one-eighth of the profits. First voyage Departure of the first voyage from the port of Palos, by Evaristo Dominguez, in the municipality of Palos de la Frontera. Replica of Santa Maria Columbus was later arrested in 1500 and supplanted from these posts. After his death, Columbus's sons, Diego and Fernando, took legal action to enforce their father's contract. Many of the smears against Columbus were initiated by the Castilian crown during these lengthy court cases, known as the pleitos colombinos. The family had some Captain's Ensign of Columbus claims the New Columbus's Ships World in a chromolithograph by the Prang Education Company, 1893 success in their first litigation, as a judgment of 1511 confirmed Diego's position as Viceroy, but reduced his powers. Diego resumed litigation in 1512, which lasted until 1536, and further disputes continued until [16]

253 First voyage On the evening of 3 August 1492, Columbus departed from Palos de la Frontera with three ships; one larger carrack, Santa María, nicknamed Gallega (the Galician), and two smaller caravels, Pinta (the Painted) and Santa Clara, nicknamed Niña after her owner Juan Niño of Moguer. [17] They were property of Juan de la Cosa and the Pinzón brothers (Martín Alonso and Vicente Yáñez), but the monarchs forced the Palos inhabitants to contribute to the expedition. Columbus first First voyage sailed to the Canary Islands, which were owned by Castile, where he restocked the provisions and made repairs. On 6 September he departed San Sebastián de la Gomera for what turned out to be a five-week voyage across the ocean. Land was sighted at 2 a.m. on 12 October 1492, by a sailor named Rodrigo de Triana (also known as Juan Rodríguez Bermejo) aboard Pinta. [18] Columbus called the island (in what is now The Bahamas) San Salvador; the natives called it Guanahani. Exactly which island in the Bahamas this corresponds to is an unresolved topic; prime candidates are Samana Cay, Plana Cays, or San Salvador Island (so named in 1925 in the belief that it was Columbus's San Salvador). The indigenous people he encountered, the Lucayan, Taíno or Arawak, were peaceful and friendly. From the 12 October 1492 entry in his journal he wrote of them, "Many of the men I have seen have scars on their bodies, and when I made signs to them to find out how this happened, they indicated that people from other nearby islands come to San Salvador to capture them; they defend themselves the best they can. I believe that people from the mainland come here to take them as slaves. They ought to make good and skilled servants, for they repeat very quickly whatever we say to them. I think they can very easily be made Christians, for they seem to have no religion. If it pleases our Lord, I will take six of them to Your Highnesses when I depart, in order that they may learn our language." [19] Lacking modern weaponry and even metal-forged swords or pikes, he remarked upon their tactical vulnerability, writing, "I could conquer the whole of them with 50 men, and govern them as I pleased." [20] Columbus also explored the northeast coast of Cuba (landed on 28 October) and the northern coast of Hispaniola, by 5 December. Here, the Santa Maria ran aground on Christmas morning 1492 and had to be abandoned. He was received by the native cacique Guacanagari, who gave him permission to leave some of his men behind. Columbus left 39 men and founded the settlement of La Navidad in what is now present-day Haiti. [21] Before returning to Spain, Columbus also kidnapped some ten to twenty-five natives and took them back with him. Only seven or eight of the native Indians arrived in Spain alive, but they made quite an impression on Seville. [18] Columbus headed for Spain, but another storm forced him into Lisbon. He anchored next to the King's harbor patrol ship on 4 March 1493 in Portugal. After spending more than one week in Portugal, he set sail for Spain. He crossed the bar of Saltes and entered the harbour of Palos on 15 March Word of his finding new lands rapidly spread throughout Europe. There is increasing modern scientific evidence that this voyage also brought syphilis back from the New World. Many of the crew members who served on this voyage later joined the army of King Charles VIII in his invasion of Italy in 1495 resulting in the spreading of the disease across Europe and as many as 5 million deaths. [22][23]

