Microbiological quality of water for human consumption in Port-au-Prince after January 2010 earthquake

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1 Water, Innovation, Climate Change and Natural Disasters: Impacts and Prospects for the Bio Bio Region November 15-16, 2010 Concepción, Chile Microbiological quality of water for human consumption in Port-au-Prince after January 2010 earthquake Dr Evens EMMANUEL Université Quisqueya BP 796, Port-au-Prince, HAITI

2 Physical environment of Haiti Area : km 2 Temp. max : 35 Temp. min : 9 Geology : Limestone 2/3 Basalt 1/3 Rain: mm 2

3 Socioeconomic context Developping country Haiti (Less advanced country) GDP per Inhabitant < 500 USD High density of population (8.5 millions for Km 2 ) Rate of illiteracy : 57% Unemployment rate : 70% Social mutations Prevalency of infectious diseases Higher education and scientific research? 3 -

4 Quisqueya University (before Jan 12, 2010) Haiti June 1998 Laboratory of Water and Environment Quality June 2002 International Conference on Integrated Management of Water in Haiti September 2003 Master of Sciences «Ecotoxicology, Environment and Water Management» 4 -

5 LAQUE Research activities Haiti Management of water and Human health Ecotoxicological characterization of urban water and risk. Solid waste and waste water treatment 5 -

6 Water resources (Desreumaux, 1987) (1) Chaine des Matheux Baie de Port-au-Prince (2) Massif de la selle (1) Plain of Cul-de-Sac aquifer (2) Map of the Republic of Haïti Caribbean sea 1. A phreatic aquifer (clay and sand) - ranging from several to ten meters. 2. A second aquifer level (sands and gravels) - from a depth of 30 to 60 m. 3. A third and sometimes a fourth aquifer level, under pressure (gravels) from depths of 60 to 150m.

7 Water resources Quality (1) Chaine des Matheux Baie de Port-au-Prince (2) Massif de la selle (1) Plain of Cul-de-Sac aquifer (2) Map of the Republic of Haïti Caribbean sea Groundwater from Plain of Cul-de-Sac aquifer is the main source of drinking water for urban population of Port-au- Prince. Previous researches have showed an impact of waters quality due to the contribution of urban contaminants such as heavy metals. by 2004, high concentration of lead (40 µg.l -1 ) has been found in some boreholes from this aquifer

8 Water resources Quality (Emmanuel et al, 2009) (1) Chaine des Matheux Baie de Port-au-Prince (2) Massif de la selle (1) Plain of Cul-de-Sac aquifer (2) Map of the Republic of Haïti Caribbean sea

9 Water microbiological quality Most probable number (NPP) of 700 fecal coliforms for 100 ml was counted in groundwater from Port-au-Prince urban space (Emmanuel, 2004). Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in groundwater Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in groundwater (Brasseur et al, 2002).

10 Cryptosporidium in Port-au-Prince Cryptosporidiosis is resposible for 17.5% of acute diarrhea in children less than 2 years-old 30% of chronic diarrhoeas in patients infected by HIV In Port-au-Prince, Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in surface water and in public water supplies

11 Cryptosporidium in Port-au-Prince Risk of infection : 1x10 2 and 5 x10 2 for immunocompetent population. Risk of infection :1x10 2 to 97x10 2 for immunosuppressed population.

12 January 12, 2010

13 Water quality after Jan 12, 2010? (1) Chaine des Matheux Baie de Port-au-Prince (2) Massif de la selle (1) Plain of Cul-de-Sac aquifer (2) Map of the Republic of Haïti Caribbean sea

14 Port-au-Prince Water supply 14 -

15 Water microbiological quality

16 LAQUE (After Jan 12, 2010) Haiti Observatory of microbiological quality of fresh water 16 -

17 E. coli ichia coli (NPP/100mL) Escheri September 06 to 12, 2010 Variations of Escherichia coli in samples CS001 ST2 DNE 001 ST1 DNE 002 ST2 DNE 003 ST1 DNE 003 ST2 PE003 ST1 PE003 ST2 Minima Mean Maxima PC003 ST1 17 -

18 Pseudomomas Pseudom monas aeruginosa NPP/ 100ml September 13 to 19, 2010 Variations of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in samples CS001 ST2 DNE 001 ST1 DNE 002 ST2 DNE 002 ST2 DNE 003 ST1 DNE 003 ST2 PE002 ST1 PE003 ST1 PC004 ST1 Minima Mean Maxima PC004 ST2 18 -

19 Port-au-Prince Water quality (after Jan 12,2010)? (1) Chaine des Matheux Baie de Port-au-Prince (2) Massif de la selle (1) Plain of Cul-de-Sac aquifer (2) Map of the Republic of Haïti Caribbean sea Monitoring water quality (microbiological and physico-chemical charaterizations). These results will help to sanitary authorities of Port-au-Prince to protect water resources. Scientific cooperation, collaboration, etc.???

20 Thank you Muchas gracias Merci

Prof. Mile Dimitrovski, UNSCM

Prof. Mile Dimitrovski, UNSCM 4 3 2 1 Prof. Mile Dimitrovski, UNSCM Republic of Macedonia 5 km Skopje - 1944 Skopje is located in the north of the Republic of Macedonia, in the center of the Balkan peninsula. The city is built in the

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