Caribbean Underwater Cultural Heritage: Past, Present & Future

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1 Caribbean Underwater Cultural Heritage: Past, Present & Future 3 rd Caribbean Conference National Trusts and Preservation Societies Willemstad, Curacao (15-20 November 2017) Margaret Leshikar-Denton, PhD

2 What is Underwater Archaeology? Archaeology is a branch of anthropology, defined as the study of past peoples and cultures through the objects they left behind

3 Underwater Archaeology is simply archaeology performed in a submerged environment the goals of research into the human past are the same and methods of excavation and interpretation are the same, only the tools are different

4 Specialized Tools and Approaches enable scientists to work from the interface of land and water to the deepest oceans

5 Underwater archaeologists work in often challenging environments, including the ocean, seas, bays, lakes, rivers, springs, marshes, and cenotes, and their adjacent landscapes

6 A Range of Maritime Heritage Sites Ships, Boats, Canoes, Local watercraft, Aircraft Survivor s campsites, Fishing-related areas Navigational aids, Anchorages, Careening places Ports, Harbors, Coastal settlements, Towns, Wharves Shipbuilding sites, Coastal forts and defenses Lighthouses, Bridges, Catastrophic sites Eroded sites, Inundated terrestrial sites And Places where cultural material was lost or purposely deposited into the water

7 Lure of Treasure & Heritage Value Sites often viewed for monetary value Obstacle to preservation is lure of sunken treasure Governments can be swayed by salvors into nonbeneficial schemes with promises of great profit Profits seldom achieved, UCH lost forever However, vulnerability to exploitation is diminishing

8 Lure of Treasure & Heritage Value Countries are implementing heritage programs Museum exhibitions and preservation of sites in situ provide countries with long-term profit Historic preservation enhances a country s tourism product, provides enjoyment and education for the public, and thereby appreciation and protection for the heritage sites

9 LA & Caribbean Regional Response Latin American and Caribbean Group (GRULAC) met in Santo Domingo in 1998 & 1999 Support 1996 ICOMOS Charter Wrote the Santo Domingo Declaration

10 International Response Four meetings of Governmental Experts in Paris in 1998, 1999, 2000 and 2001 Negotiated and adopted a draft Convention, based on draft text by the International Law Association (1994) and the ICOMOS Charter developed by ICUCH (1996)

11 The 2001 UNESCO Convention Went into force on 2 January 2009 with the instrument s 20 th ratification (Barbados) There have now been 6 Sessions of the Meetings of States Parties (two in 2009, 2011, 2013, 2015, 2017) And 8 Meetings of the Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee (2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017)

12 Panama (20/05/03) Mexico (05/07/06) Paraguay (07/09/06) Ecuador (01/12/06) St. Lucia (01/02/07) Cuba (26/05/08) Barbados (02/10/08) Grenada (15/01/09) Haiti (09/11/09) 19 Latin American and Caribbean Countries have ratified (of 58 SP) Saint Kitts & Nevis (03/12/09) Argentina (19/07/10) Honduras (23/07/10) Trinidad & Tobago (27/07/10) Saint Vincent & the Grenadines (08/11/10) Jamaica (09/08/2011) Antigua & Barbuda (25/04/2013) Guyana (28/04/2014) Guatemala (03/11/2015) Bolivia (24/02/2017)

13 Principal Themes Heritage Legislation Heritage Management Heritage Research Meaning to Descendent Communities The Future

14 Help can come from beyond the region, but sustainability must come from within it Government will Cooperation Training Capacity building

15 Some Neighbors with related History Bermuda Mexico Panama Florida

16 The Bahamas Bahamas Abandoned Wrecks Act (1965) 500 year-old Lucayan Canoe (Bahamas Government & SC) 16 th Century Highborn Cay Wreck (INA) 16 th Century St. John s Bahamas Wreck (salvors) 1656 Maravillas (salvors)

17 Turks & Caicos Islands Turks & Caicos Islands Historic Wrecks Ordinance (1974) 1520s Molasses Reef Wreck Slave Ship Trouvadore (1841) (Troubador) US Navy Brig Chippewa (1816) Lucayan Paddle (AD 1100)