254 Second voyage Columbus left Cádiz (modern Spain), on 24 September 1493 to find new territories, with 17 ships carrying supplies, and about 1,200 men to colonize the region. On 13 October the ships left the Canary Islands as they had on the first voyage, following a more southerly course. On 3 November 1493, Columbus sighted a rugged island that he named Dominica (Latin for Sunday); later that day, he landed at Marie-Galante, which he named Second voyage Santa Maria la Galante. After sailing past Les Saintes (Los Santos, The Saints), he arrived at Guadeloupe (Santa María de Guadalupe de Extremadura, after the image of the Virgin Mary venerated at the Spanish monastery of Villuercas, in Guadalupe (Spain), which he explored between 4 November and 10 November Michele da Cuneo, Columbus s childhood friend from Savona, sailed with Columbus during the second voyage and wrote: "In my opinion, since Genoa was Genoa, there was never born a man so well equipped and expert in the art of navigation as the said lord Admiral." [24] Columbus named the small island of "Saona... to honor Michele da Cuneo, his friend from Savona." [25] The exact course of his voyage through the Lesser Antilles is debated, but it seems likely that he turned north, sighting and naming several islands, including Montserrat (for Santa Maria de Montserrate, after the Blessed Virgin of the Monastery of Montserrat, which is located on the Mountain of Montserrat, in Catalonia, Spain), Antigua (after a church in Seville, Spain, called Santa Maria la Antigua, meaning "Old St. Mary's"), Redonda (for Santa Maria la Redonda, Spanish for "round", owing to the island's shape), Nevis (derived from the Spanish, Nuestra Señora de las Nieves, meaning "Our Lady of the Snows", because Columbus thought the clouds over Nevis Peak made the island resemble a snow-capped mountain), Saint Kitts (for St. Christopher, patron of sailors and travelers), Sint Eustatius (for the early Roman martyr, St. Eustachius), Saba (also for St. Christopher?), Saint Martin (San Martin), and Saint Croix (from the Spanish Santa Cruz, meaning "Holy Cross"). He also sighted the island chain of the Virgin Islands (and named them Islas de Santa Ursula y las Once Mil Virgenes, Saint Ursula and the 11,000 Virgins, a cumbersome name that was usually shortened, both on maps of the time and in common parlance, to Islas Virgenes), and he also named the islands of Virgin Gorda (the fat virgin), Tortola, and Peter Island (San Pedro). He continued to the Greater Antilles, and landed at Puerto Rico (originally San Juan Bautista, in honor of Saint John the Baptist, a name that was later supplanted by Puerto Rico (English: Rich Port) while the capital retained the name, San Juan) on 19 November One of the first skirmishes between native Americans and Europeans since the time of the Vikings [26] took place when Columbus's men rescued two boys who had just been castrated by their captors. On 22 November Columbus returned to Hispaniola, where he intended to visit Fuerte de la Navidad (Christmas Fort), built during his first voyage, and located on the northern coast of Haiti; Fuerte de la Navidad was found in ruins, destroyed by the native Taino people, whereupon, Columbus moved more than 100 kilometers eastwards, establishing a new settlement, which he called La Isabela, likewise on the northern coast of Hispaniola, in the present-day Dominican Republic. However, La Isabela proved to be a poorly chosen location, and the settlement was short-lived.

255 He left Hispaniola on 24 April 1494, arrived at Cuba (naming it Juana) on 30 April. He explored the southern coast of Cuba, which he believed to be a peninsula rather than an island, and several nearby islands, including the Isle of Pines (Isla de las Pinas, later known as La Evangelista, The Evangelist). He reached Jamaica on May 5. He retraced his route to Hispaniola, arriving on August 20, before he finally returned to Spain. Third voyage On 30 May 1498, Columbus left with six ships from Sanlúcar, Spain, for his third trip to the New World. He was accompanied by the father of Bartolomé de Las Casas. Columbus led the fleet to the Portuguese island of Porto Santo, his wife's native land. He then sailed to Madeira and spent some time there with the Portuguese captain João Gonçalves da Camara before sailing to the Canary Islands and Third voyage Cape Verde. Columbus landed on the south coast of the island of Trinidad on 31 July. From 4 August through 12 August he explored the Gulf of Paria which separates Trinidad from Venezuela. He explored the mainland of South America, including the Orinoco River. He also sailed to the islands of Chacachacare and Margarita Island and sighted and named Tobago (Bella Forma) and Grenada (Concepcion). Location of city of Sanlúcar de Barrameda, the starting point for Columbus's third journey. Columbus returned to Hispaniola on 19 August to find that many of the Spanish settlers of the new colony were discontented, having been misled by Columbus about the supposedly bountiful riches of the new world. An entry in his journal from September 1498 reads, "From here one might send, in the name of the Holy Trinity, as many slaves as could be sold..." Since Columbus supported the enslavement of the Hispaniola natives for economic reasons, he ultimately refused to baptize them, as Catholic law forbade the enslavement of Christians. [27] He had some of his crew hanged for disobeying him. A number of returning settlers and sailors lobbied against Columbus at the Spanish court, accusing him and his brothers of gross mismanagement. On his return he was arrested for a period (see Governorship and arrest section below). Fourth voyage Columbus made a fourth voyage nominally in search of the Strait of Malacca to the Indian Ocean. Accompanied by his brother Bartolomeo and his 13-year-old son Fernando, he left Cádiz, (modern Spain), on 11 May 1502, with the ships Capitana, Gallega, Vizcaína and Santiago de Palos. He sailed to Arzila on the Moroccan coast to rescue Portuguese soldiers whom he had heard were under siege by the Moors. On June 15, they landed at Carbet on the island of Martinique (Martinica). A hurricane was brewing, so he continued on, hoping to find shelter on Hispaniola. He arrived at Santo Domingo on 29 June but was denied port, and the new governor refused to listen to his storm prediction. Instead, while Columbus's ships sheltered at the mouth of the Rio Jaina, the first Spanish treasure fleet sailed into the hurricane. Columbus's ships

