Philmont Ranger Manual

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1 Philmont Ranger Manual Philmont Scout Ranch and Explorer Base

2 HSTORCAL FEATURES OF PHLMONT Cimar Northwestern Railroad (logging) Old Stern Ranch Headquarters CM..t\RRON CANYON WLDLFE AREA UU BAR RANCH "..... Santa Fe Trail j i l t Railroads (Abandoned) ~ Gold Mining Activity

3 ~ ' ~ BOY SCOUTS OF AMERCA. (r'-~ H ~ Philmont Scout Ranch & Explorer Bose Cmarron, New Mexco ~~ April 26, 1976 TO: THE RANGER LEADERSHP STAFF Well, Ranger, it is about that time again, and none too soon for me. am ready for more of the Philmont life and would imagine that you are feeling the same by now. What's new? Well, here are some items that will be of interest: 1. The girls'staff housing is being relocated around a newl constructed shower house near the old horse corrals, which have been removed. The headquarters horse string will be down at what' has been Cattle Headquarters. 2. Lloyd Knutson, former Scout executive in Eve'rettt Washington, has joined the Philmont staff as Assistant Director of Program for the training center. 3. Additional space is being added to the health lodge. The new construction should be finished just about the time camp opens.. 4. Philmont has a new Business Services r>~ager - Bill Tate replaces Jim Goldstein who is now with the Houston Council. S. The challenge program ~J'e have known as KCM has become Rayado Men!Rayado Women. This is mainly because many members of Scouting, such as ndians of the Southwest, do not appreciate glorification, of someone who played a part in certain tragic parts of their heritage. The Philmont management made this change, and thinlc it is fine. 6. We will hnve USAFA cadets as rangers once again with two sessions of twenty cadets each this summer. 7. T'ne old central shower house has been rennovated and has become a camperst~ff laundromat. Th.is should help to fill a longstanding need. As far as camper registrations, it looks like a pretty full summer is coming up. As far as winter snowfall, it looks like a pretty dry summer is coming up. guess that means it would be a good idea to bring some forest fire fighting clothes. would imagine that you have already given some thought to plans for training your crew or will be doing so soon. Please notice the Training Ranger pages in the manual (good-looking cover by Mark Sward) you are receiving. There may be some information there that will help. Don't let finals get you down. Remember that there are better days ahead! My very best regards,

4 TENTATVE PLANS FOR TRANNG Training Ranger Training: Training Ranger Training can be what we want it to be. Mike, Doug, Randy and will make some tentative plans, but you might jot do~ a list of areas in which you feel a need for more information or training. Then) when you arrive, we will finalize the plans based on this input. Ranger Training: Ranger Training can also be whatever we think it needs to be. Here are some of my thoughts: 1) think the pattern of including a couple of nights in individual crews is very important. The nights together help build a unified staff and build a "Ranger Spirit H that can help to carry a guy along when he is on his ovm. The night~in training crews help: to establish your crew as a group of good close friend~ which everybody needs some of, and you us your Ranger's main leader and reso~rce. 2) Ranger Training needs to feel "new and d Lffarent" to some degree for returning Rangers. We have all experlenced that vii:lell, here we are again" feeling, and we need to avoid that for the sa~~ of our returni~g people's enthusiasm. 3) The returning people also need to be recognized as such in the way we use their skills in treining. Cut your second and third year Rangers in on your training plans. f they share in t~em) they will benefit, you will benef~t, your cr~w will benefit. 4) see some real value in the MUlti-media First Aid Course. Mainly because it is ten times better than what we had before, whf.ch was approximately nothing. Also because it carries Red Cross certification. do think the acoustics and non-dynamdcs of a mass session in the dining hall impair its effectiveness. So this year, hope we cen offer this traini{\,e in some of che nicer classrooms at PTC in smaller groups of maybe have some hope of our being able to offer a CPR session to all Rangers at least on an optional bsais. f any of you are instructor certified or cc~ become so, this would help. ' 5} As dr; as Philmonc has been, ~le are likely so see some forest fires, and 'm s~re the state of New Mexico will want us to have the usual couple of hours of fire suppression training. Chances are, we may be able to improve on what the state guys have been doing for us. For example, by demonstrating tools and methods, going over what a Ranger needs to bring and needs to know if called for fire service. Anyway, if you want to we may be able to turn this little segment of training into something more useful than it has been. 6) A strong pattern en R~ngers' end-of-summer reacticns the past t~jo years has been a request for more tree and nature training. have worked up a session with slides and things that am pretty excited about, and am eager to share it with you. 7) Of course the most important part of a Ranger's training is the part you are responsible for -- the part that Deaches what a Ranger is and does. So 'm sure you'll be putting some thought into that and we will trade some of those thoughts when we get together.

5 TENTATVE SCHEDULE FOR PMJCER TRA\Tl'lG 607 Training P~ngers arrive. Evening get-together. 608 Ranger leadership staff organizes. Training Ranger training begins. Trans~ort to back~countty location. 609 On~t~e-trail Training Ranger training continues. 610 Leadership staff returns to, Headcuar-t.ers, Training Rangers' finalize crm7 training plans. 611 Rangers arrive. Leadership staff t'jelcomes nev1 and returning Rangers, Help them get settled. 612 Ranger training begins. Training P~gers in charge. Eeadquarters ~rog0durl~, firs 8uprression~ equipment issue, shakedo~m. 613 ROug~r8 to the back-country. 614 On t~e trail in crews. 615 on th~ trail in crews. 616 '~~ngers rendezvous fqr cookout and campfire. 617 Campers arrive. lfulti-media First Aid for F~gere not Y2t certified ~\fgef" ~EADERSr!P STAFF (Tentative) Dave Caffey, Chief Ranger Paul Chambliss, Training Ranger Tom Cook, Training Ranger Randy Day, Assistant Chief Ranger Scott Engle t Training Ranger Df.ck Fr-azfer, 110untain len Ranger George Comez t Traini1",g Ranger Ann llat~e, Trainilg Ranger Carl mhoff, Rayado lien Ranger George rtlchaels, Training Ranger David Parsons, Training r~nger Doug Reune:~) Assistant Chief Ranger John Reynol.ds, Training Ranger Gary Schroeder, Training Ranger ltlke Sohner) Deputy Chief Ranger 1~rk Stephens. Training Ranger Bill Strickland, Training Ranger l'~rk Struble, Training Ranger an Sutherland, Rayado 11en Ranger Hanna t~ilson, l"ountain 110men Ranger Phil Wilson J Training P~neer Bill Wimberly, Tr~ining Ranger Bil~ Ryan, Training Ranger

6 NSDE THE RANGER MANUAL YOU ARE A PHLMONT RANGER 1 What is a Ranger? 1 Organization of the Ranger Staff Uniforming for Rangers 2 NTERPERSONAL SKLLS 1/ Sizing up the Crew 1/ Listening 4 Building Good Rapport 4 Teaching Techniques 5 Be a Manager of Learning 5 HEADQUARTERS PROCEDURE 7 OUTFTTNG FOR THE TRAL 10 The Shakedown 10 Packing Suggestions 14 N C.AMP AND ON THE TRAL 15 Hitting the Trail 15 Setting up Camp 16 Rainy Weather Camping 18 Dry Camps 19 Water 19 Woods Tools " First Meal nstruction Food Preparation Tips Dutch Oven Cooking 27 Bear Baiting 29 Map and Compass 30 Wilderness Responsibilities 33 Campfires 34 General Critique 35 Breaking Camp 35 Leaving the Crew 36 SAFETY AND FRST AD 37 Accident Prevention in Camp and on the Trail First Aid and Emergency Procedures 39 Sending a Message for Help ON THE WAY TO THE STARTNG CAMP ~ 45

7 YOU ARE A PHLMONT RANGER WHAT S A RANGER? Your job as a Ranger provides you with one of the best opportunities you will ever have to render service and expand your own horizons. First, and of primary importance, you are a member of the Philmont Staff, whose objectives remain: 1. To provide every camper with a wholesome, safe experience that at least equals his high expectations. 2. To help campers develop a keen awareness and appreciation for the great outdoors and to motivate them to assume the responsibility for living in harmony with nature~ 3. To help fulfill the basic objectives of the Boy Scouts of America character building, citizenship training, and physical and mental 4. fitness - through personal examples and stimulating, educational programs. To help achieve the high objectives delineated by Waite Phillips in his Philmont Dedication. 5. To demonstrate an enthusiastic Scouting spirit and good leadership. 6. To exemplify the principles of the Scout Oath and Law. 7. To promote a spirit of genuine friendliness, unders t andlng of others, and cooperation. As a member of one part of the Philmont team, it is important that you extend friendship and goodwill to other members of the staff 80 that the Philmont community is a friendly place, and staff members support and aid each other in doing the best possible job. Your functions as a Ranger include: 1. Welcoming crews and making it easier for them in the unfamiliar surroundings of Philmont and camping headquarters. 2. Seeing that your crews are outfitted with appropriate individual and crew equipment. 3. Coaching your crews in camping and hiking skills that will enable them to have a more comfortable, safe, and enjoyable trek. 4. Promoting beneficial and harmonious relationships within the group so that each camper is an important crew member and so that the crew leader gives adequate direction to the crew's operation. S. Aiding campers in appreciation and enjoyment of historical and natural features that they probably are not attuned to. When with a crew, all of your time should be devoted to serving that crew. As a Rans.er, you can expect to work directly with some 150 young men and women this summer. The help that you give them and the example that you set can make the difference. -1-

8 ORGANZATON OF THE RANGER STAFF The Rangers are divided into training crews of 6 to 10 Rangers each with a Training Rangere The Training Ranger conducts staff training for his crew members and observes each Ranger's performance and contributes to his improvement throughout the summer~ He gives leadership, guidance, and supervision to his crew members to aid them in fulfilling Philmont's hopes for them as staff members. There are three members of the Ranger staff who serve as Assistant Chief Rangers, each responsible for one-third of the training crews. The Assistant Chief Ranger supervises and supports his Training Rangers, and may also do the same for their Rangers, since the Training Ranger's ability to do so is limited by his own trek assignments. Each Assistant Chief Ranger has a specialized administrative function which he fulfills for the entire Ranger staff. One serves as Deputy Chief Ranger~ sharing responsibility for, the full Ranger operation~ Another is Director of Training. n addition to coordinating the initial Ranger Training period, he coordinates the follow-up training. and evaluation functionse The Administrative Dtrector schedules Ranger assignments~ handles payroll distribution, and arranges for the material needs of the Ranger staff. The Rayado Rangers and Mountain Men and Mountain Women Rangers design and operate their special programs with guidance and support from the Chief Ranger. The Chief Ranger joins the Training Rangers and Assistant Chief Rangers in providing leadership to the Rangers, and is generall.y responsible for the Rangers' performance and well being, as well as for the quality of programs conducted through the Ranger staff. UNFORMNG FOR RANGERS While on duty and for meals in the dining hall, Philmont staff members are required to be in uniform as specified for their respective job functions. Rangers should be in uniform on the mornings that they report for assignment and remain uniformed for the duration of the assignment. The uniform consists of: 10 Shirt - Official forest green Explorer shirt or Philmont staff T~shirtc Male staff members may also wear the dark khaki Scout shirt. USAFA Cadets serving as Rangers may wear the USAFA T-shirt. The Philmont staff T-shirt is designated as uniform for Philmont and may only be worn as uniform~ (t may not be worn with casual clothes, and when worn as uniform~ the shirt tail must be ina) 2. Pants - The dark khaki Scout shorts are uniform with any of the above shirts. Long pants, for cool weather or otherw~se, must be Scout or Explorer~ (Blue jeans are not uniform.) 3. Socks - For Philmont, long Scout stockings, short white socks, and short speckled gray socks are acceptable with uniform. The full uniform must include one pair of the three designated socks. 4. nsignia - Official insignia may be worn as specified in the BSA uniforming guide. Girls may wear insignia appropriate to Exploring. (Glrls may not wear badges of rank or OA insignia, for which they are ineligible.) The uniform must be worn as a whole or not at all -- not as half and half with casual clothes. -2-

9 NTERPERSONAL SKLLS SZNG UP THE CREW The Objective As the Ranger, you have only about three days to boost the crew's camping skills and outdoors awareness to enable them to gain maximum enjoyment from their Philmont trek. n order for you to render optimum service, you must, in. your instruc~ion, and interaction, pick up at the crew's level and proceed to expand their horizons from there. One of your first concerns with a new crew, then, is to determine the level of skills, experience, and general ability* Then if the crew is very able and experienced, you won't have to bore them with simple things that they already know. f the crew specializes in Alpine rescue, chances are they are skilled with ropes and knots. f, on the other hand, the crew is inexperienced, you can start from scratch... "This is a rope". nformation about the crew will come from many sources. f you are on your toes, you can pick up much useful information that will help you know how to work with the crew. Your guide to successful work with the crew should be: 1. Listen and observee Learn all you can about the crew's strengths and weaknesses, compatibility as a group, the leader's effectiveness, and other pertinent factors~ 2. Tailor your instruction and assistance to the situation. Try to strengthen weaknesses and build on capabilities the crew already has. What to Look For 1. Before the crew arrives - Check the arrival schedule. Where is the group from? Are they likely to be experienced in mountain camping? When will they arrive? Will they be tired or ready to go? How much time will you have to work with the first day? 2. Equipment - As the crew gets off the bus, look at their equipment. Try to determine whether they are experienced packers, whether they've just slapped everything together in a hurry, or whether they are "average" in their equipment and packing techniques. (You will get more input during the shakedown.) 3. Organization and influence - as the crew unloads, look at the campers. Who is leading the operation? The advisor? A boy? The bus driver? Some of the fellows may be working hard, carrying more~than their share, organizing a pack line, etc.; others will be lazy, not helping at all. Pick out the most extreme example in all cases and try to remember their faces. This will be important later. Do you see any Arrowhead patches? Has the advisor been to Philmont before? This tells you a little about the crew's experience, as well as about their attitude. f everyone is back at Philmont for a second time, you can bet the first Ranger was a good one. 4. Leadership - When you meet the crew chief, try to remember if he is one of the workers or organizers you observed earlier. f he isn't, then you know you have to keep a close watch and put in extra effort to shape him up. -3-

10 5. Group interest - When you are ready to take the group to the tents, have the crew chief get everyone together beside the pack line. (Always work through the crew chief.) f the crew is small, shake hands with each man individually. Smile! (Some are probably away from home for the first time.) This sets up your initial personal contact which you will need later. f you look at each Scout carefully, you can determine his enthusiasm, see which Scouts are most interested and eager to get on with the show. f a Scout is particularly interested, remember his name. 6. Compatibility and attitude - s the crew chartered or provisional? f provisional, have the campers worked together on training hikes? How well do they get along? 7. ndividuals - s anyone homesick? Unusually quiet? Are there pessimists or grumblers? f you spot any problems, you may want to incidentally give them special attention and, more importantly, coach the advisor and crew leader to handle them in a positive and effective way. LSTENNG Listening is one of the main keys to successful work with people. Through thoughtful and attentive listening, you can discern feelings and attitudes, identify areas of misinformation, and really get to know the people around you. You learn more about the campers in your crew when you are listening than when you are talking. Your work with the crew is more effective if you listen. Listening enables you to: 1. Use language and methods that "fit in" with the crew, 2. Emphasize the right things, 3. Tell how you are doing by seeing what they know. BULDNG GOOD RAPPORT The better you get along with your crew, the fewer and less difficult your problems will be. This means your job will not only be easier, it will be better done. Here are some ideas to help you: 1. Learn everyone's name quickly. 2. Ask the members of your crew about their trip, their home town, and other things that interest them 0 Maybe you couldn't care less that they had a flat tire in Upper Dubbing, Nevada, but they will only listen to you as much as you listen to them. 3. Learn to make suggestions that don't sound like commands. This makes it much easier for the crew to listen to you. 4. Pay much attention to the packs of those in your crew. Give personal consideration to each individual's gear during the shakedown. Also, observe them all as they hike to see who is having trouble. 5. Have the crew chief take charge as much as possible. He can pick up the trail food, divide the crew equipment, set up the duty rotation, count the crew members whenever the crew goes somewhere. Remember, he probably knows his crew better than you do. 6. mpress on the advisor that he is on vacation. Lighten his pack during the shakedown as much as you can, save him a front seat on the bus, offer to wake him for his morning meeting, and do anything else you can to assist him. -4-