18 Cuba Ratified the 2001 UNESCO Convention in 2008 Laws No. 1 and No. 2 of 4 August 1977: Law for the Protection of Cultural Heritage and Law of National and Local Monuments Specialized agencies and museums Cayo Ines de Soto site ( ) Many other UCH sites

19 Haiti shipwrecks in Haitian waters Ratified the 2001 UNESCO Convention in Presidential Decree created the National Office of Marine Archaeology (OFNAM) is still not operational Cooperation with French Nautical Archaeological Research Group (GRAN) Active in the UNESCO slave routes project 2014 UNESCO STAB mission recommends: investigate, implement 2001 Convention, elaborate a national plan for UCH, undertake capacity building, augment security & surveillance of UCH, cooperate with all States Parties

20 Cayman Islands Abandoned Wreck Law of 1966 (1997 Revision) INA ( ) inventory of 77 sites, including Turtle Bone Wreck and Duck Pond Careenage Wreck of the Ten Sail: HMS Convert and 9 merchant convoy lost in 1794 (1990s) - archaeology, exhibit, publication, etc. Inventory of 140 UCH sites, including HMS Jamaica (1715) and San Miguel (1730), and other terrestrial sites No prehistoric sites discovered Land-based Maritime Heritage Trail (2003) Groundwork for Shipwreck Preserves Advocating for sustainable CIMAP maritime archaeology program

21 Jamaica Ratified the 2001 UNESCO Convention in 2011 Institute of Jamaica (1879), Jamaica National Trust Commission Act (1958), Jamaica National Heritage Trust Act (1985) 1692 Port Royal: Edwin Link & NGS (1950s), Marx (1960s), Philip Mayes (1969), Texas A&M University & INA with JNHT ( ) - Dorrick Gray trained with TAMU & INA Search for Columbus' caravels Capitana and Santiago de Palos Six 18th-century merchantmen (1990s INA/JNHT) Pedro Banks surveys for important early shipwreck sites 1983 building of a traditional Jamaican dug-out canoe Terrestrial projects on colonial sites, sites of enslaved populations, and at prehistoric Taino sites, many with maritime orientations

22 The Dominican Republic 1979 Commission of Underwater Archaeological Rescue Nuestra Señora de la Pura y Limpia Concepción (1641), Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe and Conde de Tolosa (1724), the French warship Scipión (1782), and the French ships Diómedes and Imperial (1806) Museo de las Reales Atarazanas, Museo de Arqueología Submarina del Faro a Colón, Museo de las Casas Reales Headed 1998 and 1999 GRULAC meetings 400 shipwrecks in the waters of Hispaniola Scientific projects: INA search for Santa María, Mariagalante, Gallega, San Juan, and Cardera; IU&PATaino artifacts at Manantial de la Aleta; PIMA Monte Christi Shipwreck ( ) Decree of 26 June 1999, created National Office for the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage, but today renewed threats to UCH

23 Puerto Rico Underwater Archaeology Office, Council for the Conservation and Study of Sites and Underwater Archaeological Resources compiled inventory of 200 shipwrecks Alicante (1881), Antonio López (1898), 17th-century Rincón Astrolabe Wreck, 18 th -century English warship,verified sites at Mona Island, shipyard of 17 th to 19 th centuries, PT boat, two aircraft: B-29 & PBY Catalina flying boat, Manuela, Cristobal Colon Puerto Rican Instituto de Investigaciones Costaneras (IIC), the Centre for Maritime Archaeology and Conservation (CMAC) at TAMU, and INA collaborating on surveys: have located important sites in an area where pre-columbian settlements existed and at least 66 ships have wrecked

24 The British Virgin Islands At last report, little attention had been directed towards UCH, but there was hope for change National Park Trust Act Policy includes a section on UCH

25 Anguilla Historic Wrecks Advisory Committee in mid-1990s 1772 El Buen Consejo and Jesús, María y José ICUCH and the ACUA advised, East Carolina University surveyed, mapped, provided site analysis University of Southampton identified 7 historic wrecks Anguilla Archaeological and Historical Society promoting maritime heritage Land-based Heritage Trail was created

26 Antigua & Barbuda Ratified the 2001 Convention in 2013

27 Saint Kitts & Nevis Ratified the 2001 Convention in 2009 Emphasis has been on land sites At least 200 wrecks in the Basseterre Bay area that should be protected and managed National Conservation and Environmental Management Act (1987) and the Merchant Shipping Act (2002) afford some protection for UCH 18 th -century British warship wreck in Nevis