256 survived with only minor damage, while twenty-nine of the thirty ships in the governor's fleet were lost to the 1 July storm. In addition to the ships, 500 lives (including that of the governor, Francisco de Bobadilla) and an immense cargo of gold were surrendered to the sea. After a brief stop at Jamaica, Columbus sailed to Central America, arriving at Guanaja (Isla de Pinos) in the Bay Islands off the coast of Honduras on 30 July. Here Bartolomeo found native merchants and a large canoe, which was described as "long as a galley" and was filled with cargo. On 14 August he landed on the American mainland at Puerto Castilla, near Trujillo, Honduras. He spent two months exploring the coasts of Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica, before arriving in Almirante Bay, Panama on 16 October. Fourth voyage On 5 December 1502, Columbus and his crew found themselves in a storm unlike any they had ever experienced. In his journal Columbus writes. For nine days I was as one lost, without hope of life. Eyes never beheld the sea so angry, so high, so covered with foam. The wind not only prevented our progress, but offered no opportunity to run behind any headland for shelter; hence we were forced to keep out in this bloody ocean, seething like a pot on a hot fire. Never did the sky look more terrible; for one whole day and night it blazed like a furnace, and the lightning broke with such violence that each time I wondered if it had carried off my spars and sails; the flashes came with such fury and frightfulness that we all thought that the ship would be blasted. All this time the water never ceased to fall from the sky; I do not say it rained, for it was like another deluge. The men were so worn out that they longed for death to end their dreadful suffering. [28] In Panama, Columbus learned from the natives of gold and a strait to another ocean. After much exploration, in January 1503 he established a garrison at the mouth of the Rio Belen. On 6 April one of the ships became stranded in the river. At the same time, the garrison was attacked, and the other ships were damaged (Shipworms also damaged the ships in tropical waters. [29] ). Columbus left for Hispaniola on 16 April heading north. On 10 May he sighted the Cayman Islands, naming them "Las Tortugas" after the numerous sea turtles there. His ships next sustained more damage in a storm off the coast of Cuba. Unable to travel farther, on 25 June 1503, they were beached in St. Ann's Bay, Jamaica. Columbus intimidates natives by predicting lunar eclipse For a year Columbus and his men remained stranded on Jamaica. A Spaniard, Diego Mendez, and some natives paddled a canoe to get help from Hispaniola. That island's governor, Nicolás de Ovando y Cáceres, detested Columbus and obstructed all efforts to rescue him and his men. In the meantime Columbus, in a desperate effort to induce the natives to continue provisioning him and his hungry men, successfully intimidated the natives by correctly predicting a lunar eclipse for 29 February 1504, using the Ephemeris of the German astronomer Regiomontanus. [30] Help finally arrived, no thanks to the governor, on 29 June 1504, and Columbus and his men arrived in Sanlúcar, Spain, on 7 November. Governorship and arrest

257 During Columbus's stint as governor and viceroy, he had been accused of governing tyrannically. Columbus was physically and mentally exhausted; his body was wracked by arthritis and his eyes by ophthalmia. In October 1499, he sent two ships to Spain, asking the Court of Spain to appoint a royal commissioner to help him govern. The Court appointed Francisco de Bobadilla, a member of the Order of Calatrava; however, his authority stretched far beyond what Columbus had requested. Bobadilla was given total control as governor from 1500 until his death in Arriving in Santo Domingo while Columbus was away, Bobadilla was immediately peppered with complaints about all three Columbus brothers: Christopher, Bartolomé, and Diego. Consuelo Varela, a Spanish historian, states: "Even those who loved him [Columbus] had to admit the atrocities that had taken place." [31][32] As a result of these testimonies and without being allowed a word in his own defense, Columbus, upon his return, had manacles placed on his arms and chains on his feet and was cast into prison to await return to Spain. He was 53 years old. On 1 October 1500, Columbus and his two brothers, likewise in chains, were sent back to Spain. Once in Cádiz, a grieving Columbus wrote to a friend at court: It is now seventeen years since I came to serve these princes with the Enterprise of the Indies. They made me pass eight of them in discussion, and at the end rejected it as a thing of jest. Nevertheless I persisted therein... Over there I have placed under their sovereignty more land than there is in Africa and Europe, and more than Columbus before the Queen, 1,700 islands... In seven years I, by the divine will, made imagined [33] by Emanuel Gottlieb that conquest. At a time when I was entitled to expect Leutze, 1843 rewards and retirement, I was incontinently arrested and sent home loaded with chains... The accusation was brought out of malice on the basis of charges made by civilians who had revolted and wished to take possession on the land... I beg your graces, with the zeal of faithful Christians in whom their Highnesses have confidence, to read all my papers, and to consider how I, who came from so far to serve these princes... now at the end of my days have been despoiled of my honor and my property without cause, wherein is neither justice nor mercy. [34] According to testimony of 23 witnesses during his trial, Columbus regularly used barbaric acts of torture to govern Hispaniola. [27] Columbus and his brothers lingered in jail for six weeks before busy King Ferdinand ordered their release. Not long after, the king and queen summoned the Columbus brothers to the Alhambra palace in Granada. There the royal couple heard the brothers' pleas; restored their freedom and wealth; and, after much persuasion, agreed to fund Columbus' fourth voyage. But the door was firmly shut on Columbus' role as governor. Henceforth Nicolás de Ovando y Cáceres was to be the new governor of the West Indies. Later life While Columbus had always given the conversion of non-believers as one reason for his explorations, he grew increasingly religious in his later years. In his later years, Columbus demanded that the Spanish Crown give him 10% of all profits made in the new lands, pursuant to earlier agreements. Because he had been relieved of his duties as governor, the crown did not feel bound by these contracts, and his demands were rejected. After his death, his family sued in the pleitos colombinos for part of the profits from trade with America.