11 7. As much as you can, work within the advisor's ideas on camping. f he says he likes well prepared meals, agree with him publicly. f he insists on sleeping late, try to persuade him to try your method one time, but don't get into an argument, especially in front of the crew. f the crew needs to be bawled out, let the advisor do it, but don't yell at them yourself. 8. Never send the crew anywhere without the advisor's or crew chief's permission. 9. Be as sensitive to the Scout's problems as you can, but also be helpful. They will be glad to feel that you genuinely are concerned for them. 10. f you foresee any serious problems, discuss them with the crew chief and advisor. Be sure to offer suggestions for relieving the problem. Your Goal TEACHNG TECHNQUES Rangers are well known for their abilities in the out-af-doors., Many are experts in orienteering, mountaineering, geology, or nature. When you teach a crew the things they need, should you try to develop a crew of orienteering wizards or flawless knottiers? Though these are desirable goals, they do not demand your full attention. Your main concern should be to equip the crew with the tools they need without over-> burdening them with unnecessary material. The crew members will be taking program later on anyhow. Your goal should be to give the crew what they need to have a safe, successful trek, not to turn them into technical wizards. That comes with experience. nformality in Teaching As much as possible of your instruction should be done as friend to friend, rather than as teacher to pupils. While some skills may be taught in planned instructional sessions, others can be taught informally as the opportunity arises. Avoid creating the impression that you know it all, or that the methods you are teaching are the only ones that should be considered. Your campers will appreciate you much more if you are a friend who is there to help them have a better and easier time, rather than an authority who wants only to sit them down and lecture them about the way they should do something. The Day You Meet the Crew f you begin gathering information and establishing rapport right away, then not only will you be well informed as to the background and needs of the crew, but they will be open and receptive to your thoughts. BE A MANAGER OF LEARNNG A fun and easy method to use in teaching skills to your crews is the "Manager of Learning" method. The Manager of Learning method has several built-in advantages that will work for you: 1. t lets you learn the group's present level of ability before you begin to teach. This lets you briefly skim over what they already know and concentrate on what they don't know. 2. t arouses the group's interest and makes them more receptive to your instruction. 3. t involves the group in doing, rather than just listening. This makes it more interesting, more enjoyable, and more effectiveo -5-

12 n order for the instruction to accomplish its purpose, it must be designed. You must pre-determine your methods and foresee the learning process that is to take place. You should consider - ahead of time if possible - the specific skills or information to be taught, and what you will do to guide the crew through a learning experience. The planning and preparation that you put into your instruction will make a big difference. Each skill session, or "learning cell," follows a four step sequence. 1. Discovery You begin by setting up an exercise that shows both you and the group just how much they already know about the topic. For first aid, for example, you might stop along the trail and have one crew member lie down and assume the symptoms of a particular injury or illness, then have the others react to it as they would in a real situation. This will impress upon the crew the real possibility of their having to deal with such an occurrence, and will give you a chance to observe and see how well prepared they are. When you are done with the exercise, the crew should be well primed for your instruction, and you should have a good idea of where to begin in instructing v When you design an experience like the above one ahead of time, it may be called a "guided discovery". You made it happen for your own purpose. Just as valuable are"discoveries" that may occur spontaneously - ones that you can take advantage of as they arise. A case of hyperventilation, a camper using an axe improperly, a crew taking the wrong trail - these can all be used as good take-off points for Lns t ruct Lon, 2. Teaching/Learning n this phase you provide information to the group through discussion, explanation, and demonstration. Your Ranger Notebook will, in many cases, serve as a reminder of specific points to cover. 3. Application This is another doing phase. Let the campers practic8 and demonstrate the newly learned competency. The group should be given a practice exercise or problem in which each member can participate. Have them practice until you know that the lesson has been learned. 4. Evaluation Wind up this "learning cell" by having members of the group tell you wha t t hey have learned and how they can use it. Re-emphasize important points and HReasons why". -6-

13 HEADQUARTERS PROCEDURE 1. When a crew arrives, before they can leave for the trail, certain procedures in camping headquarters must be completee t is the Ranger's responsibility to make the first day for the crew at Philmont as interesting as possible. FRST: (To help make things run smoothly you must be completely honest with the crew.) Explain to them that at times there may be long waiting periods and some bottlenecks, and that you will try to pass through these areas as quickly as possible. 2. On the day you're assigned to receive a crew, make sure you are in the ranger office for an information meeting at 8:00 a.m. A. GREETNG THE CREW 1& Be as confident as possible, know exactly what you're doing and know the reason for everything you do_ 2. Welcome them to Philmont, be really enthusiastic, show them we're really glad they're here. 3. Warm handshake, smile. 4. Look them in the eye. 5. LEARN ADVSOR'S M~D CREW LEADER'S NAMES. (Write them down if necessary.) 6. Find out number in crew, and start to learn their names. 7. At earliest appropriate time discuss with the entire crew the nature of your role as a Ranger~ 8. Learn as much about the crew as possible. B. TENT ASSGNMENTS 1. Only roll tent flaps back, do not attach to tent frame. 2. Tie tent flaps down when unoccupied. 3. Give the crew time to wash Upe 4. Do not leave valuables out in the open. 5. No smoking in tents. 6. Keep tent area neat. c. GROUP PHOTOGRAPH b Find out if crew and/or contingent wants a photo. 2. Photos are taken in Protestant chapel. 3. Full uniform. 4. Line up crew by height (shortest to tallest). 5. Photographer will ask for number of photographs desired. 6. Neat uniform, no hats, sunglasses, pockets buttoned, and pants zipped. D. ADVSOR AND CREW LEADER TO TRP PLANNER 1. Only boy crew leader and advisor go in. 2. Don't bring crew on to the porch. 3. Get departure time from Transportation & Distribution Manager. 4. Collect and have crew leader alphabetize trip planner cards. 5. Have crew leader bring map and note pad and pencil. 6. Ranger checks with trip planner FRST, before the advisor and crew leader go in. 7. Now would be a good time to give tour of camping headquarters, while waiting. Plan your time wisely. -7-

14 E. CONTNGENT LEADER TO REGSTRAR 1. Needs tour permit. 2. When introducing to registrar, give leader's name and expedition number. 3. Only contingent leader and advisor go in. F. SECURTY - LOST & FOUND 1. Report lost items here. 2. Turn-in items found. G. HEALTH LODGE AND MEDCAL FORM RECHECK 1. Check forms for personal and parental signatures. 2. Check for tetanus within the last 5 years. 3. Put medicals in alphabetical order. 4. Line up crew in alphabetical order, each Scout holding his own medical form. (outside) 5. Keep crew quiet. 6. Give expedition number and number in crew and home state. 7. Advisor is checked in first. 8. Have crew members go in separately and then wait outside. 9. Check with the medic about epilepsy, allergies, and other problems. H. PRS - PUBLC RELATONS SERVCE 1. Find out or get a crew correspondent (optional). 2. Explain value of PRS correspondent in promoting Philmont.. SERVCE AREA 1. Avoid crowding the service area. Come back later if necessary. 2. Before.going into the service area give crew leader's copy of the itinerary to DC. Pick up food on the way out. 3. ntroduce advisor to Director of Services to get locker and combination. Don't let the advisor give the combination to you. 4. Locker is for crew possessions not taken on the trail. a. No money or medicine is stored in the locker. b. Pack together tightly. 5. Laundry a. Explain services available - self-service or laundry service. b. Use a single bundle for entire crew for laundry service. c. Have one crew member turn the laundry in after the shakedown. d. Observe sign for prices. e. Remove all patches, pins, etc. They may be lost. 6. Post Office a. Stamps, letters and post cards sold here. b. The advisor alone can pick up mail at the end of the trek, but only after their equipment has be returned. c. There is no mail delivery on the trail. d. Cards and letter may be mailed at some staffed camps. -8-

15 7 Trail gu1p!!:!9t saqe a. Line crew up at w1dtsow. b. Rave qua12tity of equipment to be check. out beforehand. uabar of packa, frames, tents, etc. e. Adviae crew to use 4in1D& fly. el. Cbec;k all aqu1p1ledt thorouah1y 0 e. Shock cord. ill bay. axe for banlinc tenta, not for pull111& Ol. f. Get felt-tip pea add 1.rk ad)' boles. ai.staa.traps or ~'t. in tent. or fl1.a. g. Show how to fold tents and fly. h. Point out the check-in wlddov on the out.ide wall. 8. De - nitial Diatribut10n Center A. Pra1ae quality of trail food. b. Crew leader" 8 cop)' of the itidex-ary 18 DaCeuar)' for all food pick UP! on the tea11& c. Check -and mat. aura that the- correct.-.uat of food 1. there. d. Return food boxaa after ftniah1n&. e. Two br111o. pad. per cooked aeal. oue bottle of iodide tablet-, 11TH tablet.,..tches. roll gf all-purpose paper per aeal, ODe c0dcl1jllent kit per four lied per day, Ole tetrox pacleap per c~ked...1, should all be 1Dcluded. J. DSPATCHEl (in control) 1. Get departure t1jla bafor. 10:15 a.a. for aftu:dooll departures add befo!:. 3:45 p for.,:mid departure., 2. Be at pack,oat. add ready to load bull oae-half hour abu4 of t1lla. 1. fbi. 1. covered ia &DOdier aactj.oa but the.bakeclo.. 1. the _t 1aportaDt st.p before bittid the trail. Thi. abould be doae after everythidg alae 18 i'1nt.bed. Don't sk1ap on the AakedOWll. L. prick-out paoclj?urbs (ju8t before the trail) 1. Cheek out of teats l aa po ible. 2. Check out a ~ at tbe Welcoae CeDter.. aveep. 3. Police the atea al"cmld4 the tent 4. Return the brooll to tbe aalcolle Cu.ter add tell thea that the tenta are now available. --9-

16 OUTFTTNG FOR THE TRAL The purpose of the shakedown is to enable the camper to have a more enjoyable experience at Philmont by being properly equipped, while carrying as light a pack as possible. Each item to be carried should be considered for its usefulness, weight, durability, ana bulk. The Ranger should make it his responsibility to see that each camper's gear is complete and usablea Vital items such as boots and sleeping bag should be examined individually so that their quality and condition can be checked, and suggestions can be made if the articles are insufficiento t is important that the Ranger tell the camper why an item should or should not be taken~ Without the reason why, the camper may be unable to decide what he really needs to take or how to use it. The shakedown is most easily held in the open areas around Tent City. Have the campers layout their ground cloths in a group facing the Ranger and the crew equipment. As the shakedown proceeds, have them move each item to the other half of their ground cloth as it is listed. The Ranger should always face the sun. Then have the campers. layout their equipment on one half of the ground cloth as it is listed. This way when you are done each camper has two piles and a list. One pile to take, one to leave, and a list of what to purchase at the Trading Post. As the shakedown proceeds, the Ranger may examine the various items and make suggestions to each individual. YOUR PERSONAL EQUPMENT COMMENTS Packing Pack A Yucca pack is not big enough. Pack frame with hip strap The frame, preferably aluminum, should be straight and long enough to cover the hips. Packs and frames with hip straps may be rented at Trail Equipment. 12 Plastic bags (assorted) To keep extra clothing dry. 50 ft. 1/8" nylon cord To rig tents and dining fly, repair equipment, replace boot laces, use as clothesline, etc. Cl p J~eeplng Sleeping bag in waterproof nylon bag Waterproof ground cloth Flashligh (small) with new batteries t needs to be warm. A sleeping bag liner or pajamas or insulated underwear will help. Be sure that it can be kept dry. Both poncho and ground cloth are needed. One per tent is enough, but if an individual still wants to have his own,that's okay. -10-

17 Wearing Apparel 1 pair hiking boots (broken in) with new laces 2 pairs wool socks Be sure that they will wear ten days, but are not so new and stiff as to ruin the feet. The outer sock - acts as padding and removes sweat from near the foot. 3 pairs cotton socks The inner sock - up sweat. keeps the foot comfortable and soaks 1 long trousers 1 shorts Needed for cold weather, mosquitos, pole climbing in program, and horse rides. Two sets of clothes (one long, one short) are enough. They can be washed on the trail. 2 shirts (one long, one short) 2 T-shirts An undershirt should be worn, so that a top layer of clothes takes the heat from the BUnt while an inner layer soaks up the sweat. The layer of air between insulates and keeps you cooler. The layer effect also eases friction between shoulders and pack straps. 2 changes underwear 1 sweatshirt or warm sweater 1 nylon windbreaker The jacket should be the lightest and warmest available 1 poncho or rain suit 1 pair moccasins or sneakers Everyone does need durable rain gear. at Philmont. t does rain 1 hat or cap, flexible~ with brim 1 belt or suspenders A hat is necessary to prevent headaches, sunburn, and eye strain from the sun. Also can be important staying comfortable in cool even:i.ngs~ Sunglasses are recommended also. The camper may want to take a new Philmont belt to sweat it b r own. n Your Pockets - Survival Pocket knife Waterproof case with matches Partial roll of toilet tissue Very helpful in starting fires and many other little jobs. Do not carry a sheath knife; it is heavy, awkward to carry, and dangerous. t is for hunting or winter camping Should be carried at all times for emergency use. n a plastic bag to keep it waterproof. Compass best) (liquid filled is No individual can be self sufficient without map and compass. Silva Polaris is a good one. -11-

18 a band a g e ~ - ' Jl '::" J.L. r' ~'~~ f... ;. have' ~rasb hot holder, s Chapstick Exertion and exposure ~c! BUl-i Ln a dry c Ltma t e produces chapping of lips and Tl(;Y dry out nasal membrarresvt;o.c au se.noseb.leed. Lip balrn co cnt.er-s.cbot.h ~J?roble~s-'l Handkerchief (large) or bandanna t r' s a even a handker~hje." cloth~ a pan somerime!~'1on.e-y ($5 recommended) Carry t secure l y, b~ic: Le av e you; wallet behind - cards p i.cture s ; e t;c <t" are 10:~ need ec and may.be.lo s t, 01' damaged ~ Money is for some programs and for replacing broken equi.pment ' Deep Plate Like the one with the Boy S~c~t foods that spread out~ mess kit, good for soft Cup A plastic one with, rneel~>'j1~emf':!lts marked on it is b e s t, Spoon Thi.s is the only u t.ens i l needed ; Carrying wou.l d be wa s t.ad spac,e and effort. o t her s Canteen" 1. quart The cover is 110t. ne.eded" Lf larger canre en must be used, it should be half filled~ Keeping Clean and Healthy Bar soap in plastic bag Toothbrush and toothpaste One small tube of toothnaste iq partners to sharec Every camper $ho~ld~have one plenty for. two tent ~ijetal mirror Can oe shared with teul partnefl,."are, all, t he personal first aid supplies needed advisor -; wi'ii r a first a i.d kit. The Tube suntan~lptt9n n high,elevations the sunfs rays are more int~nse there is less filtering ~tmosphere~ Optional Shaving. eq~~pm~~~.many find, t hat a new bear.d ~LS ;-.'~ So~~e' t hi.nkd.t '.l~oks'j;ad. scratchy and uncomfortable. ~T'he a'avisor ~'esd~ciallv mav want t.nis ~ t is more comfortabl~ :~~6 d~r~6ie'~ha~ad air mattress~ Camera and'film Take -- as much film as -- you '\-J1.1J need.: the mountain trading posts may be out~ A heavy plastic b~& ca~ replace a bulky 'case"," P'il!:1 shcujrd be~ pac'k~d near the bottom to keep ~"cool., -~-2-