28 Martinique, Guadeloupe & Saint Martin Departments of France, operating under French laws France ratified the 2001 Convention in 2013 GRAN ( ) inventory in Martinique Website presents the work that was accomplished List of 90 ship losses between 17 th and 20 th Centuries 73 archaeological sites, 19 identified by the ship s name (Notre Dame De Bonne-Espérance 1687; HMS Raisonable 1762; Le Cygne 1808)

29 The Dutch Islands 1992 Treaty of Malta extends to St. Maarten, St. Eustatius, Saba, Curaçao, and Bonaire Historical anchorage at Orange Bay, Saint Eustatius HMS Proselyte wrecked in 1801 Historical anchorage and Dutch warship Sirene in (1831) Bonaire Dutch frigate Alphen (1778) in Curaçao SS Mediator (1884) in Curaçao

30 Dominica Focus has been on terrestrial heritage rather than UCH Hurricane Dean uncovered a shipwreck, and there is interest in finding ways to protect and manage this and other sites Harbor survey of Roseau, Dominica

31 Saint Lucia First Caribbean country to ratify the 2001 Convention in 2007 Hosted regional UNESCO meetings in 2003 and 2008 Saint Lucia & the Saint Lucia Archaeological and Historical Society are leaders in advocating for ethical protection and management of UCH

32 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Ratified the 2001 UNESCO Convention in 2010 Many wrecks are located in the islands waters Several major pieces of legislation that attempt to protect local heritage project on an 18 th century wreck in Kingstown Harbor

33 Barbados Barbados ratified the 2001 Convention in Preservation of Antiquities and Relics Bill includes UCH 1998 Coastal Zone Management Act provides some protection for shipwrecks Barbados Museum and Historical Society is the principal contact for issues related to heritage matters Over 200 documented wrecks are located in the waters of Barbados

34 Grenada Grenada ratified the 2001 Convention in 2009 At least 174 wrecks may be located in Grenada s waters A historical shipwreck site was reported to the Grenada Government in 2009 Grenada has a plan in cooperating with France to develop protected areas

35 Trinidad &Tobago Ratified the 2001 Convention in 2010 French Louis XIV period shipwrecks lost in a 1677 battle with the Dutch were discovered in Tobago 1994 UK-based Protection of Wrecks Act 1997 Technical Advisory Committee appointed Plans to compile an inventory, review the 1994 legislation, and develop guidelines for permitting

36 Panama (20/05/03) Mexico (05/07/06) Paraguay (07/09/06) Ecuador (01/12/06) St. Lucia (01/02/07) Cuba (26/05/08) Barbados (02/10/08) Grenada (15/01/09) Haiti (09/11/09) 19 LAC Countries (of 33) have ratified All others should now ratify Saint Kitts & Nevis (03/12/09) Argentina (19/07/10) Honduras (23/07/10) Trinidad & Tobago (27/07/10) Saint Vincent & the Grenadines (08/11/10) Jamaica (09/08/2011) Antigua & Barbuda (25/04/2013) Guyana (28/04/2014) Guatemala (03/11/2015) Bolivia (24/02/2017)

37 A Course for the Future Our Tool Kit: The 2001 UNESCO Convention and the 1996 ICOMOS Charter Specific national legislation should be developed in tandem with these documents Commercial exploitation of UCH should be avoided

38 A Plan for the Future Identify & train key persons Place them in competent authorities to guide in identification, protection, management, research, conservation, and interpretation of UCH Create sustainable regional and local programs and networks Invite cooperation from overseas institutions and individuals Preserve sites in situ as a first option, but empower museums to interpret results of specialized archaeological excavation and research on significant sites Develop site inventories to make informed decisions about how to protect and manage sites Be aware that UCH treated in a sustainable way can provide benefits to education, culture, and tourism

39 Unique Responsibilities Undertake archaeological excavation selectively, with scientific objectives, adequate funding, professional staff, and provisions for documentation, conservation, curation, reporting, and public interpretation Multidisciplinary and multi-institutional collaborations should be encouraged Regional and international cooperation benefit everyone Communication among governments, professionals, and the public is essential

40 To Succeed we must be Creative, Persevere, and most of all, Cooperate

41 Thank you!

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