258 On 20 May 1506, at about age 55, Columbus died in Valladolid, fairly wealthy from the gold his men had accumulated in Hispaniola. At his death, he was still convinced that his journeys had been along the east coast of Asia. According to a study, published in February 2007, by Antonio Rodriguez Cuartero, Department of Internal Medicine of the University of Granada, he died of a heart attack caused by Reiter's Syndrome (also called reactive arthritis). According to his personal diaries and notes by contemporaries, the symptoms of this illness (burning pain during urination, pain and swelling of the knees, and conjunctivitis) were clearly evident in his last three years. [35] Sculpture of Santa María, Columbus' flagship in his first voyage, at Columbus' House in Valladolid Columbus' remains were first interred at Valladolid, then at the monastery of La Cartuja in Seville (southern Spain) by the will of his son Diego, who had been governor of Hispaniola. In 1542 the remains were transferred to Santo Domingo, in eastern Hispaniola. In 1795 the French took over Hispaniola, and the remains were moved to Havana, Cuba. After Cuba became independent following the Spanish-American War in 1898, the remains were moved back to Spain, to the Cathedral of Seville, [36] where they were placed on an elaborate catafalque. However, a lead box bearing an inscription identifying "Don Christopher Columbus" and containing bone fragments and a bullet was discovered at Santo Domingo in To lay to rest claims that the wrong relics had been moved to Havana and that Columbus' remains had been left buried in the cathedral at Santo Domingo, DNA samples were taken in June 2003 (History Today August 2003). The results are not conclusive. Initial observations suggested that the bones did not appear to belong to somebody with the physique or age at death associated with Columbus. [37] DNA extraction proved difficult; only a few limited fragments of mitochondrial DNA could be isolated. However, such as they are, these do appear to match corresponding DNA from Columbus's brother, giving support to the idea that the two had the same mother and that the body therefore may be that of Columbus. [38][39] The authorities in Santo Domingo have not allowed the remains there to be exhumed, so it is unknown if any of those remains could be from Columbus's body. The location of the Dominican remains is in "the Colombus Lighthouse" or Faro a Colón which is in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Legacy Columbus' tomb in Seville Cathedral. The remains are borne by four statues of kings representing the Kingdoms of Castile, Leon, Aragon and Navarre. Although among non-native Americans Christopher Columbus is traditionally considered the discoverer of America, Columbus was preceded by the various cultures and civilizations of the indigenous peoples of the Americas, as well as the Western world's Vikings at L'Anse aux Meadows. He is regarded more accurately as the person who brought the Americas into the forefront of Western attention. "Columbus' claim to fame isn't that he got there first," explains historian Martin Dugard, "it's that he stayed." [40] The popular idea that he was first person to envision a rounded earth is false. The rounded shape of the earth has already been known in ancient times. Jeffrey Russell states that the modern view that people of the Middle Ages believed that the Earth was flat is said to have entered the popular imagination in the 19th century, thanks largely to the publication of Washington Irving's fantasy The Life and Voyages of

259 Christopher Columbus in [41] By Columbus's time, educated men were in agreement as to its spherical shape, even if many people believed otherwise. More contentious was the size of the earth, and whether it was possible in practical terms to cross such a vast body of water: the longest any ship (European or otherwise) had gone without making landfall did not much exceed 30 days when Columbus embarked on his first audacious voyage lasting 36 days across the Atlantic Ocean (from the Canari Islands). Replicas of Niña, Pinta and Santa Maria sailed from Spain to the Chicago Columbian Exposition. Amerigo Vespucci's travel journals, published , convinced Martin Waldseemüller that the discovered place was not India, as Columbus always believed, but a new continent, and in 1507, a year after Columbus's death, Waldseemüller published a world map calling the new continent America from Vespucci's Latinized name "Americus". Historically the British had downplayed Columbus and emphasized the role of the Venetian John Cabot as a pioneer explorer; but for the Columbus Lighthouse (Faro a emerging United States, Colón), Santo Domingo Cabot made a poor national hero. Veneration of Columbus in America dates back to colonial times. The name Columbia for "America" first appeared in a 1738 weekly publication of the debates of the British Parliament. [42] The use of Columbus as a founding figure of New World nations and the use of the word 'Columbia', or simply the name 'Columbus', spread rapidly after the American Revolution. In 1812, the name 'Columbus' was given to the newly founded capitol of Ohio. During the last two decades of the 18th century the name "Columbia" was given to the federal capital District of Columbia, South Carolina's new capital city, Columbia, South Carolina, the Columbia River, and numerous other places. Outside the United States the name was used in 1819 for the Gran Colombia, a precursor of the modern Republic of Colombia. The main plaza in Mayagüez, Puerto Rico is called Plaza Colón in honor of the Admiral. [43][44] A candidate for sainthood in the Catholic Church in 1866, Celebration of Columbus's legacy perhaps reached a zenith in 1892 when the 400th anniversary of his first arrival in the Americas occurred. Monuments to Columbus like the Columbian Exposition in Chicago were erected throughout the United States and Latin America extolling him. Numerous cities, towns, counties, and streets have been named after him, including the capital cities of two U.S. states, Ohio and South Carolina. In 1909, descendants of Columbus undertook to dismantle the Columbus family chapel in Spain and move it to a site near State College, Pennsylvania, where it may now be visited by the public. At the museum associated with the chapel, there are a number of Columbus relics worthy of note, including the armchair which the "Admiral of the Ocean Sea" used at his chart table. More recent views of Columbus, particularly those of Native Americans, have tended to be much more critical. [45][46][47] This is because the native Taino of Hispaniola, where Columbus began a rudimentary tribute system for gold and cotton, disappeared so rapidly after contact with the Spanish, due to overwork and especially, after 1519, when the first pandemic struck Hispaniola, [48] European diseases. The native Taino people of the island were systematically enslaved via the encomienda system. The pre-columbian population is estimated to have been perhaps 250, ,000. According to the historian Gonzalo Fernandez de Oviedo y Valdes by 1548, 56 years after Columbus landed, less than five hundred Taino were left on the island. [49] In another hundred years, perhaps only a handful remained. However, some analyses of the question of Columbus' legacy for Native Americans do not clearly distinguish between the actions of Columbus himself, who died well before the first pandemic to hit Hispaniola or the height of the encomienda system, and those of later European governors and colonists on Hispaniola.