19 Fishing license, line and hooks Postcards Extra boot laces Stocking cap Rubber bands, large Pajamas or long underwear f your itinerary includes fishing. More durable than letter papet~ Pe-stamping avolds having wet stamps st~ck together Can be mighty good to haver Can be very good for staying warm at night. An aid to packing~ f sleeping bag needs extra warrntl1 c CREW EQUPMENT - Furnished by the c r ew 3 Philmont maps This is a minimum~ Encourage them to have up to 1 per boy~ 1 Foldlng saw or bowsaw Axe, file, and stone Shoul.d all be carried by the same person.. Axe is a necessity n case of rain~ 1 Sewing kit with heavv thread To repair packs and tentage, clothing, etc. 1 SOf length nylon rope~!-til For hanging bear bag~ 1 Bear bag Tent pins Large, about 3 x 4 teet~ Enough for tents and fly~ A potato sack is goode 2 St i.cks of insect repellant Crew first aid kit Mosquitoes can be a big problem in the back country'l Should be in the advisoris possession. CREW GEAR - See Guidebook to Adventure, pages Work with your' crew leader in distributing gear among the crew mernber s ~ He should make t he assignments. Just make sure that the advisor carries the First Aid kit, iodine, HTH, and some AP paper l< Someone else should carry the advt sor r s tent unless he insists on carrylng it himselfw The advisor should carry no other crew gear. Crew gear should be distributed upon the basis of each crew member's size and strength, so that the burden is sh~red evenly, The crew leader should know who has what items of crew gear. Crew gear assignments can be adjusted to compensate for those who have trouble hiking on the trailq Out of each pair of tentmates, one should carry the tent~ Others will carry the dining fly, tent poles, woods tools, and most of the pots, One person should carryall of the margarine separa~ed from the condiment kits and double wrapped in plastic in case it melts and leaks.. One person also should carry the brillo and tetrox double wrapped in plastict 'JL.l :ZNG Everything should be packed or rolled snugj.y~ Most experienced backpackers use the plastic bags to keep clothing items sorted and dry. Most of the weight should be kept toward the top of t he pack ~ -1 ~i-

20 PACKNG SUGGESTONS Compass - n a shirt pocket. -, Map, Fishing license, trip plan n the side pockets Convenience tems: Cup and spoon Canteen Partial roll AP Camera Flashlight Personal First Aid Kit Toilet articles Upper compartment Heavy~ bulky items Tent Dining fly Food Axe or saw Cooking pots Ground cloth Sleeping bag with waterproof cover Poncho or rainwear Lower compartment Light, bulky items Clothing Sneakers n Pockets Survival items Knife matches Everything should go inside the pack~ Plastic bags will keep clothing items clean and dry in the pack~ -14-

21 N CAMP AND ON THE TRAL 1 HTTNG THE TRAL There are several topics that should be covered betweer th2 tlde the crew gets off the bus and their arrival at the starting campt Some of these sbould be covered immediately after the crew is off the bus and a pack line is formed, Others can be mentioned at convenient times along the trail, informally, but a~ a tlme when you have everyone's attention. l~ i the crew members are near equal in hiking ability, they 3hould take turns leading. f there are slow members, it may be necessary for therrt tg lead. n any event, the crew should not travel faster than its slowest meriocr. it may be well to have the c r ew leader set the pace the first day, while you ar~,.~ t itld ing out who the fast and slow hikers areo 2. Whoever is leading should look back frequently ta see cnat there are no stragglers~ There should be a responsible person at the end of the line~ Emphasize that the crew is a team and should stay together ~ Getr ing scparated is the first step in getting lost. 3~ The crew should hike in a single line, at leasr six to t~n feet apart. This protects h Lkers from tree limbs flying back and gives tnem t me to respond to sudden stops. t also prevents stepping on heels, and gives each person a better view of the scenery. 4~ Take a steady, even, slow pace. This eats up mileage wlthout creating the need for more frequent rest stops. t also guards agalnst causing members of the crew to overheat. 5~ Each hiker should feel free to speak up if there l8 a problem~ No one should be left behind while the others go on. Foot care is Lnrpc)rtant; small problems like a rock in the boot or a beginning blister should not b~ allowed to become crippling. 6 r Rests should be taken when needed. Stops can be made when there is exceptional scenery or when someone has a problem with pack or feer. Rest stops should not be so long as to break the momentum of the hike~ f the crew needs to stop too often, they may be going too fast. r, The lock-knee rest step may be easier for uphill h LkLng, Demonstrate. Packs On 1(, Two step method of putting the pack on can easily be done by one person: (a) Hold the pack by the frame, and rest it on your upper thigh" (b) Stick arm through the shoulder strap, slide the strap up over the shoulder~ lift the bottom of the frame, and stick the other arm through the other strap. 2. The hip strap should support most of the pack we i g h t, and should be worn just above the hip bones. Shoulder straps should be snug, but not pinching. Remember that the shoulders were not made to carry weight; the hips were~ Finding the Way 1... <;' You should present the crew with the problem of how tiley are going to find their way around at Philmont. Will some crew members be dependent on others who know how to use a map? Maybe they need some help with map and compass while you are with themq Your entire crew should determine the right trail to take for the first couple of days~ Caution them to always check the map and compass, not depend on intuition. Watch for trail signs, blazes, and barricadesc -15-

22 3~ The Ranger should let the crew take the responsibilityo He should then watch for mistakes and difficulties, and discuss them with the crew. 4. Trail signs point to geographical features, not to camps~ Signs should not be tampered with; damage should be reported to a staffed camp. Types of trail signs: MT~ PHLLPS <BEAR CANYON TFAL > You are at this point. This canyon or trail runs both directions. This feature is in that direction. Courtesy on the Trail and Care of the Land 1~ Burros, horses, and vehicles always have the right of way. f you come upon these, pull off to the side of the trail and stop. For horses, get 10 to 15 feet off the trail, for they spook easily. 2. When two groups meet on a sloping trail, the crew going downhill should pullover and let the uphill bound crew passe 3~ Never leave any trash on the trail, especially at lunch. Trash found along the trail should be pocketed until the next camp is reached~ 4~ No swimming, bathing, or washing in streams. This is our drinking water, and should be left pure for those downstreame 5. Never cut switchbacks~ When you do, you cause erosion. Enjo~ent along the Trail 1. Some of the most beautiful country is along the trail, not in camp. Take time to enjoy it~ Be aware of features along the way, including ones off the trail. 2~ A quiet crew sees more wildlife. 3~ Encourage crews to leave camp early. This way you can hike when it is cool, avoiding afternoon heat or rain showers 0 This will also get the crew into camp in time for the full program~ 4. The crew should use caution about overheating; heat exhaustion is often a possibility. By hiking slow enough, resting often enough, and drinking the right amount of water, you can regulate body temperatur~ to safe level even on hot days. SETTNG UP CAMP As you hike into your starting camp, begin discussing with your crew the properties of a good campsite~ Most Philmont campsites are designated with a numbered wood block on one of the two trees (spaced appropriately, for pitching a dining fly on the windward side of the fire spote) Point out that only pre-existing fire rings or fire lays should be used so as not to unnecessarily scar Philmont's beauty. Point out the courtesy wood pile, sump~ latrine, and water source. A Good Campslte 1. Should be fairly level with good ground cover. 2. Should show no evidence of past flooding. 3~ Should be in the trees, out of any meadow area9 Meadows provide no protection from the wind, and are vulnerable to unsightly damage~ -16-

23 4. Will be found farther off the trail, since the most convenient campsites tend to become overused. 5. Should catch the early morning sun, so that the tents will dry out quickly and you can be comfortable dur Ln- h r e a kf a a t 0 Next, have the crew chief assemble all of the materials for pitching the dining fly ~ (Dining fly, two poles, 7 to 9 tent pins, and three 25 ~ lengths of nylon rope. n the process, he may learn something about the logical way to distribute and pack crew gear. Emphasize the importance of the fly in foul weather. Pitching the Dining Fly Open space of tent in inside., The dining fly should be placed on a slight back downhill slope, 8-10' away from the fire~ t should face the nearest canyon wall or sit so that the prevailing winds (westerlies) do not "balloon" the fly" 1. As the poles go up, a clove hitch should be tied around the top. f pole tips are through grommets or webbing loops in the fly, the clove hitch will keep the fly from slipping off! 2~ The back edge of the fly should be laced through with a 25' length of rope, with a tautline hitch attaching it to one of the end grommets. This provides several places where the back edge can be staked down using only the one rope, and makes for a more stable shelter in wind. 3. Taut line hitches are needed in all guy lines at the stake end. 4. The scout tent pins are meant to be pushed and twisted into the ground--never pounded. The open section of the triangle atop the tent pin should face the tent to prevent the rope from slipping into the triangle and weakening the configuration. 5. f the front part of the fly is pitched flat, it will collect 'water~ This should be avoided~ -17-

24 Pitching Tents n setting up tents, find spots with good drainage and no dead overhanging limbs. As with the fly, face tents toward the nearest canyon wall or away from prevailing winds. can nov: :-.:tow personal gear s advis bags yet as a precaution against rain, dampness. Packs are best left covered and lessen the danger of sleeping with the. camper s no i.:'() unroll their sleeping crawling little creacures$ and evening outside the tents to give more room inside bear ba i.t. RANY WEATHER CAMPNG On the Trail 1. To allow for slippery trails, hikers should now space themselves farther apart, since the possibility of falling is now greater. 2. Get down off ridges and peaks away from features that are alone and tall. Seek refuge from lightning in dense underbrush or in an expansive stand of uniformly sized trees. 3. Waterproof clothing should be put on immediately when it starts to rain and taken off immediately when the rain stops. This minimizes dampness inside the rain gear. n Camp 1. Crew gear should be placed under the dining fly while tents are being set up. Do not ditch tents; use log and rock barriers instead. 2. Tents and fly may be double staked, with rocks placed on tent pins to anchor them into the soft ground. 3. Meals should be prepared under the dining fly. The menu might be changed or modified, but it is important to the camper's morale that they have three good, full meals on a rainy day. 4. Fuel and tinder for fires can often be found under large rocks and fallen trees. Heartwood usually is dry, and shavings from split logs will do for tinder. A covered supply of wood should be placed under the fly each night. Encourage the crew to carry a plastic bag full of dry tinder. 5. Take care to keep sleeping bags dry at all cost. Keep them off the ground until night. 6. Wet personal gear can be dried by: exposure to sun and wind; wearing clothes until dry; sleeping with moist but not soaked items; drying items carefully near the fire. 7. Crew morale is especially important in wet weather. There will be a tendancy to stand around looking miserable. Someone must see what needs to be done and keep people moving. f everyone can sleep dry and have three good meals on a rainy day, morale should not suffer too much. You may also arrange for spirit lifters, such as a game, hot chocolate, or a campfire, perhaps together with another crew. f someone remains in control of the situation and takes the necessary steps, a rainy day on the trail can be enjoyable and an experience to remember. -18-

25 DRY CAMPS When your crew has its night ina dry camp, chances are you will not be with them. When they are faced with the problem, they will appreciate your having prepared them for it. The major consideration when preparing for a dry camp is LO conserve water, which involves conserving fire as well. 1. Check the map and see how far the camp is from a water source, f it is within 8 mile or so, you can wait until you get there and then send crew members for water, 2, f the camp is far from a water source~ the crew should drink some water and fill their canteens and collapsible jugs at the last available supply. 'L Use meals that require little water and little or no cooking, Trail lunches and quack breakfasts are ideal. One of these can be subst.ru ted for a supper. 4. Use no fire unless you must. f you must build a f Lre, make it. small, and stop feeding fuel in plenty of time for it to burn down to ash Then put it out with dirt, being sure that it is mineral soil containing no humus or other material that will burn, and finish with whatever water is left Fire is critical in Dry Camps, most of which are away from roads and far from s t aff ed camps. Awildfire in a dry camp would be a long time being reported and d.lff Lcult to approach with firefighting equipment. 5, Use a pine cone and sand to clean dishes if you had to wash or mix anything. f you are out of water, the wash job can then be fi-nished at the next camp. WATER Soon after arriving at the starting camp, you should inform the entire crew about water usage at Philmont. The crew should go with you to the war.e r source, where you can emphasize several points concerning' water. Take water conta.i.nes and the prescribed purification with you for demonstration purposes Purification Water is the number one health concern in Philmont's organized camping program. You should emphasize water purffeatlon while you are with the crew, both by word and by example, f the crew chooses to take its chances after you leave, you can do nothing about that, but let nothing that you say or do cause the crew to take water purification lightly. According to National Park Service ;health authorities, six serious diseases may be cont~acted through contaminated water. These are: 1. Salmonella - A severe inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. 2, Typhoid - High fever and possible delirium. 3. Polio - Paralysis of the motor nerves. 4. Hepatitis - nflammation of the liver. 5, Dysentery - Severe diarrhea. 6. Cholera - A gastrointestinal affliction. Because of the seriousness of water purity, Philmont makes the following statement, which appears in the GUDEBOOK TO ADVENTURE: Put'ify All Drinking Water All water from all sources--including springs, streams, and wells--must be purified by using the prescribed purification method unless a' staff member lnforms you that the water is chlorinated. This rule should be strictly enforced. Your own well being is at stake. -19-

26 Sanitation You should insist that water is picked up in a container at the water source and is carried to the crew site for use as wash water for clothes or dishes~ Explain the fly problems caused by food and soap residues when washing is done at the water source. Also mention the danger and possible consequences of getting tetrox into the water supplye Stress that Philmont is managed in such a way as to allow as many opportunities as possible for Scouts and Explorers to enjoy Philmont treks. This means that Philmont is used heavily and must be managed thoughtfully in order that the land and water resources may be preserved and kept at high standards for every camping groupt Consideration for the next group or the group downstream demands that washing or bathing in water supplies be shunned at Philmont. Water Conservation Stress to crews that water is a critical resource in the Southwest, and particularly in northern New Mexico. Philmont's average annual rainfall is 15-17". Ranchers and industries in the region are always concerned about having enough water, and water rights are allocated by law and are closely gauged and controlled. For Philmont, the main problem arises in camps where there are showers. Please enlist the campers' help in saving our water by keeping their showers short and to the pointe State officials have almost ordered shower houses closed in the past, so it is a real problem, and campers can help. Crews coming in August would like to have a shower, too~ WOODS TOOLS Soon after the campsite is set up, and prior to meal preparation, is a good time to demonstrate the proper use of woods tools~ Most crews will consider this to be a review of things they already know, so you should probably treat it as such. At the same time, you can expect that many of the campers you work with will not know even some very basic things about woods tools and their intended uses~ Emphasize things that the crew probably does not know, and emphasize the importance of this demonstration lies in the fact that knife and axe cuts form a major proportion of accidents occurring at Philmont a f there is an experienced camper in the crew who can give the demonstration or help out, you may wish to take advantage of this~ The discussion and demonstration of each tool should cover uses of the tool, carrying and passing the tool, using the tool, and care of the tool. The Saw Possibly the most useful woods tool is the saw. t is the only tool to leave camp, and its uses are primarily in gathering wood from natural sources, rather than preparing it to burn. Uses 1. To cut dead branches off fallen trees~ 2. To cut dead branches off live trees. 3~ To cut down small dead standing trees. With the saw, it is possible to cut the the stump off almost at ground level, and this should be done for safety and looks. -20-