260 Physical appearance Although an abundance of artwork involving Christopher Columbus exists, no authentic contemporary portrait has been found. [50] Sometime between 1505 and 1536, Alejo Fernández painted an altarpiece, The Virgin of the Navigators, that includes a depiction of Columbus. The painting was commissioned for a chapel in Seville's Casa de Contratación (House of Trade) and remains there to this day. [citation needed] James W. Loewen, author of Lies My Teacher Told Me, said that the various posthumous portraits have no historical value. [51] Columbus in the The Virgin of the Navigators face red. At the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition, 71 alleged portraits of Columbus were displayed, most did not match contemporary descriptions. [52] These writings describe him as having reddish hair, which turned to white early in his life, light colored eyes, [53] as well as being a lighter skinned person with too much sun exposure turning his In keeping with descriptions of Columbus having had auburn hair or (later) white hair, some textbooks use the Sebastiano del Piombo painting (which in its normal-sized resolution shows Columbus's hair as auburn) so often that it has become the iconic image of Columbus accepted by popular culture. Accounts consistently describe Columbus as a large and physically strong man of some six feet or more in height, easily taller than the average European of his day. [54] In popular culture Columbus is a significant historical figure and has been depicted in fiction and in popular films and television. In 1958, the Italian playwright Dario Fo wrote a satirical play about Columbus titled Isabella, tre caravelle e un cacciaballe (Isabella, three tall ships and a con man). Fo was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in The play has been translated in English by Ed Emery in 1988, and it's available for download on the internet. [55] In 1991, author Salman Rushdie published a fictional representation of Columbus in The New Yorker, "Christopher Columbus and Queen Isabella of Spain Consummate Their Relationship, Santa Fe, January, 1492". [56] In Pastwatch: The Redemption of Christopher Columbus (1996) science fiction novelist Orson Scott Card focuses on Columbus's life and activities, but the novel's action also deals with a group of scientists from the future who travel back to the 15th century with the goal of changing the pattern of European contact with the Americas. British author Stephen Baxter includes Columbus's quest for royal sponsorship as a crucial historical event in his 2007 science fiction novel Navigator (ISBN Statue of Isabella and Columbus under the dome of the California State Capitol ), the third entry in the author's Time's Tapestry Series. American author Mark Twain based the time traveller's trick in A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court on Columbus's successful prediction of a lunar eclipse on his fourth voyage to the new world. Columbus has also been portrayed in cinema and television, including mini-series, films and cartoons. Most notably he was portrayed by Gérard Depardieu in 1992 film by Ridley Scott 1492:

261 Conquest of Paradise. Scott presented Columbus as a forward thinking idealist as opposed to the view that he was ruthless and responsible for the misfortune of Native Americans. Other productions include TV mini-series Christopher Columbus (1985) with Gabriel Byrne as Columbus, Christopher Columbus: The Discovery, a 1992 biopic film by Alexander Salkind, Christopher Columbus, a 1949 film starring Fredric March as Columbus, and comedy Carry On Columbus (1992). Christopher Columbus appears as a Great Explorer in the 2008 strategy video game Civilization Revolution. [57] Notes 1. ^ "Parks Canada L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site of Canada". Pc.gc.ca Retrieved ^ Rime diverse, Pavia, 1595, p ^ Ra Gerusalemme deliverâ, Genoa, 1755, XV ^ Phillips, William D., and Carla Rahn Phillips. The Worlds of Christopher Columbus. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Page 9. "Even with less than a complete record, however, scholars can state with assurance that Columbus was born in the republic of Genoa in northern Italy, although perhaps not in the city itself, and that his family made a living in the wool business as weavers and merchants...the two main early biographies of Columbus have been taken as literal truth by hundreds of writers, in large part because they were written by individual closely connected to Columbus or his writings....both biographies have serious shortcomings as evidence." 5. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica, 1993 ed., Vol. 16, pp. 605ff / Morison, Christopher Columbus, 1955 ed., pp. 14ff 6. ^ "Christopher Columbus Biography Page 2". Columbus-day.123holiday.net. Retrieved ^ "Marco Polo et le Livre des Merveilles", ISBN p ^ Boller, Paul F (1995). Not So!:Popular Myths about America from Columbus to Clinton. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN ^ Russell, Jeffrey Burton Inventing the Flat Earth. Columbus and modern historians, Praeger, New York, Westport, London 1991; Zinn, Howard A People's History of the United States, HarperCollins p ^ a b Sagan, Carl. Cosmos; the mean circumference of the Earth is 40, km. 11. ^ a b Morison, Samuel Eliot, Admiral of the Ocean Sea: The Life of Christopher Columbus Boston, ^ "The First Voyage Log". Retrieved ^ "Christopher Columbus and the Spanish Empire". Retrieved ^ "Trade Winds and the Hadley Cell". Retrieved ^ Durant, Will "The Story of Civilization" vol. vi, "The Reformation". Chapter XIII, page ^ Mark McDonald, "Ferdinand Columbus, Renaissance Collector ( )", 2005, British Museum Press, ISBN [dead link] 17. ^ The Columbus Foundation: Santa Clara 18. ^ a b Clements R. Markham, ed. The Journal of Christopher Columbus (During His First Voyage). ASIN B000I1OMXM.

262 19. ^ Robert H. Fuson, ed The Log of Christopher Columbus, Tab Books, 1992, International Marine Publishing, ISBN ^ "Columbus Day sparks debate over explorer's legacy". lumbus.day.sparks.debate.over.explorers.legacy shtml. 21. ^ Maclean, Frances (January 2008). "The Lost Fort of Columbus". Smithsonian Magazine html. Retrieved ^ CBC News Staff (January 2008). "Study traces origins of syphilis in Europe to New World". Retrieved ^ Harper, Kristin, et al. (January 2008). "On the Origin of the Treponematoses: A Phylogenetic Approach". Retrieved ^ Felipe Fernández-Armesto, Columbus, Oxford Univ. Press, (1991) pp ^ Paolo Emilio Taviani, Columbus the Great Adventure, Orion Books, New York (1991) p ^ Phillips, Jr., William D. & Carla Rahn Phillips (1992). The Worlds of Christopher Columbus. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN ^ a b Who really sailed the ocean blue in 1492?, Christian Science Monitor, 17 October ^ Morison, Samuel Eliot,Admiral of the Ocean Sea: A Life of Christopher Columbus, Boston, 1942, page ^ The History Channel. Columbus: The Lost Voyage. 30. ^ Samuel Eliot Morison, Admiral of the Ocean Sea: A Life of Christopher Columbus, 1942, pp Samuel Eliot Morison, Christopher Columbus, Mariner, 1955, pp ^ Giles Tremlett ( ). "Lost document reveals Columbus as tyrant of the Caribbean". The Guardian. Retrieved ^ Bobadilla's 48-page report derived from the testimonies of 23 people who had seen or heard about the treatment meted out by Columbus and his brothers had originally been lost for centuries, but was rediscovered in 2005 in the Spanish archives in Valladolid. It contained an account of Columbus's seven-year reign as the first Governor of the Indies. 33. ^ The Brooklyn Museum catalogue notes that the most likely source for Leutze's trio of Columbus paintings is Washington Irving s best-selling Life and Voyages of Columbus (1828). 34. ^ Samuel Eliot Morison, Admiral of the Ocean Sea: A Life of Christopher Columbus, p ^ "Cause of the death of Columbus (in Spanish)". Eluniversal.com.mx. Retrieved ^ "''Cristóbal Colón: traslación de sus restos mortales a la ciudad de Sevilla'' at Fundación Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes". Cervantesvirtual.com htm. Retrieved ^ Giles Tremlett, Young bones lay Columbus myth to rest, The Guardian, August 11, ^ Lorenzi, Rossella (October 6, 2004). "DNA Suggests Columbus Remains in Spain". Discovery News. Retrieved ^ DNA verifies Columbus remains in Spain, Associated Press, May 19, ^ Dugard, Martin. The Last Voyage of Columbus. Little, Brown and Company: New York, 2005.

263 41. ^ Russell, Jeffrey B.. "The Myth of the Flat Earth". American Scientific Affiliation. Retrieved ^ The Gentleman's Magazine, Vol. 8, June 1738, p ^ "Plaza Colón" (in Spanish). =163. Retrieved ^ Rigau, Jorge (2009). Puerto Rico Then and Now. San Diego, California: Thunder Bay Press. pp ^ "Christopher Columbus and the Indians by Howard Zinn". Newhumanist.com. Retrieved ^ "Jack Weatherford, Examining the reputation of Christopher Columbus". Hartfordhwp.com Retrieved ^ "Pre-Columbian Hispaniola Arawak/Taino Indians". Hartford-hwp.com Retrieved ^ Alfred W. Crosby, The Columbian Exchange, Westport,1972, p. 39, ^ Alfred Crosby, The Columbian Exchange (Westport, 1972) p ^ Alden, Henry Mills. Harper's New Monthly Magazine. Volume 84, Issues Published by Harper & Brothers, Originally from Harvard University. Digitized on December 16, Retrieved on September 8, 'Major, Int. Letters of Columbus, ixxxviii., says "Not one of the so-called portraits of Columbus is unquestionably authentic." They differ from each other, and cannot represent the same person.' 51. ^ Loewen, James W. Lies My Teacher Told Me. 1st Touchstone ed, Simon & Schuster, ISBN ^ Morison, Samuel Eliot Admiral of the Ocean Sea: A Life of Christopher Columbus, pg , Boston ^ Bartolomé de Las Casas, Historia de las Indias, ed. Agustín Millares Carlo, 3 vols. (Mexico City, 1951), book 1, chapter 2, 1:29. The Spanish word garzos is now usually translated as "light blue," but it seems to have connoted light grey-green or hazel eyes to Columbus's contemporaries. The word rubio can mean "blonde," "fair," or "ruddy." The Worlds of Christopher Columbus by William D. & Carla Rahn Phillips, pg ^ "DNA Tests on the bones of Christopher Columbus' bones, on his relatives and on Genoese and Catalin claimaints". Retrieved ^ "Dario Fo Archives online". Retrieved ^ The New Yorker, 17 June 1991, p ^ Civilization Revolution: Great People "CivFanatics" Retrieved on 4th September 2009 See also 1492: Conquest of Paradise, a 1992 biopic film by Ridley Scott Origin theories of Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus: The Discovery, a 1992 biopic film by Alexander Salkind Christopher Columbus, a 1949 film starring Fredric March as Columbus List of Viceroys of New Spain Viceroyalty of New Spain Bartolomeo Columbus Columbus Day Colombia, South American country named in honor of Christopher Columbus Fernando Colón Guanahani (a discussion of candidates for site of first landing) Knights of Columbus The Last Voyage of Columbus (book)