27 4. To cut wood into manageable lengths so that it can be carried back to the campsite. Dragging branches damages ground cover and causes erosion. S. Cutting wood to a suitable length for use in the fire ring. Handling 1. When carrying the saw, always have it encased in its sheath, gripping it so that the blade points away from YOUa 2. When passing the saw, the blade should be away from both persons. The receiver should grasp the saw handle below the giver's grip) and signify that he has control of the saw. Using the saw When sawing wood, place the sheath where it will not be lost. Place the wood across the chopping block with the longest end on the ground near you. Kneel with your knee on the ground next to the block and the other leg positioned so that the foot braces the wood on the ground. The hand not gripping the saw should be well away from the saw. Cut in strokes parallel to the block, on the side opposite you. This way the block acts as a shield, and does not pinch the bladeo Begin by drawing the blade across the wood to make a groove. Cut in long strokes, using the entire blade. Don't bear down too hard, but instead let the saw do the work. Long strokes take less effort over the whole job, and make the blade last longer; short strokes dull the blade with overuse. t is not recommended that campers sharpen the saw blade. Each crew should start out with a new blade in the saw. When not in use, the saw should be placed where the blade is not exposed. At night the saw should be protected under the dining fly. The Axe The axe is a cutting tool, not a pounding tool. The handle is shaped to be used only in the direction of the blade. The butt should not be used for driving stakes or as a hammer. Except in limbing and felling (which are rarely done at Philmont), the axe is only one part of a two part tool. The chopping block is the other part. The chopping block is not just something to prop your wood up on to make chopping easier. t is a protective barrier between the axe bit and the ground and between the axe and you: t should be notched. Uses 1. n some camps there is a wood shortage in the immediate area, so firewood is trucked in large sections that must be split with an axe. 2. Any wood too big to go on the fire as is can be split with the axe. 3. On rainy days, splitting can provide dry heartwood for fuel. 4. For using standing dead trees as firewood or in supervised conservation projects, the axe may be used for felling, if a saw won't do the job. Trimming branches from fallen trees is another use~ Handling 1. The three-quarter axe is carried in a pistol grip with the bit pointed away from the body. n case the bearer trips, the bit should land safely--flat on the ground. -21-

28 2. To pass the axe to another person, grab the handle at the middle, with the receiver gripping just below. The receiver should indicate that he has control of the tool. The bit should point away from both persons. Using the A:x.e 1. Place the sheath in your back pocket to prevent its loss. 2. To split wood, place the log to be split against the chopping block, propped on it in the notch. Stand on the opposite side with both hands gripping the axe and with your feet spread apart at about shoulder length to get them out of the axe bit's arc. Aim with contact on the wood, then swing from eye level. Gravity and the weight of the axe head should do the work, so Paul Bunyan swings are dangerous and unnecessary. 3. The contact method can be used with smaller wood. This method so called because the blade of the axe should be in constant contact with the wood to be split. Care of the Axe 1. The axe should be sheathed when not in use and should be kept in a tent or under the fly at night. 2. Demonstrate sharpening the axe with a file. A dull axe is more dangerous than a sharp one: Pocket Knife The pocket knife is used in preparing tinder. The important thing is to always cut away from yourself and other people. To sharpen the knife, use a whetstone and make circular strokes. What to Cut Cut dead wood only, whether it be standing, fallen, or dead limbs on a live tree. Cut no live wood at Philmont. Storage of Firewood 1. Fuel wood should be stacked in pieces cut to a proper length, with both large and small pieces readily available. 2. Smaller kindling wood should be in a separate pile. 3. Dry tinder should be carried from camp to camp in a plastic bag. At night (or in rain) all wood should be p a tent. and under the dining fly or in Aiming ~-rt±t-t-ing ' -22- The chopping block is a tool too. Use it.

29 Review of Woods Tools 1. Many accidents occur through careless use of woods tools. 2. Each tool has a specific set of uses. 3. Use the axe in conjunction with a chopping block. 4. Only the saw should leave camp. 5. Take care of the tools and keep them sharp. f you don't, you may as well not be carrying them. FRST MEAL NSTRUCTON Every crew at Philmont will spend a great deal of time preparing meals and cleaning up. t is your responsibility to each crew to help them prepare and clean up their meals correctly and without waste of time. You should work very closely with the crew leader step by step throughout the meal to be sure that he is aware of his responsibilities. t is his duty to: 1. Act as crew manager, coordinating the entire operation. 2. Make up the duty roster if this has not been done yet. 3. See that each person is working on his assigned task. 4. Anticipate problems. 5. Delegate duties as necessary. 6. Work wi~h each crew member to strengthen weaknesses. Crew Organization First, have the crew leader gather the entire crew around the fire spot. Brief them on the basics of meal preparation, explaining the responsibilities of each job. Be sure to point out the crew leader's special duties. Stress teamwork; everyone works for the good of the entire crew. They want to get the menial chores done quickly so that they can take part in programs and get out of the camp early to avoid hiking during the hottest part of the day. There are three general areas of responsibility: Fire and Water group, Cooking group, and Clean-up group. Two to three crew members may be assigned to each chore group, with the crew leader staying free to run things. The rest of the crew c~n be free or can put up or take down tents if necessary during meal preparation. Duties are rotated so that each person does his fair share. One person from each group should rotate each day, so that others remain to teach the new ones. Fire and Water Group is responsible for: 1. gathering and keeping an adequate supply of dry firewood for meals and for a courtesy wood pile. 2. starting the fire and supplying it as the cooks direct. 3. building the fire for burning trash at the end of the meal. 4. watching the fire once it is lighted. 5. dousing the fire dead out before leaving the campsite for program or side hike, before going to bed, and before hitting the trail in the morning. 6. supplying water: for the cook's needs, for clean up, and for putting out the fire. Cooking group is responsible for: 1. washing hands. 2. notifying clean up group of which pots to tetroxe 3. preparing food. 4. leading the Philmont Grace. 5. timing food preparation so all is ready at one time. 6. cleaning up meal preparation area. -23-

30 Clean up group is responsible for: e Soaping pots that go on the fire. Explain in a serious manner the effects of tetrox. 2Q Make a sump bag. 3. Preparing wash and rinse water. 4. Cleaning and stowing cooking gear. 5. Disposing of garbage and sump bag. Demonstrating Methods. Fire and Water Group Begin demonstrating methods by helping the fire and water group start the fire. Emphasize that fires are only to be built in established fire lays. Point out that the fire should be started early so that it will burn down to coals and low (but very hot) flame for cooking. Such a fire is easy to work around, uses less wood, gives more heat, and is less of a fire danger than a large roaring bonfire. We suggest the slap-dab method of fire starting, for it is the quickest type of fire lay to set up, and permits the greatest ventilation of the flame-- an important factor at this altitude. Place a two foot log, about four inches in diameter, in the fire lay parallel to the direction of the wind. Lean tinder up against the log, and place kindling over the tinder like a lean-to. Light from the windward side underneath the tinder. Long, even blowing will give more oxygen to the flame. The best materials for cinder are dry aspen or pine. For kindli~g, split lengths of softwoods such as pine and aspen are good. For fuel wood, hardwoods like oak make the best coals and burn longer for a more even flame, but you will usually have to use pine and cook on a slightly high flame. Answer any questions and let the Fire and Water group go to worko Remind them of their water duty. Cooking Group Next, move on to the cooking group. Mention the uses of the large food bags, suggesting that they be sliced open with a knife along the top and saved. Read the directions twice, determine which pots are to be used, and give these to the clean-ups. Many groups will not need to fix all of the packets for every course, so only fix food in amounts that can be eaten~ While the cooks are rereading directions, they should tell the Fire and Water group what kind of heat is required, and they should also determine when various parts of the meal should be started in order to have the entire meal ready at once. Clean-up Group Taking the cooking pots and tetrox and the Clean-up group, and any others of the crew who are standing around, to an area away from the campsite. Explain that pots are tetroxed away from the campsite to avoid attracting animals. Remind the crew of the effects of tetrox, and designate a "clean man" and a "dirty man." The "clean man" holds the pots from the inside and watches to see that the ttdirty man" applies the tetrox properly. The "dirty manti pours about 1/2 package of tetrox onto a small pot lid and adds a small amount of water. The resulting mixture should have the consistency of melted ice cream. This is smeared on the ou.t side of the pots up to a half inch from the top rim, being careful not to spill it inside or in the rim or handle. The "clean man"carries the tetroxed pots back to the cooking area, secting them on logs or rocks to avoid wiping off the tetrox before it dries~ -24-

31 After getting the Clean-up group started, go back to the other groups and help out through the crew leader. Point out potential problems that may develop, giving directions, hints, and alternate methods (eng. rainy weather ways, in dry camps, etc.) to the group. Cleaning up is the last important task in meal preparation. Cleanliness and sanitation must be stressed~ Dysentery, a resul.t of poor sanitation practices, is serious enough to spoil a trek. Cleaning up after the meal When the cooks have taken the cooking pots off the fire to serve, the clean-up men put an 8 quart pot, filled to the rivets, on the fire to heat for rinse water. After eating, each person wipes out his personal dishes with AP paper; they should not be rinsed with water. Any extra food must be burned completely~ The clean up men scrape out the other 8 quart pot and AP it until reasonably clean, so that it can be used as a wash pot. About 1/3 of the heated water from the rinse pot is poured into the was-l pot, and cold water is added until comforrable. The lid used to mix tetrox is adde( to the wash pot, adding more soap if necessary. One half tablet of HTH is crushej with the hot pot tongs and added to the rinse water for sanitizing. The rinse water must be hot, but not boiling, as this would render the HTH ineffectivea Everyone washes and rinses his own persona1 gears setting it to dry on the plastic sheets$ During this time, the clean-up people scrape out and AP the crew gear as well as burn trash~ After all personal gear is washed, the clean-up group does the crew gear. When only the two 8 quart pots are left, tell the group how to wash them. The wash water is used for washing the outsides and bottoms of both~ Stress this, or else they will use the rinse water. Then the wash water is poured through a plastic sump bag filled with dead leaves or pine needles~ Holes are punched in the bottom for drainage. The water is poured on a grassy area away from camp, through an established sump, or at the edge of the f r e. After 'pouring off wash water, both pots are rinsed. By now the sump bag has finished draining, and can be spread on the fire to burn. When all gear is dry, the cook kit should be reassembled and put under the dining fly. Personal gear should be stored in the packs~ Everyone should police the entire area, including the tetroxing area, for trash--especially food which will attract animals. Tips for Fire and Water 1. Have breakfast water on hand the night before~ 2. Carry dry tinder in a plastic bag to the next camp. 3. Leave dry tinder in a plastic bag on the courtesy wood pile. 4. Small sticks provide a fast, hot fire, which can be regulated easily. 5. For pancakes and french toast, a fire of specifie temperature range is required. Elevate the frying pan (or Dutch oven lid) on three stakes or rocks. Then build fire underneath, using small sticks and regulating the heat by adding or subtracting sticks~ 6. Position the fire to take advantage of the wind, especially when using stone fire spots. 7. Heating rocks from a stream can cause them to explode. 8. During a downpour, lay 3-4" diameter logs on the fire in tepee fashion, or hold a poncho over the fire. 9. n a dry camp, wash hands while putting out the fire. 10. When firewood is scarce, check stream beds for driftwood, or look for dead branches among standing trees. 11. Before sitting down to eat, stoke up the fire so that it will be hot enough to boil the wash water. -25-

32 12. Avoid rattlesnakes when collecting firewood. 13. Burning fire to ash saves when putting it out. Always burn butts and sticks left over from other fires. Do not leave fire burning at night or unattended. 14. Tinder--Use small twigs or shavings. To dry tinder for the next day's use, hang it downwind from the fire. 15. Dry tinder can sometimes be found under large rocks or logs, or on the downwind side of trees. Tips for Cooks 1. Doutt let the water boil too long--too much may evaporate~ 2. Have one pair of hot pot tongs in each cook's back pocket~ 3. Place all plastic bags to be saved under a rock~ 4. Point out to cooks that "cont ent s into boiling water" is not the same as "bringing contents to a boil". 5. Taste-test all foods. Don't feel bound by the directions. 6. Hot pot tongs cannot handle heavy pots easily and they do break. 7. Keep plastic sheet clean. 8. Extra food can be put into a swap box at any staffed camp. 9. Never eat food damaged by animals, large or small~ f in doubt, don't--it's not worth the risko 10. Protect condiment kits from rain. 11. Cook only in amounts that can be eaten~ Open one bag of drink mix at a time, except at lunch. 12. Use canteens to measure large amounts of water. 13. To mix powders, add small amounts of water at a time. Mix into a paste and continue until ready~ 14. Add sugar and vanilla to powdered milk for better taste~ 15. Don't burn food onto sides of pots. 16. Mix as much food as you can in the bags themselves (saves cleaning up pots). 17. A covered pot boils faster. Tips for Clean-up l~ AP dishes and pots as soon as possible~ 2. Assign one pole of dining fly or similar spot as an area for trash which is not to be burned until during clean upc 3. Wash the dirtiest gear last in order to keep the wash water clean. 4. Spread trash on the fire thinly; open all papers~ 5. For sump bags, get the fire hot and burn a little at a time. 6. Don't throw foil in the fire; it is a bother to clean out. FOOD PREPARATON TPS Dehydrated and freeze-dried foods are basically easy to prepare if one is careful to follow the directions closely. There are, however, many special points and suggestions which will make your meals easier to prepare and more tasty. 1. The Sierra coffee cake, cornbread mix, and regular biscuit mix can be mixed thinner and fried like pancakes. 2. Mix cocoa into a paste before adding remainder of water. This removes lumps from the powdered beverage. 3. Jellies need to be mixed with less water than instructed. 4. Adding less water to the hash browns makes them easier to prepare. S. Add margarine to all baked goods, pancakes, and hash browns. 6. Add salt to main dishes and to vegetables. 7. Pre-soak the potatoes in the ham and potato dinner for one hour. -26-

33 8. Some dry fruits (except prunes) should be saved dry for trail munching. (Banana chips, apple chips, etc.) 9. Mix all soup powders in with the main course~ 10. Add less water than instructed to the spaghetti and macaroni. They are too watery using instructed amounts. 11. Dried fruits may be added to jello~ 12. Sugar and powdered milk may improve cocoa's taste. 13. Opened plastic bags may be carefully resealed with a matche 14. Some meals such as beef stew can be thickened with a biscuit mix. DUTCH OVEN COOKNG Boiling and frying are okay, hut for something fancier you'll want to be able to roast and bake foods, too. Best all around utensil for this is the Dutch oven. t sits on coals~ The oven is usually preheated before food is put in to bake. The trick is getting the heat just right--you regulate it by adding or taking away coals, so you have to experimente t's not too difficult, but the tendency is to get it too hot. Check progress of cooking by lifting lid with tongs and testinge You may bake cake, bread, rolls, biscuits, muffins, cornbread, cookies, pies, tarts, cobblers, or whathave-you in a Dutch oven. Following a great Ranger tradition, each Ranger makes a cobbler for his crew, preferably on the first night cute f circumstances preclude making the cobbler the first night, you can make it the second night if you know there will be Dutch ovens where you are going~ t is best that you make your cobbler just before the crew begins to cook supper, so that you don't get in their way~ t should be ready to serve by the time they are finished preparing the main meal~ Dutch Oven Methods e Food to be cooked can be placed directly in the oven. 2. You may place three small stones in the bottom of the oven and cook in a frying pan placed in the Dutch oven~ 3. You can improvise a Dutch oven with large frying pan on the coals, small pan inside it with the food, and 8 quart pot turned over them with coals on top. Cooking in a Dutch Oven 1. Have three times as many coals on the top as on the bottom. 2. Make sure the lid is air tight by twisting it back and forth. 3& Don't check the cooking progress too often; when you do check it, lift the lid only about an inch to keep from losing heat. 4. Use hot coals, not ashes. 5. Keep coals away from the edge and upwind from the fire, so if the coals do blow away they'll go into the fire, and you will not be working in the smoke. 6. When lid is not on the oven, place it on two logs or a large, flat rock. Ranger Cobbler 1. Preheat the oven for about two minutes by placing it directly in the fire. 2. Take it off the fire and grease the inside well (including the inside of the lid.) 3~ Take coals from the fire and place the oven about one to three feet upwind from the fire. 4. Put peaches in the Dutch oven and boil them for five minutes. 5~ When making the dough, use only the juice from one peach can. This will give the crust a peachy taste, and having less juice in the peaches will make the crust flakier. -27-