264 List of places named for Christopher Columbus Paolo dal Pozzo Toscanelli Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact Rafael Perestrello Spanish colonization of the Americas Egg of Columbus References Cohen, J.M. (1969) The Four Voyages of Christopher Columbus: Being His Own Log- Book, Letters and Dispatches with Connecting Narrative Drawn from the Life of the Admiral by His Son Hernando Colon and Others. London UK: Penguin Classics. Cook, Sherburn and Woodrow Borah (1971) Essays in Population History, Volume I. Berkeley CA: University of California Press Crosby, A. W. (1987) The Columbian Voyages: the Columbian Exchange, and their Historians. Washington, DC: American Historical Association. Davidson, Miles H. (1997) Columbus Then and Now: A Life Reexamined, Norman and London, University of Oklahoma Press. Fuson, Robert H. (1992) The Log of Christopher Columbus. International Marine Publishing Hart, Michael H. (1992) The 100. Seacaucus NJ: Carol Publishing Group. Keen, Benjamin (1978) The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his Son Ferdinand, Westport CT: Greenwood Press. Loewen, James. Lies My Teacher Told Me Morison, Samuel Eliot, Admiral of the Ocean Sea: A Life of Christopher Columbus, Boston, Little, Brown and Company, Morison, Samuel Eliot, Christopher Columbus, Mariner, Boston, Little, Brown and Company, Phillips, W. D. and C. R. Phillips (1992) The Worlds of Christopher Columbus. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press. Turner, Jack (2004) Spice: The History of a Temptation. New York: Random House. Wilford, John Noble (1991) The Mysterious History of Columbus: An Exploration of the Man, the Myth, the Legacy. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. External links Films Christopher Columbus Fountain, Kenosha, Wisconsin (Michael Martino, sculptor) The Letter of Columbus to Luis de Sant Angel Announcing His Discovery Podcasts and audio about Columbus Columbus Navigation Images of Christopher Columbus and His Voyages Selections from the Collections of the Library of Congress. Works by Christopher Columbus at Project Gutenberg The Eclipse That Saved Columbus Science News October 7, 2006 Christopher Columbus and the Indians By Howard Zinn, from A People's History of the United States Columbus in the Bay of Pigs a historical poem about Columbus's invasion and Indigenous resistance Explorer Columbus 'named Pedro Scotto' Animated Hero Classics: Christopher Columbus (1991) at the Internet Movie Database 1492: Conquest of Paradise (1992) at the Internet Movie Database

265 Sister projects Quotations related to Christopher Columbus at Wikiquote Media related to Christopher Columbus at Wikimedia Commons "Columbus, Christopher". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.) Persondata NAME Columbus, Christopher ALTERNATIVE NAMES Cristoforo Colombo, Cristóbal Colón SHORT DESCRIPTION navigator and an admiral for the Crown of Castile DATE OF BIRTH c PLACE OF BIRTH Genoa DATE OF DEATH 20 May 1506 PLACE OF DEATH Valladolid, Spain

266 Juan Pablo Duarte Juan Pablo Duarte y Díez (January 26, 1813 July 15, 1876) was a 19th century visionary and liberal thinker along with Francisco del Rosario Sanchez and Ramón Matías Mella, is widely considered the architect of the Dominican Republic and its independence from Haitian rule in His aspiration for the Spanish-speaking portion of the Hispaniola Island was to help create a self-sufficient nation established on the liberal ideals of a democratic government. The highest mountain in the Caribbean (Pico Duarte), a park in New York City, and many other noteworthy landmarks carry his name suggesting the historical importance Dominicans have given to this man. His vision for the country was quickly undermined by the conservative elites, who sought to align the new nation with colonial powers and turn back to traditional regionalism. Nevertheless, his democratic ideals, although never fully fleshed-out and somewhat imprecise, have served as guiding principles, albeit mostly in theory, for most Dominican governments. His failures made him a political martyr in the eyes of subsequent generations. Juan Pablo Duarte Early years Duarte was born in colonial Santo Domingo (current capital city of Dominican Republic) during the period commonly called "The Era of Foolish Spain," or España Boba. In 1802, Duarte s future parents, Juan José Duarte and Manuela Díez Jiménez, emigrated from the Spanish colony on Hispaniola to Mayagüez, Puerto Rico. They were evading the imposition of French rule over the eastern side of the island. This transformation of the island s colonial experience became apparent when Toussaint Louverture, governor of the French colony of Saint Domingue (which occupied the western side) took control of the Spanish side as well. At the time, France and Saint Domingue were going through exhaustive social movements, namely, the French and the Haitian revolutions (French Revolution and Haitian Revolution). In occupying the Spanish side the legendary Black governor was following the indications accorded by the governments of France and Spain in the Peace of Basel signed in Upon arrival in Santo Domingo, Louverture immediately restricted slavery (however complete abolition of slavery on the eastern Hispaniola came in 1822), and in addition began converting the old Spanish colonial institutions into French Revolutionary venues of liberal government. Puerto Rico was still a Spanish colony, and Mayagüez, being so close to Hispaniola, just across the Mona Passage, had become a refuge for the like of the Duartes and those Spanish colonists who did not accept the new French rule. Most scholars assume that the Duartes first son, Vicente Celestino, was born here at this time on the eastern side of the Mona Passage. The family returned to Santo Domingo in 1809, however, after the War of Reconquista (Santo Domingo) returned the eastern side of Hispaniola to Spanish control. The Struggle for Independence In 1821, when Duarte was eight years old, the Creole elite of Santo Domingo, proclaimed its independence from Spanish rule, and renamed the former Spanish colony on Hispaniola, Spanish Haiti. The most prominent leader of the coup against the colonial government was one of

267 its former supporters, José Núñez de Cáceres. The select and privileged group of individuals he represented were tired of being ignored by the Crown, and some were also concerned with the new liberal turn in Madrid. Their deed was not an isolated event. The 1820s was a time of profound political changes throughout the entire Spanish Atlantic World, which affected directly the lives of petite bourgeoisie like the Duartes. It began with a demoralizing conflict between Spanish royalists and liberals in the Iberian Peninsula, which is known today as the Spanish Civil War, American patriots in arms, like Simón Bolivar in South America, immediately reaped the fruits of the metropolis destabilization, and began pushing back colonial troops, like what happened in the Battle of Carabobo, and then in the consequential Battle of Ayacucho. Even conservative elites in New Spain (like Agustín de Iturbide in Mexico), who had no intention of being ruled by Spanish anticlericals, moved to break ties with the crown in Spain. However, the 1821 emancipatory events in Santo Domingo were to be different from those in the continent because they will not last. Historians today call this elite s brief courtship with sovereignty, the Ephemeral Independence. Although he was not much aware of what was going on at this time because of his young age, Juan Pablo Duarte was to look back at this affair with nostalgia, wishing that it would have lasted. Statue of Juan Pablo Duarte in front of mount La Pelona The Cáceres' provisional government requested support from Simón Bolivar's new republican government, but it was ignored. Neighboring Haiti, a former French colony that was already independent, decided to invade the Spanish side of the island. This tactic was not new. It was meant to keep the island out of the hands of European imperial powers and thus a way to safeguard the Haitian Revolution. Haiti's president Jean-Pierre Boyer sent an invasion army that took over the eastern (Spanish) portion of Hispaniola (La Española). Haiti then abolished slavery once and for all, and occupied and absorbed Santo Domingo into the Republic of Haiti. Struggles between Boyer and the old colonial elite, helped produce a mass migration of planters and resources. It also led to the closing of the university, and eventually, to the elimination of the colonial elite and the establishment of a new bourgeoisie dominant class in alignment with the liberal Haitian government. Following the bourgeoisie custom of sending promising sons abroad for education, the Duartes' sent Juan Pablo to the United States and Europe in On July 16, 1838, Duarte and others established a secret patriotic society called La Trinitaria, which helped undermine Haitian occupation. Some of its first members included Juan Pablo Duarte, Juan Isidro Pérez, Pedro Alejandro Pina, Jacinto de la Concha, Félix María Ruiz, José María Serra, Benito González, Felipe Alfau and Juan Nepomuceno Ravelo. Later, he and others founded another society, called La Filantrópica, which had a more public presence, seeking to spread veiled idead of liberation through theatrical stages. All of this, along with the help of many who wanted to be rid of the Haitians who ruled over Dominicans led to the proclamation of independence on February 27, 1844 (Dominican War of Independence). However, Duarte had already been exiled to Caracas the previous year for his insurgent conduct. He continued to correspond with members of his family and members of the independence movement. Independence could not be denied and after many struggles, the Dominican Republic was born. A republican form of government was established where a free people would hold ultimate power and, through the voting process, would give rise to a democracy where every citizen would, in theory, be equal and free. Therefore with its flag and beautiful coat of arms, declaring "God, Fatherland and Freedom", all of these inspired, evoked and expressed by Duarte came into being a country that would soon owe this one man its existence, who gave his fortune and the very best of his life to the cause he fervently believed in.

268 Duarte was supported by many as a candidate for the presidency of the new born Republic. Mella, wanted Duarte to simply declare himself president. Duarte never giving up on the principles of democracy and fairness he lived by would only accept if voted in by a majority of the Dominican people. However the forces of those favoring Spanish sovereignty as protection from continued Haitian threats and invasions, led by general Pedro Santana a large landowner from the eastern lowlands, took over and exiled Duarte. In 1845, Santana exiled the entire Duarte family. Santana was awarded the hereditary title of Marqués de las Carreras by the Spanish Queen Isabel II and died soon after. Juan Pablo Duarte, then living in Venezuela was made the Dominican Consul and provided with a pension to honor him for his sacrifice. But even this after some time was not honored and he lost commission and pension. He, Juan Pablo Duarte, the poet, philosopher, writer, actor, soldier, general, dreamer and hero died nobly in Caracas, Venezuela, at the age of 63. His remains were transferred to Dominican soil in 1884, ironically by president (dictator) Ulises Heureaux a man of Haitian descent, and were given a proper burial with full honors. He is entombed in a beautiful mausoleum at the Count's gate alongside Sanchez and Mella, who at that spot fired the rifle shot that propelled them into legend. His birth is commemorated by Dominicans every January 26. External links U.S. Library of Congress - Country Studies - Dominican Republic- Haiti and Santo Domingo Statue in Juan Pablo Duarte Square, New York City

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