34 6. Once the peaches are boiling, add all of the biscuit mix and spread evenly on top. Add cinnamon, margarine, and sugar to taste. 7. Put the lid back on, giving it a twist. Place very hot coals on top. 8. Let it cook for at least 8-10 minutes before checking it. This keeps the heat constant and effective. 9. Ranger cobbler is good--make sure it is done. Serve only when the crust is golden brown. To test inner dough with a stick, puncture the crust all the way down. f no raw dough comes up) it should be done. Piecrust 2 1/4 cups biscuit mix 1 teaspoon salt about 1/4 cup cold water 6 tablespoons (3/4 stick) margarine Thoroughly mix salt in flour. Cut in shortening to size of peas with two knives. Sprinkle water on mixture until you think dough can be formed into a ball. Handle very lightly. Follow commercial-mix directions exactly. To make a 9-inch double crust pie in a small frying pan, use one and one-half 10 ounce packages of mix. Use two packages for a double crust pie in a large frying pan. Rollout the bottom dough about 3 inches wider than the top diameter of the pan. To cook the pie crust, place three small stones in the bottom of the Dutch oven, and set the frypan on these three stones. Place lid on Dutch oven and bake until crust is brown. Deep Dish Pie Start with a mix like you used for pie crust. Divide dough into two parts. Rollout bottom 1/8 inch thick and 8 inches wider than oven. Fold once and lay in cold oven, unfold and tuck into shape. Don't stretch it or it will shrink on baking. Bake pie shell in oven for about 10 minutes, then have a look. Starting with a cold oven, the shell should be firm but not done. Rub bottom lightly with margarine. Now add prepared fruit pie filling or fresh fruit if you have it. f you add canned pie filling (peaches, cherries, blueberries, etc.), about 2 cans is enough. Fill up to the rim of the crust. Don't break the crust or the filling will leak through and burn on the bottom. Using a greased frying pan, set on three stones in the bottom of the oven, you can prepare pies, biscuits, and cobblers. The three stones beneath the pan allow the frying pan to receive even heat all around. The coals used for Dutch oven cooking should be placed on bare ground near the campfire. Be cautious. Handle the oven carefully with hot pot tongs. Grasp the oven by the rim when removing the lid, never by the handle on top. Make sure the crew is familiar with the method of cleaning the oven. Cleaning the Dutch Oven When finished serving, wipe out the oven thoroughly with all-purpose paper. 1. Fill the oven three-quarters full with clean water. 2. Boil this water for three to fifteen minutes. 3. Pour water through sump bag and wipe out the rest of the water with all-purpose paper~ Heat the oven for ten minutes to dry~ 4. Scrape all remaining food particles from the oven with a good flat wood chip. Do not use Scotch Brite, 50S, Brillo pads t or any metal implement. Doing this could make scratches and ruin the oven. -28-

35 5. Grease the oven lightly, then wipe it out until there is just a thin layer of grease in the Dutch oven and on the lid. 6. Put the cover back on the Dutch oven, so no foreign material gets inside. BEAR BATNG Philmont is probably one of the easiest places to see black bears& An interesting situation is presented to the camper on Philmont trails because of this somewhat unsettling fact. An ideal time to present the discussion of bears is during or after meal preparation, since food relates directly to the bear and the campern t should be pointed out that the bear is an extremely dangerous animal when tampered with. This cannot be stressed too carefully. A bear enters a campsite if it smells something that attracts it; smellables attract bears. Smellables include anything possessing foodlike, sweet or musky odors. Suntan lotion, garlic, toothpaste, chapstick, etco, are included. These odoriferous items are gathered and suspended away from camp in a suitable container. Make sure that your crew knows that all food, soap, and smellables should be removed from tents and packs. A suitable tainer for suspending smellables may be a poly-sheet or garbage bag. Remember 0 vtj, if a bear gets the suspended container, he will tear it apart. \ 1 The e~e ~~~a shown h~;.--.y ~)\J. cj~ ;\',q ~ L\,.t01 '2 of suspending and out of reach of bearsa Some are Rope end can be thrown over an exceptionally high limb. -29-

36 f possible, throw the rope over the limbs by tying a stone to the end of the rope and tossing it over. This is a safer method than having someone climb the tree. Just make certain that no one is injured by the thrown rock. Well-strung bear-bait is still easily smelled by the bear, but if he does smell it, it is difficult for him to reach it. Observe precautions, and the bears will add to the Philmont experience. Teaching Map and Compass MAP AND COMPASS The purpose of teaching map and compass is to acquaint campers with the basic tools that they will need to find their way at Philmont~ Rangers, then, should teach a simple course oriented towards the use of the map and compass in the field. This might best be done in two or three parts: one just on basic map reading, and one or two others using the compasse t is important to remember that this instruction should not be too theoretical; it should be easy to understand and to apply. An effective method of teaching map and compass is the question and answer technique. ~~erever possible the Ranger should teach by eliciting information he wants from his crew. They should tell him about the map and compass instead of his lecturing them. Map reading can usually be conducted almost entirely by questions, but compass will normally require some sort of instruction~ n order to teach this subject, several other points must be considered. Map and compass should be presented as a review of information that your campers already know. Remembering flexibility is essential and being aware that each group is different, tailor your instruction to meet their needs~ Don't let your session be dominated by one or two people who know it all, try to reach each one in the crew. Map and compass should be taught in several separate sessions. Some teaching opportunities present themselves even before the starting camp is reached. During waiting periods at base camp, map colors and symbols can be reviewed. Campers can practice map reading by following the route their bus is taking to the starting camp. At the bus turn around and on the trail, the crew should be allowed to determine the correct trail. During short rest breaks, landmarks can be identified, and the crew's exact position can be determined on the map. Once at camp the crew members should be encouraged to get out their maps arid plan the next day's hike 8 n short, all opportunities should be utilized for the crew to practice the skills they have learned 8 The Map A map is a line drawing, to scale, of a portion of the earth's surface as seen from abovee There are many different types of maps, road maps, political maps, etc. Philmont's map is a topographic map. This type of map represents the three dimensions of the earth (longitude, latitude, and altitude) in two dimensions. The Philmont map has six colors: ~Green represents forests and woodlands. owhite represents the opposite of green - lack of woodlands.. Red represents boundaries and highways. Blue represents water. -solid blue lines are perennial streams flowing year around. -dashed blue lines are intermittent streams flowing only during the wet seasons. -there are intermittent lakes as well, shown with a dotted outline, such as La Grulla Lake. Deer lake is a combination of the two~ -30-

37 -a round blue circle with a squiggle is a spring~ -a blue circle can either be a well or reservoir.. Black stands for all man-made objects. -Map Symbols: -trails are shown as single dotted lines. -jeep trails are shown as single dotted lines with "jeep trail" written by it. -unimproved dirt roads are shown by double dotted parallel lines~ -improved dirt roads by double solid parallel lines. -black filled-in squares are occupied buildings. -black unfilled squares are unoccupied buildings. -a triangle with an x on it represents a windmill. -an X is a shaft mine~ ~rospect pit~ -a Y is a shaft mine& -a black diagonally filled square is a large complex mine, with a building associated. -VABM and BM stand for vertical angular bench mark and bench mark,respectively, with the VABM being a mora exact measurement, with a monument in place. -a dotted area enclosing a cross is a cemetery.. Brown represents contour lines. -a contour line may be defined as an imaginary line, a level curve, following the surface of the earth at a constant elevation. Elevation is measured as the height about sea levels The vertical distance between two contour lines is called the contour interval, which on the Philmont map is 80 feet. Every fifth contour line is heavier than the others and has a number on it. These are called index contours. Each crew should really be drilled on the recognition of contour lines. Most of their trek can be safely negotiated with an adequate knowledge of a topographical map, requiring little, if any, compass use. Not only pointing out landmarks, the Ranger should make sure his crew can correlate dry creek beds, unnamed ridges, white areas, etc., that are on the map with what they actually see. Contour lines can show the shape of the land. The following are examples. Saddle Hilltop Steep Slope Ridge Draw or Reintrant / ; r Gentle Slope n a stream bed, the contour lines always point upstream. Depression Bold lines are index contours. Others are ~ intermediate contours. / -31-

38 The Compass The compass is simply a suspended magnet that points to the magnetic north. The end that indicates north is normally painted red. Magnetic north and true north are two different places; magnetic north is in northeastern Canada, while true north is at the North Pole e The difference between magnetic north and true north, measured in degrees, is called declination~ Philmont is situated in such a way that magnetic north is 13 degrees east of true north", Magnetic, J True North, 130 North / ' -r--- ~ ~! 13, ~ --- ~ f,,,' " J ~ r ; 1 Philmont Philmont NEW MEXCO "..,. Equator When going from map to compass, subtract 13 degrees (lis" on the end 0 compass means subtract),. When going from compass to map, add 13 degrees to the degree azimuth. (ltplt on the end of map means pluse) This is only for an east declination. For a west declination the procedure is opposite~ Crews coming from councils east of a line from Lake Michigan through the Florida. peninsula will need to reverse the procedure to which they may be accustomed. Declination is explained briefly on the back of all Silva compasses. Taking a Bearing To take a bearing on the map, draw a straight line between the starting and ending points on the mapc Then place the compass along the line, with a back corner at the starting point. Finally twist the compass housing, disregarding the magnetic needle, so that the north-south painted arrow of the housing (silhouette) is parallel with the vertical sides of the map~ (n other words, the silhouette is pointing to true north.) Now since you are going from map to compass, you must subtract 13 degrees from the azimuth obtained. Then the compass is ready to be used to follow the bearing. One can eliminate complications from declination by the following method. Draw a series of 13 degree lines allover your map. Then when taking an azimuth direction, place the compass on the map, direction of travel arrow pointing toward your desired direction on the map (this procedure does not require map to be in any particular direction except flat). Then turn your silhouette arrow until it is parallel with ore of the main 13 degree lines on the mape Then you are ready to read your bearing and go. However, the north on the compass must still be in the same direction as on the top of the map,. Orienting the Map All crews need to know how to orient their map~ Orienting a map consists of rotating it to correspond with the lay of the land~ The first, easiest, and most commonly used method is orienting by landmarks. Simply pick several landmarks and rotate the map so you can look up from the map and see the object in front of you. -32-

39 Triangulation by Sight and Orientation by Sight A more accurate method of orienting a map to the lay of the land is by using a compass. Set the housing at 360 degrees at the direction of travel arrow. Place one side edge of the compass on the magnetic line of the declination at the bottom of the map. With the compass on the map, turn the map until the magnetic needle is lined up inside the silhouette arrow. The map is now oriented. WLDERNESS RESPONSBLTES A wilderness is easy to destroy and almost impossible to r-es t or e, Among the most important jobs of a Ranger is the protection of the wilderness environment of Philmont. Since Philmont Scout Ranch was established, over 300,00 Scouts and Explorers have come here and have enjoyed one of the greatest experiences of their lives~ These Scouts have been able to enjoy an unpolluted, unlittered, and unscarred land which has changed little since the ndians first camped here~ t is your responsibility as a Ranger to make sure that campers in the years to come are able to enjoy this same unscarred country~ Among the things that will destroy Philmont as a wilderness area are littering the trails and camps, cutting green trees, not following SwiLchbacks, washing at water sources, ditching tents, and being careless with fires~ f you do not stress the importance of these and other items of wilderness manners and conservation, the members of your crew will destroy Philmont for future generations. Leaving a clean campsite must be emphasized to your crew. This can be done by leaving your campsite many times cleaner than you consider acceptable. The fire ring or fire lay should receive particular attention. After the fire is out, rake through the coals and pick out all unburned garbage, tin foil, and tin cans~ These items are placed in the tote bag and deposited in a trash can at the staffed campsq The entire campsite is to be well policed for litter so that the groups that follow will be able to enjoy a clean camp_ Live trees and their branches should not be cut down or have initials carved on them. Thousands of campers go through each camp during the summer. f each is allowed to cut up the wilderness just a little, there will soon be little wilderness left. Streams, lakes, springs, and ponds are not for bathi.ng and laundering. Carry water a safe distance from all water sources when you bathe or do your laundry. Polluting a stream or spring is a serious offense. When trail switchbacks are cut by going straight downhill to the path below, an erosion problem is created which the trail was designed tc prevent~ Many hours that have been spent in trying to retain this beautiful country CoD be destroyed by your crew in just a few minutes, by starting your own trail~

40 ~ ~ ",') With 15, 000 campers each summer spending L81"1 u t~~ :,; ':, tents are pitched on Philmont each year~ ditched it, Philmont would soon look Lik. :~~ ~~'" away. For this reason, no ditching OT r. i,... Nothing can destroy Philmont faster t11bn.:.: forest fire is easy to start if cxtr en.- ;:':~ ~',' should never be left unattended 10 At nl':c:,: a Dr; r c';~i.ma t ely 75,000,':_~.,.t:,,,:~,:',,< :::.'nt:. owner also ~,.~'c'lll;j bf>,' washed " ";'> ~ fiermi t ted.. ~_~ r rua te a.:,:-~.~ c; ~,:'" campsi t e Sometime during the first two even.ings or. ~~'" campfire can give you and your crew that c"'<: ~; is needed for a great Philmont cxperlence. your crew, and build a tremendous rappor The effectiveness of the campfire all detjt~.~t1:'; that a relaxed atmosphere prevail so that ~,~:\r',.. lose this feeling by over-planning or pus1.",-; and crewleader know that you want a c arrr. f' ". You can also get some very useful tips (~1'c ~;,~ campfire they would react to the best" \' r:':~,," ',., '.,,;. example: ~.:.'~lmp f.: r't;;; " ::\ good d :.~~ r ~~)~n:inat; ion t hat :< ;:', r v e Y'~,r close to ~."'''' ~;:-;is opportunity.,,~, ;,;.'.,c_".. ; if' 'very important -, ' ':--:.1 ~ ~:i C~ irat:e. Never,'. : ::~v,' 4 L(~. t your advisor,"'~~, ;::~t]\',8 f e-w words. /it1' ::~iha ~ r v p e 0 f.iu r Linc. For ntroductory song (something tha.t ~;: j.: Fun, fast, songs, stories) skits~ Slower songs, stories, c r ewl.eader,,~~j\ (song, story, poem - "Han r: the l,r. Not only does every crew have a different.!',:";', ';.'»': "., ':. and therefore will respond differently tl'; \' r"; and you should not push singing on them. ~L \",,~,' scouts are afraid to start s Lngi.ng, they 1J;,:,~L.L<" ' "', To relax your crew and open them up, ycu hi.} \-'j",.';.: -. stories and skits. You could even shov r b-:~'m ~ nlh-, Be strong and keep them on the proper rqcl:, :1'" ',: :~'} vulgarity, but stay in the background so ;,~;~;:= ::.~" " ;"','., they don't get excited over singing ~ T10Ve in" c-, n any case, it is vital that you know SC~,(:'.. ~,." <f occasion arises, you are prepared for eve r v -, \ \1 -; ~~ Notebook include: The Philmont Hymn, Th -:!,~,~; ~~"': U-'"t',' times you will be required to be a s t r onp.;~.~,;, scouts into active participation and Lnvo l VeT!';-""1 f e: Your campfire should be structured S0 thar ",. ~"f;<,<", down to the point where they are prepared :,,'> problems before hand with your advisor. ~Y1~ ~ on a positive note, have your advisor f.nr'.i ~;,\..~y:., Philmont Hymn. Then get everyone off t o ~.~...:, T after the campfire about possible p r ob Lcms. :,'~ campfire run so late that you keep other :.~:J-.', 'i_,,' -,;",~,t, _i '" :.:-:~ an.i.nd vldua :c"\";~" y' refuse to sing, :'\" ~]'- :~lat r.hough most.. \ro~,l nreak t he ice. \~ :.~ "~ii', aliity and "nn.r:: ~',hrough" f '"..;- ~ c-:~: 'tl>,; hen r h e :",'\1 'i'.d.ed.n the Ranger '"<,;:~ \; (:;::~per Song.. At -,. l,'\e~.:d~d to pull the, "" ~'ncr! gradually slows '-:~:"C ::: 'j ;:', v o u talk over :_C vou r a dvi s o r T)i'; not let the

41 GENERAL CRTQUE Near the end of the two days with your crews, you should be compiling the information you have about your crews and be gathering it all together into a critique. This should be a thoughtful time -a chance to reflect on the fun, the good times, and mistakes, and the progress of the days. t should be a time of looking ahead and back, taking yesterday's experience to build tomorrow's improvement. For you, the Ranger, it's a chance to hear how your crew feels about its Philmont experience and to give a few comments and suggestions to make the trail ahead a little smoother. Prepare for your critique by talking in advance with your crewleader and advisor about the crew and its progress. Move slowly into the critique maintaining the mood of the moment and avoid t he stigma attached to the word "crltlque" by substituting the word or phrase (like "talk'!' or "rap session"), or by not calling it anything at all. "Hey guys, why don't we all just come over here and tall:: about what we did today?" The crew chief should be the first to be invited to comment on the crew's progress and teamwork. You should follow up by necessary additions of what the crew chief has to say. Begin by suggesting ways in which everyone could improve, attempting at all times to bring useful verbal interplay from as many of the crew as possible. You should always ask questions of the crew to get everyone into the act. The crew knows most of its own blunders and carl contribute its own observations and suggestions. A good critique allows a c]~ew to know precisely how they stand and how they can improve. t tells you how the crew f eels about its Philmont experience and gives you important feedback on hm~ you are doing. t can be a tremendous rapport builder. There is no doubt that a well handled critique can make a large contribution to the success of the trek. BREAKNG CAMP When you ha,ve gotten up and started your fire and breakfast, you can turn to preparing for departtlre from your cam)site. While the cooks are cooking, clean-up and fire people can pack, everyone eats, an,l the cooks pack during clean-up. During this time, all crew equir)ment has been takt~n from under the dining fly, and the equipment and fly have been pack ed away. Next the sump must be cleaned. Any particles left on the sump can be picked up, or brushed off with a pine cone, and put in the sump bag, which can then be burned. Then the cam 1 ps i t e can be policed, with inspection by the crewleader to detect overlooked pieces of paper, food, perso'nal or crew equipment. What cannot be burned goes into the tote Lf.tt e r bag. The fi.re is now set to be put: out, and cooled) stirred, and wet down, until the fire, fire Jcing, or rocks in the f:lrelay are cool enough to lay your hand on. Then it can be clean1ed of foil, unburnt food and garbage, unburnt wood (stacked by side), and metal cans. A:l food, me~al, or p;iper removed from the firelay goes into the tote litter bag. All f~ood can now be distributed by the crewleader and packed away. -35-

42 The day's trails should be gone over, with the location of the first trail known, and all landmarks and points of interest should be pointed out on the mapg The crewleader checks campsite for forgotten gear and anything else that should not be there. f you are in a staffed camp, a staff member must check you out. t is at this point that he does so. After this, if the entire crew is ready, you can move out. LEAVNG THE CREW' 1. The Ranger is expected to leave his crew on the morning of the fourth day after breakfast clean-up is done, the camp is taken down, and the crew is ready to hit the trail. By this time, the group should be well accustomed to Philmont trail procedures, making it unnecessary for the Ranger to stay. Do not, however, appear anxious to leave. 2. f possible, discuss the following with the crewleader and the advisor. a. ndividual performance of each crew member. b. Possible future problems with the crew~ c. Trails and programs8 3. Give one last talk to the crew, and thank them~ "t was my pleasure:" 4. Tell them all that they're going to have a great experience~ Be as enthusiastic as you can. This is the time when your enthusiasm for them will have the most meaning. 5. When you are ready to go, say good-bye to each member, shaking his hand and calling him by his first namee When they go one way, you should go the other- say one last so long and tell them to look you up when they are in headquarters. 6. When leaving, don't let your enthusiasm drop one iota - even up to the last second. 7. Make sure you radio a message to the Ranger Office through a staff camp if it is necessary to remain longer with your crew. t is import.ant that you get permission through the Ranger Office~ -36-

43 SAFETY AND FRST AD ACCDENT PREVENTON N CAMP AND ON THE TRAL Wherever you may be camped for the night or hiking on Philmont, safety should be a major concern. Out in the wilderness you are a long, long way from help, so it is far better to prevent accidents than to have to repair the damage. Five general areas of safety will be discussed in the following paragraphs~ Weather While there usually is not much you can do to alter dangerous weather conditions, certain precautions can be taken to minimize the dangers of such conditions. Lightning n the event of a thunderstorm, you should make sure that you are not the most prominent object in the area~ Lightning seems always to be attracted to the objects that will conduct to the ground along the path of least resistance~ Since trees usually are the tallest conductors (fluids in them make them more conductive), they usually take the worst beating in a storm. Wire fences and bare, exposed mountain tops also are likely targets for a lightning bolt. Clearly, all of these should be avoided. Lightning has been known to follow the face of a cliff down to the ground, so stay out from under cliffs and overhangs. f you are on a ridge or peak, make a beeline downhill, on the leeward side of the approaching storda You should be safe about 100 yards down from the peak under some sort of forest CQvero Most campsites on Philmont are located under trees and are not on an exposed mountain side, so if you are already in camp, you should be in good shape thereo f you are in the middle of a meadow, you will be the most promlnent object around~ and you may very well get zapped. f the threat of lightning is imminent, squat dowll8 Since strikes frequently travel along the ground, particularly when wet,it is unadvisable to lie down. Your best chance is in among the trees. Never begin an ascent in the face of a threatening thunderstorm. Save that peak for a day when the weather is better~ t just isn't worth the risk of your life to play games with lightning. Hail Thunderstorms at Philmont commonly bring hail, which can cause injury to the head and extremities. For quick cover, head for a stand of even-sized trees. A hat, poncho, or rain suit may also offer protection. f possible, get under a fly or tent as quickly as possible. Flooding When large amounts of rain fall, drastic changes can occur in the watershed. Streams, ponds, and lakes all may be affected~ Camps situated in a canyon or a narrow valley usually get the most water. f the stream in the canyon floor begins to rise unusually fast, it is a sure sign that some sort of flooding is being caused. Sometimes the stream will rise only a few inches, but if it becomes evident that it will break its banks and flood, evacuate immediately, taking as much equipment as possible. Remember that if flooding is widespread, you may have to spend a few days out on your own before help could reach you, and even a small quantity of supplies and equipment can make your group much more comfortable. -37-

44 Fire Fire danger should be emphasized to campers~ n dry years, the forest fire danger on Philmont is extreme, and neighboring national parks and forests have been covered by fire bans under such circumstances. Open fires can be permitted at Philmont only because care is exercised~ t is the policy of Philmont that campers are not to fight forest fires. f a fire is very small and can be put out by three or four persons easily, then that's different, but anything larger requires that campers be evacuated and employees and outside help move in to fight the fire. Campfires should be just large enough to do the job--no bonfires. Logs should be placed on the fire lightly, not thrown; this avoids throwing sparks. Extra water should be kept near the fire at all times. Campfires should not be left smoldering overnight. Stress to campers that every fire must be extinguished until there is no doubt, even if it means an extra trip to the water source or if you are in a dry camp. No smoking on the trail. A spark left along the trail might start a blaze that would go undiscovered for hours. f someone must smoke, he should do so only in camp and near the fire pit~ Animals and nsects Campers should be cautioned to avoid personal contact with all members of Philmont's animal kingdom, no matter how large or small. Plague and rabies are among the communicable inflictions commonly carried by wild creatures, so no one should attempt to play with animals. Since many animals are attracted into peopled areas by food, campers should avoid sleeping with food and other smellables nearby, and should take steps to protect food supplies at night. Bears are due a healthy respect from staff and campers & f a bear approaches, you may be able to frighten him away be making lots of noise and clatter. Philmont bears have not proved to be aggressive> only hungry and determined to find food.f a bear insists on entering your campsite, crew members shouldn't tease him but simply walk quickly and quietly to a safe distance and watch~ Campers should use caution around livestock. The buffalo are not tame and sometimes can be very aggressive. Buffalo lookers should stay out of the pasture. Bulls should not be tampered with, as they may react violently. Likewise a cow with calf should be left alone. Philmont does have insects. Some people have been told that there are none at Philmont's elevation. A few containers of repellant for mosquitos and other insects should be carried with each crew. Campsites should be selected away from mosquito infestations and ant beds. Keep in mind that some people are allergic to bee stings and may react with various symptoms that make medical treatment necessary. Dangers on the Trail Sprains and other bone and joint 1nJuries commonly occur on the trail. Some routes are narrow and precipitous, and with this in mind~ alternate routes should be considered when you must hike in the rain. -38-

45 Philmont trails may include obstructions such as rocks and logs, and may pass over talus slopes~ You can perform a serv1ce by removing foreign obstructions, but in any case, caution campers to step over or around them rather than on top. Remind them that sprained ankles are often the result of carelessness. Campers should be cautioned that throwing rocks and rolling boulders are both dangerous and destructive to the land~ Abandoned mine shafts are death traps--stay 0U:~ f you discover one that is open, report it so that it may be closed~ Remember thal such mines usually were unsafe when they were in operation, and ther' has been much deterioration since then~ No one should attempt to climb rocks without proper equipment and know-how~ To do so is to invite serious injury. Likewi.se, c au t r on should be used when a hike or climb brings you ne.ar a cliff or t he edge of a r a.mrock, Dangers in Camp Going barefoot in camp is not a good idea--it is an easy way to get a variety of foot Lnj uri.es.. Water purification is among the most important con erns you can stress to a crew. River water should be double iodined~ Cimarron Philmont has a history of injuries caused by falls from trees to string up bear bait. Be sure of your trees and tree climbers. No one should ever climb a tree with a saw (like to trim dead branches up and down the :runk for firewood)~ Summary Concerns of safety and accident prevention in the wilderness include: fj Weather 2~ Fire.s 3. Animals and insects 4~ Dangers on the trail 5. Dangers in camp You should cover most of these points with your campers at informal opportunities--they are new to Philmont's envi r onment and will not be attuned to them. Remember that it is a lot easier to prevent an accident than to repair the damage $ And it is a lot more fun to be on the trail than in the Healch Lodge" FRST AD AND EMERGENCY PROCEDURES Everyone at Philmont has had some first aid training~ When dealing with campers, remember to cover this basic informati.on before reviewing specific first aid treatments. The following is strictly Philmont policy and other organizations may do things differently. This is what should be done when an injury or illness occurs. 1. Never panic~ 2. Know exactly what you are doi.ng and do nothing more than neeessary. Often an advisor will panic and try every treatment he has heard of for the ailment when there is little need for anything to be done at alt 3. Send three (3) messengers (runners) with a specific written message to the nearest staffed camp. ~39-

46 When teaching first aid to your campers, a good approach is to make sure they understand this is important and you have their attentione Run the discussion as a quiz, ask a question and see if anyone has the answer~ f not, give them the answer~ This will confirm what they already know and serves to best replace misconceptions with proper informatione To start, state that there are two emergency first aid situations that require immediate care and everything else can wait until you absolutely know that what you are doing is proper. What are the two cases? Severe Bleeding Treatment - Direct pressure by any means~ Pad your hand with a sterile compress if available, a T-shirt, handkerchief, or just the bare hand, but stop the bleeding. Use a tourniquet only on a severed limb~ Stopped Breathing Treatment - mmediate artificial respiration~ All other cases can wait, at least one minute~ until the proper treatment has been determined~ f you don't have to do anything, then don't! Remember that if you move an injured person you may do him harm and anything you do to "doctor him Up" may very well have to be undone at the Health Lodge at great pain to the victim. Think~; Shock Treat for shock in all cases~ When not treated, shock itself may become more serious than the original injury. Shock is a depression of body functions. t is aggravated by bleeding~ pain, and "rough handling". Burns Symptoms -The victim feels faint, ill, weak, and may faint altogether. The skin is cold, pale, and clammy, the pulse rapid and weak& Shock can occur in all accident victimse Treatment - Lay the patient down wi.th his head lower than his feet. Keep him warm, that is, prevent body heat loss~ Do not raise body heat higher than normal. Danger - Do not let treatment for shock complicate existing injuriese Example: f the victim has an injured back, do not elevate the feet because of possible spinal damage. Treatment - mmerse in cold water or cover with cold compresses. Use soap to clean~ Cover with sterile gauze or cloth. Do not use burn ointments or creams or pop blisters. Broken Bones and Sprains Symptoms - Pain and tenderness, swelling and discoloration, and deformity. Treatment - Treat for shock~ mmobilize the limb by tying it to another part of the body only if muscle spasms set in or other movement is necessary. Treat any bleeding 0 Do not transport or splint victim unless absolutely necessary or advised by the Health Lodge~ -40-

47 Sprains Most sprains happen to the ankle while hiking~ Watch where you are going~ Treatment - Do not take off the boot~ f the victim can walk let him do so. Anklz support bandages and/or cold compresses may help. f he cannot walk on it, treat it as a breake f you are not certain whether it is a sprain or a break, suspect a break and treat it as such. Bites and Stings Rattlesnake - the bite does not have to appear as two fang marks~ t can be a single puncture wound or a scratch~ For a clue, wait to see if a small knot-like swelling appears. Treatment - Have the victim sit down. f you do nothing more, this alone is sufficient~ A lymph constrictor may be placed between the wound and the hearte This is not a tourniquet. t should be as tight as a too tight garter o Cold compresses can be placed over the wound or it may be immersed in cold water. Notify the Health Lodge immediately~ Do not let the victim transport himself, get excited or cut the skin at all for any reason~ nsect Bites Treatment ~ Treat with cold water and wash with soap. f an allergic reaction sets in, notify the Health Lodgeb Mammal Bites - try to prevent by not attempting to catch or play with any animals. Treatment - Wash with soap and water and report innnediately to the Health Lodge. f possible, kill the animal so it can be analyzed for rabies, but try not to crush the head. f the anmal cannot be caught, the victim must undergo 14 painful rabies shots~ Cuts and Punctures Treatment - Force puncture wounds to bleede Clean both cuts and punctures with soap and water~ Apply sterile gauze and tape or bandaids. f serious or persistant bleeding occurs, notify the Health Lodge. Do not use antiseptics, they will often serve only to camouflage infection. Blisters Prevention - Use of two pair of socks when hiking and use of foot powder. When a "hot spot" forms, apply tape or moleskin.. Treatment - Cut a hole the size of the blister in a piece of moleskin. Wash the blister with soap and water and dry thoroughly~ Apply moleskin to blister letting the blister show through the hole. Now apply a larger-than-the-hole piece of moleskin over the hole~ Do not puncture the blister unless absolutely necessary. f you must, puncture from the bottom with a sterile needle. Do not continue walking when you know you have a hot spot or a blister in formation. Stop and treat properlyc Heat Exhaustion Symptoms - Rapid heart rate, faint feeling, also nausea, vomiting, headaches, dizziness, restlessness~ or loss of consciousness are possible. Treatment ~ Rest, treat fox shock out of the sun, Salty fluids may be given. -41-

48 Cause - Lack oxygen f Llow.ng.i Ltttude Concussion Severe Back, or Neck lnlury Symptoms - njury may be present aftet a fal1~ Mobilty of a certain area does not rule out the possibility of damage~ Treatment - Call the Health Lodge~ Keep him warm but do not elevate legs for fear of aggravating the injury, Do not move the victim or let him move himself. Unconsciousrtess Treatment '.-0 Call the Health Lodge", Do n,~'~t try to awaken the victim - he is feeling no pain and has no worries~ Treat any bleedinge Pull jaw forward and tilt head back to ease breathing. Treat for shock and be aware of possible spinal injuries. Altitude Sickness or Acute Mountai,D Sickness of o a climb n a by an unacclimated persons Symptoms ~ Headache and nausea often wlt.h lighthe.adedness) dizziness, lack of appeti.te, and shortness of breath" Treatment - Rest, r educed activity, cont rolled deep b r earh Lng. Call the Health Lodge if symptoms persist longer than 24 hou.rs, Hyperventi1a tio'n Rapid Uncontrolled Breath,ing Cause - Lack of carbon dioxide due to rapid air exchange in the lungs~ Tre,atme.ot -, Be aware, that panic may set in when the victim realizes he cannot control his breathing~ Have the vlctirn sit and rest and reassure him that everything is all right~ f tbe symptoms do not disappear, two treatments are possible. The easiest is to have the 'viet im sit with hi.s knees ti.ght against his chest and his arms wrapped around his knees" This should bring his breathing under control. The s e cond treatment is to have the v i.c tim b reat h in and out of a plastic or paper bag fitted to his mouth as if he were go Lng to pop it. This will build up carbon dioxide and bring breathing under control~ Dehydration and Constipatio~ Prevention and Treatment - Maintain a proper fluid balance in the body. Drink 2-4 quarts of water daily~ Drink most of it in camp so that it need not be carried on the trail. Be careful about using salt tablets as they make many people j,11 and thus aggravate the problem~ Heat exhaustion may occur if water intake is not sufficient~ Diarrhea Headache Treatment -- Get Kaopectate from the nearest staffed camp.. Treatment - Be aware that this may be related to Altitude Sickness. Take asplrln as directed on the bottle and watch fer other symptoms if headache does not disappear.

49 Nosebleed Treatment - Press a wad of AP gently up the nose. Reduce activity. Check signs of Altitude Sfcknes s,_' Notify the Health Lodge if bleeding persists. head higher than the rest of the body~ for Keep Stomachache This is a touchy subject because so many thlngs~ can go wrong with the stomach and abdomen- Find out first if the problem could be constipation~ Call the Health Lodge if you are not sure or if pain persists~ Do not give laxatives as the appendix may be infected and might rupture under the scraln, causing peritonitis. Poisoning may be present from "edible plantslt~ When in doubt, call in. Sunburn Treatment - The best treatment is prevention~ Don't go for more than 15 minutes per day when starting a tan~ Cold wet dressings will help relieve pain~ Creams for pain relief such as Unguentine may be usedn f pain is severe consult the Health Lodge" Eye njuries Treatment - Wash the speck out. Do not rub or attempt to wipe out. f the cornea is punctured, do not remove the object. Call the Health Lodge. This should take care of what a crew needs to know about first aid. Ask if there are any questions, then proceed to the section on how to send a message to a staffed camp and/or the Health Lodgec The following is additional information you personally may need to know about first aid. Pressure Points f you know them cold and can make them work, do it. them if you have not tried it befored Don't waste time trying to find Epileptics f you have one in your crew you will know it from having checked over their medicals before visiti.ng the Health Lodge~ The Doctor or Medic will discuss the problem with you if you wish~ f the boy or advisor is a controlled epileptic, he will be permitted on the trail!' The advisor will know about any of his boys. Treatment - f someone goes into a seizure, keep him from bitin~ his tongue by placing a bunched-up handkerchief in his mouth~ Let him alone as much as possible. keep everyone else away and have them go about their business~ Pulmonary Edema Very rare on Philmont Symptoms - Dry persistant cough, short of breath when sitting, pain or pressure on chest, noisy breathing, may cough up blood or pink froth. Treatment - mmediate evacuation to a lower altitude and medical care Heart Attack Symptoms - Pain on chest, shortness of breath, other genreal symptoms of exhaustion. Treatment - Call the Health Lodge. Treat for shock~ f the heart has stopped,press both hands over the heart and press sharply~ Have someone give artificial respiration -43-

50 at the rate of per minute~ Heart massage should be done simultaneously at per minute. Hypothermia This is a lowering of the body temperature that eventually causes death. at Philmont but it could happen anywhere~ t is rare Cause - lack of food, cold, exhaustion, exposure to rain, all contribute to stealing body heat~ Treatment - Gradual warming and medical care~ Give warm drinks if victim is conscious. Butterfly Strips Very useful in closing wounds~ Method - Take a strip of tape and cut a rectangle from both sides so that there are two large areas of tape joined by a narrow bridge~ Place one large area of tape on one side of the wound, push both sides of the wound together and place tape on the other side~ NOTE: Wound must be clean and the skin on both sides dry~ A gauze or cloth pad must be put on top of the butterflies as they do not cover the whole wound and infection must be prevented. SENDNG A MESSAGE FOR HELP Very exacting things need to be done when taking a Health Lodge message to a staffed camp~ Probably the staffed camp will have a radio (soon all will). Mark staffed and radio camps on their maps if you have not done so already~ Ask what would be good place to write the message, and arrive at the conclusion that the back of the map is best because it has a large writing area and the runners will need it to tell where -they are going. As long as you are talking about that, ask how many run with the message. The answer is three (3)0 f one gets hurt, one can stay with him and the last can continue to the staffed camp 0 Wh,en delivering the message, they must stick to the trails they came on or run on the trails they are scheduled to be on nextc This will prevent their becoming lost or running into obstacles not shown on the map~ f they stick to scheduled trails, they will not end up on ones Philmont has not used for many years. When all this has been covered ask what should be written on the back of the map and make sure all the following is listed and explained 0 l~ Victim's name. 2~ Expedition number~ 3. Location - describe in detail on the back of the map and on the front mark with an X. 4. Exactly what happened. 5. Exactly what is wrong. Describe all symptoms and conditions in detail~ Example: s he cold, hot, conscious, unconscious, breathing quickly, slowly, deep, shallow, is he pale, flushed, sweating, clammy, did you stop all bleeding, are there muscle spasms, etc~? 6e What treatment have you given so far? 7. What time did this happen or how long has this condition been present? 8. Anything else that may be important~ Evacuation Evacuation can usually wait until a medic arrives with proper gear or a camp staff comes with a stretcher. There should be no pressing need to make your own stretcher and transport the victim~ f you do decide to do so, make a stretcher from a tarp, tent, ponchos, etc~ and poles but watch these rigs carefully as they may break apart and dump your victim on the ground~

51 ON THE WAY TO THE STARTNG CAMP After a Ranger and his crew board a bus to be transported to one of the starting camps, he may begin to describe many points of interest along the route. He should grasp every opportunity to read the interest of his crew members and to give them as much detailed information as they require about landmarks, historic events, etc. Use the following outline to present the points of interest along the route to the starting camps. This outline, however, is meant to serve only as a guide for the bus tour. A Ranger cannot possibly communicate the spirit and flavor of this land of enchantment by rattling off details from memory. Your most important objective is to get across to your crew what Philmont is. The best approach is through the channel of what makes Philmont unique for you. f you talk about what is releva.nt to you, chances are the spirit of Philmont will get across to your crew. There are many ideas that can be worked into any bus tour, depending on what turns you on. Examples: The smell of a Ponderosa pine, different trees as life zones change, specific incidents: that happened to you in that area. Remember - Make it meaningful. 1. Old Hayward Residence 2. Entrance - Douglas Firs 3. Tooth of Time (9003) & Ridge 4. Grizzly Tooth (9005) 5. Cattle Headquarters 6. Nairn Place 7. Santa Fe Trail 8. Trail Peak (10,242) 9. Beaubien 10. Urraca Mesa -(8400) 11. Remains of Mountain Man 12. UU Bar Ranch 13 Miami Mesa 14. Kit Carson Mesa (6800) 15. Rayado 16. Rayado Chapel 17. Kit Carson Museum & Home site 18. Rayado Peak (9805) 19. Crater Peak (9748) 20. Backside Urraca Mesa 21. Fowler Mesa (8800) 22. Zastrow 23. Stonewall Pass 24. Abreu SOUTHERN TOUR EXPLANATON 1. Hayward Residence - originally the Ladd House on an 80 acre ranch, mostly orchard, midway between the Urraca and Cimarroncito creeks0 Bought by Phillips where later his manager, Gene Hayward, lived. Now home of the Director of Program. 2. Entrance - Douglas Firs - large douglas fir logs 54" diameter. They were found on the game land around Tolby Peak at the head of the Cimarron Canyon. After being refused by the sawmill in Cimarron, they were presented to Philmont. -45-

52 3 & 4 - Refer to Geology. 5. Cattle Headguarters - on left traveling on. State hf.ghway mercial beef. The herd consists of about 500 he!'!"; ;t1:ls Hereford cattle with some cross breeding of black-hl1 J l l S, Philmont raises com 18 a cdw/-calfoperation. 6. Nairn Place - built by Stanley McCormick in t th, cos t 0fS100,000 as head- quarters for the Urraca Ranch (Urraca is spanish r~'(;,'d for magp Le), After McCormick went insane, the ranch was sold to Georg-e, l';feb'3'.er t1.-::cormic.k's manager in The house and some 40 acres were sold Webster:'0 192 Jack Nairn, founder of the most exclusive social club in Colfax the Ha,rerick Club. Phillips lived there for a short time after giving h.is HSA, Nairn sold it to the McDaniel Ranch in the 1940's. 7. Santa Fe Trail - the road follows parallel to Fe Trail. called the Mountain Route, it p8ss~d Raton Pass, Cimarron, Rayado, meeting the ning from ndependence, Missouri to Santa F~, th~s as a stage line from Denver to Santa Fe untt l the 1880' s, The trail was also used Ln t he J 8?n men who sold their beaver pelts in Taos each yea:. be seen, especially from the air. Also Dote the foci< side of the road, from Camping Headquarters rc orksof the original Santa R,:,'!;: 's Fort, Colorado, then 'Br,met! near Las Vegas. Runtlou of the trail was once used Fe railroad cane through in supplies to the Mountain places the ruts can still cai.rn trail markers on the left 8. Trail Peak - site of a spectacular view as well ""t:>~1:'1sh of bomber in April, 1942, which killed the 12 men on board. Part of the un".~.l"'>ge stu glints in the sun, and crosses mark the position of the bodies. 9. Beaubien - a staff camp located in t)ie val J.y beh most important figure in the ear~evelopm 'Dt from Canada, he grew rich as a Taos merchant, he acquired.what is now Colfax County along th", business. Although Miranda never took an actj.ve never have received this land grant from Mexico 'CcElil Peak and named after the N",H:beast:':'rn New Mexico. Coming Miranda as a partner, F,~ T!'::1.11 to expand his trading Hpdubien, a foreigner, could l., 10. Refer to Geology 11. Remains of Mountain Man - at the base of t he cltf fs on lrraca Mesa's north side, the remains of a mountain man were found in thrc:: summer of 1970; tools associated with the discovery show that he was alive i1:' the mid 1880 s; from other evidence found, it was believed he was about years old w[1f~n he died and suffered from bad teeth;' there were no guns found. He,,/'as '81' td:tl and of European descent. 12. UU Bar Ranch - the area from the base of Drraca on t ue ii:<lst side of the road to Rayado is owned by the UU Bar Rancho This ranch, about; 125,000 acres, including La Gruilla Ridge, Agua Pria Park, and Wi.ld Horse Park WBS sold by Phillips to McDaniel and Sons in the 1940's; in 1970 the HcDaniE'ls HoLd the ranch to the Faudree Cattle Corp., who also own land in Texas, Argentina~ and Australia Refer to Geology 15. Rayado - now means "striped" in Spanish. used t.o mean "line" as in a boundary line, the Rayado Creek being similar to a county line: Spanish rule. Rayado is the first permanent settlement on the Beaubien MirHDda Land Grant, the site picked by Kit Carson and Lucien Maxwell, Beaubien' s son-in-la~;, in (They originally met as trappers in the American Fur Company.) Maxv,!ell bought out his sister and brotherin-laws and ended up owning 1,750,000 acres, tlu'! Drge,'i land grant north of the present-day boundary with Mexico. The only or: DEll house left today at Rayado is the Maxwell house. -46-

53 16. Rayado Chapel - was built in 1912 n memory of Jesus Abreu by his widow, one 0 Beaubien's daughters. 17. Kit Carson Museum & Home Site - the museum is on the left and Kit Carson~s house was located behind it, although hs only spent a total of 18 months there~ He was a guide) trapper, mountain man as well as an ndian agent 1n Taos. He died in 1868, his grave being in Taos at his hou8e~ ~ Refer to Geology 21. Fowler Mesa - the origin of the name is another of Philrnont 3 s mysteries: either named after Jacob Fowler~ a fur trapper ~ho passed through this area in 1821, or more doubtfully, after Joel Fowler $ a gunslinger. 22. Zastrow - Woodbadge Tra.ining Course of Scoutmastersc They are awarded beads at its finish.. One of two na t t onall y operated Woodbadge training camps; the other is at Schiff Scout Reservation. 23. Stonewall Pass - built in the 1860's by Peter Joseph to separate his Ranch (what later became the Urraca Ranch) from the Rayado Ranch. Supposedly, the price of barbed wire was too high due to the fact that it had to be hauled in by wagon until the 1880 J s when the Santa Fe railroad was c omp Le ted '" 24. Abreu- a staffed camp named after Jesus Abreu, one Beaubien's sons-in-law. After Beaubien lost his oldest son and hetr~ and his close friend, Gov. Charles Bent, in the Taos Uprising of 1847, he turned over the development of the land grant to Abreu and MaxweLi. Af t e r Maxwell moved Ln 1857 to a more advantageous location in Cfrnarron, Rayado was maintained by the Abreu family. They operated a store and a stagecoach stop where passengers on their way to Santa Fe could get a hot meal~ The original Abreus are buried in the cemetery at Rayado. GEOLOGY 1. Mesas - Urraca and Fowler are capped with Basalt, remnants of lava flows that poured f r orn a volcano at Cra t e r Peak 4 mf Ll.t.on y ear s ago.. 2. Grizzly Tooth, Tooth of Time, Lovers Leap - are all, outcrops of Dacite Porphyry, an intrusive igneous rock that seeped up into joints and cracks in the older shales during the Tertiary Period (60 million years agc)~ Softer shale has eroded away from the more resistant Dacite PorphyryD 3. Black Mountain & Trail Peak ~ Pne-Cambr Lan (500+ million years ago), Granodiorite and Gne-iss, the oldest rocks on Philmont" 4. Rayado Canyon - carved in the last 4 million years, slicing down through Basalt flows at the rim to Pre-Cambrian Gneiss and Schist at the bottom. 5. Crater Peak - buffalo shaped peak was once an active volcano (4 million years ago) and the source of basalt flows which cap all the mesas~ The meadows on top provide excellent grazing land~ 6. Turn-a~ound at Abreu - the trail passes across Cretaceous Shales and Limestones containing marine fossils~ mostly clams and oysters. 1. Old Hayward Residence 2. Entrance - Douglas Firs 3. Cattle Headquarters -47-

54 4~ Santa Fe Trail 5. Nairn Place 6. Tooth of Time & Ridge (9003) 7 UU Bar Ranch 8e Urraca Mesa (8400) 9G Remains of Mountain Man 10. Fowler Mesa (8800) 11. Grizzly Tooth (9005) 12e Shaefers Peak (9360) 13. Black Mountain (10,892) 14. Trail Peak (10, 242) lse Lover's Leap 16~ Stockade 17~ Rocky Mountain Scout Camp EXPLANATON For 1-15 refer to Southern Tour 16~ Stockade - was once used as a staff camp. 17. Rocky Mountain Scout Camp - for scout aged sons of families attending Training Center Conferences., Refer to Geology under Southern Tour~ GEOLOGY 1. Old Hayward Residence 2. Entrance - Douglas Firs 3. Seton Museum 4. Philmont Training Center 5e Villa Phi1monte - "Big House" 6. Ranch Administration Area 7e Polo Barns 8. Lower Heck House (new) 9. Upper Heck House (old) 10. Heck Cemetery ll~ Webster Lake 12. Tooth of Time & Ridge (9003) 13~ Shaefers Peak (9360) 14. Black Mountain (10,892) 15. Bear Mountain (10,663) 16. Mount Phillips (11,711) 17. Cimarroncito Peak (10,468) 18. Deer Lake Mesa 19. Antelope Mesa 20. Window Rock (8312) 21. Cathedral Rock 22. Clark's Fork Camp 23. Cimarroncito Reservoir CENTRAL TOUR -48-

55 EXPLANATON 1 & 2 - Refer to Southern Tour 3. Seton Museum & Library - houses the library and personal collections of the first Chief Scout, Ernest Thompson Seton; collections include ndian artifacts, Setonts study skin collection, and over 3,000 paintings and drawings and sketches by Seton; the exhibits are changed each year~ As a library it is distinguished for its collection of books on Southwest h1story. t also has copies of Boys' Life from 1915 until present as well as a copy of the first Scout Handbook written in 1910 by Seton~ The museum was built with donations from L~O. Crosby in Philmont Training Center - used during the summer to train volunteer leaders. A program is also provtded for the wives and children of the leaders. During the fall, winter, and spring months, the Training Center is used for short term conferences, Council, Regional, and Area meetings and non-scout related groups 8 5. Villa Ph,ilmonte - Waite Phillips summer house, finished in 1928 at a cost of a quarter of a million dollars, and modeled after a villa he saw in the Mediterranean in 1923~ His home in Tulsa, Oklahoma, the Philbrook, is almost identical, but 3 times as large~ t is now an art museum operated by the city of Tulsa~ n 1938, Phillips gave to the Boy Scouts of AmerJca 10,000 acres in the northern part of the ranch, called the Philturn Rocky Mountain Scout Camp, including a gift of $61,000 to help finance it~ n 1941 Phillips gave an additional 117,000 acres and the Philtower Office Building in Tulsa as an, endowment. An additional 10,000 acres in the Baldy Country was purchased by a National Council Member from the Maxwell Land Grant Co. (the same. one that bought out Maxwell in 1870) for Philmont in 1965, thus making the new total for land ownership 137,000 acres~ Mr. Phillips died in 1964B His wife still lives in Los Angeles, while their son Elliott is a rancher in Las Vegas, New Mexico~ 6~ Ranch Administration Area - the first house on the corner is the original Webster house~ Webster owned the Urraca Ranch at the time Phillips bought it~ Besides a permanent staff residence, this area includes an administration, office, commissary, warehouse, motor pool, and other service areas~ 7~ Polo Barns - built by Waite Phillips who loved fine horses and the game of polo~ Over 100 stalls in th,e original barn housed prize polo horses, playing teams as far away as Kansas Citys The area in front of the barns once had a track and a training field" 8. New Heck House - built by Mathias Heck's descendents; the Recks are still a prominent family in, this area. 9. Old Reck House - built by Mathias Heck, German descent, bought the ranch in the 1890's; sold it to Phillips in the 1920's~ 10. Heck Cemetery - only one headstone, but two graves, that of Mathias Heck and his wife, Margaret. The family still has burial privileges. 11. Webster Lake - Reservoir created by George Webster in 1908 at a cost of $40,000, one of the proj ects he mas t e rtrri.nded in developing the Urraca Ranch. Also introduced e Lk and established a state game preserve~ Webster's cabin at Fish Camp was later rebuilt by Phillips after he purchased the Urraca Ranch in 1923~ You can still spot some of the apple trees Webster planted See Geology under Southern Tour~ 22~ Clark's Fork Camp - a staff camp; its name along with Shaefer's Peak is part of Philmont's lost heritage, -49-

56 23. Cimarroncito Reservoir - Cimarron's water supply, before the flood in 1965 the water flowed down to Cimarron through wooden pipes, bound by wire, in essence, long skinny barrels. 1. Old Hayward Residence 2. Entrance ~ Douglas Firs 3e Seton Museum 4. Philmont Training Center 5. Villa Philmonte "Big House H 6. Ranch Administration Area 7" Polo Barns 8e Buffalo Pasture ge Philmont Airport (4,000') 10. Santa Fe Trail 11. Tooth of Time (9003) & Ridge 12~ Shaefer's Peak (9360) 13. Black Mountain (10,892) 14. Bear Mountain (10,663) 15e Mount Phillips (11,711) 16. Cimarroncito Peak (10,468) 17. Antelope Mesa 18~ Cimarron Omni-Directional Radar Station 19. Old Stone Jail 20. Old Aztec Grist Mill 21. Swink's Gambling Hall 22. St" James Hotel & Museum 23. Old Springer House 24. Site of Maxwell House 25~ Cimarron River 26. Deer Lake Mesa 27. Turkey Creek Canyon 28. Gauging Station 29. Low Grade Coal Deposits 30. Route of RR & Old Model A Road 31. Bear Creek Canyon 32. Cimarron River Campsite 33. Vista Grande Campsite 34. Ute Park 35. Tolby Peak (11,520) 36. Touch~Me-Not (12,041) 37G Baldy (12,441) 380 Ute Creek Ranch 390 Atmore Brothers' Ranch 40. Atmore & Jackson Cemetery 41. Fire Scar 42. Placer Mining 43. Baldy Town 44. Deep Tunnel Mine MRANDA TOUR 1-2 See Southern Tour. 3 ~ 7 See Webster Parks Tour EXPLANATON -50-

57 8. Buffalo Pasture - to the left on top of the mesa is the pasture8 Philmont maintains a herd of 150 buffalo~ The herd is thinned each year and some buffalo are slaughtered and become a part of the menu at HeadquartersG Deer, buffalo and Antelope can be seen along this road. 9. Philmont Airport - Executive staff and others arrive here sometimes~ ts the only airport n the world where you may have to buzz the buffalo off the field before you can, land ~ 10. Santa Fe Trail - See Southern Tour~ See Geology under Southern Tour. 18. Cimarron Omni-Directional Radar Station - emits radio signals to guide airplanes. 19. Old Stone Jail - housed many a "bad hombre lf in the old days. t has only one room and was surrounded by a high rock wall almost as high as the building~ 20. Old Aztec Grist Mill - built by Maxwell in 1864 s the same year Cimarron was founded, used to issue rations to the Ute and Jicarilla Apache ndianscl Today it is a museum. 21. Swink's Gambling Hall ~ catercorner front the St~ James Hotel. The ghost of the last owner, Mr~ Garcia, is said to haunt this building after he was done in by some dastardly deed, or could the ghost belong to the body of the young red-haired woman found wrapped in an Army blanket underneath the floor? 23. Old Springer House - located to the right of the Don Diego, built for Frank Springer by Maxwell for successfully defending the land grant in the u.s. Supreme Court, resulting in the possession of the Maxwell Land Grant Company of over 1,700,000 acres. 24. Site of the Maxwell House - located between the Don Diego and the Cimarron River. n 1870 Maxwell sold it? to the English businessmen who established the Maxwell Land Grant Company and turned the house into an elegant headquarters for the company. t burned down completely in Maxwell meanwhile had moved to Ft~ Sumner (the ranch house where Billy the Kid was killed by Sheriff Pat Garrett after trying to get help from his friend, Pete Maxwell, son of Lucien Maxwell)e A man named Doc Leitzell, one of the old residents of Cimarron, lives on the Maxwell plot today~ n the 1930's, he was a storekeeper at Baldy Town, selling such items as cartridges and miner's candles. 25. Cimarron River - a fitting name for a town where Buffalo Bill organized his Wild West Show, Cimarron means "wild or untamed"" A British holding company, trying to sell homesteads on the Maxwell grant, pi.ctured the Cimarron River as having steamboats. 26. Deer Lake Mesa - capped wi.th Cretaceous Poison Canyon Formation - sandstone and conglomerate washed from the west by streams. 22. St. James Hotel & Museum - now called the Don Diego; built by french born Henry Lambert, one--time chef for President Lincoln; the old bar (now a gift shop) has numerous bullet holes in the ceiling and about 26 men have been killed in the building. A frequent visitor was Clay Allison, who often called out gunfighters to match his talents~ He ranched near Cimarron for a brief time, terrorizing the town while drunk. He died accidentally when he was run over by a wagon after having fallen off due to his drunkenness~ Once Clay Allison and Davy Crockett,, shot four men during a dispute over who had the right to the doorwayg At any rate, the hotel ran a good business as Cimarron was one of the principle stopping places along the Santa Fe Trail. -51-

58 ~7. Turkey Creek Canyon - to the right just past the gauging station. The hideout of Black Jack Ketchum is up this canyon. Black Jack Ketchum was noted member of the Wild Bunch gang and an "accomplished" outlaw, specializing in train-robbery. Many lawmen attempted his capture, but none succeeded in bringing him to justice. Finally, a Pinkerton man was sent here to seek him out~ disguised as a freight drivere As he stopped along the canyons to water his horses, he would carve faces on the rocks. Many of these can still be found along Turkey Creek Canyon. One of his most famous faces is outside the Seton Memorial Museum at this timeg While attempting a solo train robbery in 1899, Ketchum was caught and hanged in 1901 at Clayton, New Mexico. There is a photo of the event in the Old Mill Museum~ 28. Gauging Station - on the Cimarron River, determines rate of flow by the station. 29. Low Grade Coal Deposits - along the Cimarron Canyon, also oil impregnated shale. 30. Route of Railroad and Old Model A Road ~ road goes over the old railroad bed for the Ste Louis, Rocky Mountain & Pacific~ After turning right, the highway goes over the old rail bed for the St. Louis, Rocky Mountain~ & Pacific Railroads; used a swastika as an emblem. This track connected with the Santa Fe Railroad in Raton. Planned in 1893 by Thomas P. Harlan, the first train did not roll into Cimarron until 1906; the railroad was meant to take supplies to Baldy Town and bring gold out; it terminated at Ute Park, 15 miles up Cimarron Canyon, although plans were to extend it to the Pacific coast. 31. Bear Creek Canyon - off to the right; heads up toward Santa Claus Canyon. 32. Cimarron River Campsite - one of Philmont's trail camps & 33. Vista Grande - trail ta Vista Grande camp leaves U.S. 64 across from Bear Canyon and crosses the river at the bridge. 34. Ute Park - name came from the Ute ndians; during the days of Baldy Town it was the Southern Ute and Jicarilla Apache Reservation. When the railroad came through, it became a tourist center. 35. Tolby Peak (11,520) - Landmark 36. Touch-Me-Not (12,041) - located in Cimarron Canyon Wildlife Area. 37. Baldy (12,441) - highest point on Philmont; the Baldy country was under extensive gold mining efforts beginning in the 1860's continuing, off and on, through the 1930's when all mining stopped. World War prevented further exploration. 38. Ute Creek Ranch - owned by Bob Allen of Raton Builders in Ratono Was leased to Philmont for several years for hunting and hay harvest. The lease was not renewed when it expired in 1972~ Also known as the Soden Placee 39. Atmore Brothers' Ranch - owned and operated by the Atmore family, about 2,000 acres. Raise Hereford cattle. 40. Atmore and Jackson Cemetery - at the right on the Atmore Ranch. Both families have been in the country for many years~ 41. Fire Scar - occurred around 50 years ago, so hot that it just about sterilized the soil and no trees have grown back (happens when there is too much deadfall.) 42. Placer Mining - heaps of rocks along Ute Creek where miners gleaned gold from the stream through hydraulic process~ -52-

59 43~ Baldy Town ~ can be seen at the top of the valley in the clearing; Aspens (light green) have grown up since the booming gold days of Baldy Town, in the scars where trees were cut down to provide lumber for the many houses in that area. Baldy Town is still an official town, having its own postmark and mayor (the camp director). 44. Deep Tunnel Mine - in 1900 two brothers, named William and Alexander Mcntyre, decided to dig a tunnel completely through Baldy in search of the "Mother Lode". They started at Big Nigger Gulch on Baldy's west side, then began at the headquarters of the South Ponil above Copper Park, The two tunnels met in 1936, their centers being one inch offe Meanwhile, Bill had died in 1930 of pneumonia, and Alex was left penniless 0 The drinking water in Copper Park comes out of the Deep Tunnel MineQ GEOLOGY 1. Vista Grande, Deer Lake Mesa, and Midnight Mesa - are capped with Cretaceous Poison Canyon Formation; Sandstone and conglomerate washed from the west by streams. 2~ Touch-He-Not an,d Baldy - were formed by the intrusion of Dacite Porphory into Cretaceous and Tertiary deposits, which metamorphosed most of them. The softer sedimentary rocks then eroded away from the igneous and metamorphic rocks. Talus slopes on Touch-Me-Not actually flow downhill at an extremely gradual rate (2" or 3" yearly), creating a rippled appearance" 3c The Cimarron River - millions of years ago flowed in exactly the opposite direction (toward Eagle Nest)~ Due to the volcanic erruptions near Raton (Capulin), it changed its flow to the way it is nowr FOUR-MLE TOUR 1. Old Hayward Residence 2. Entrance - Douglas Firs 3e Seton Museum 4~ Philmont Training Center 5. Villa Philmonte - "Big House" 6. Ranch Administration Area 7" Polo Barns 8. Buffalo Pasture 9. Philmont Airport (4,000') 10. Santa Fe Trail 11. Tooth of Time & Ridge (9003) 12. Shaefers Peak (9360) 13. Black Mountain (10,892) 14. Bear Mountain (10,663) 15~ Mount Philli.ps (11,711) 16~ Cimarroncito Peak (10,468) 17. Baldy (12,441) 18. Touch-Me-Not (12,042) 19. Antelope Mesa 20. Cimarron Omni - Directional Radar Station 21. Old Stone Jail 22e Old Aztec Grist Mill 23. Swink's Gambling Hall 24. St6 James Hotel & Museum 25~ Old Springer House 26. Site of Maxwell House 27. Cimarron River -53-

60 28. Old Railroad bed 29. Cimarron HQ of WS Ranch 30. Old Spur of Cimarron & Northwestern Railroad 31. Chase Ranch 32. WS Ranch 33. Coal Mines 34. Telegraph Line 35. Penitente Canyon & Settlement 36. Pueblo Development 37. Ponil Camp 38. Bent 1-2 See Southern Tour 3-7 See Webster Parks Tour 8-10 See Miranda Tour See Southern Tour Geology See Miranda Tour Geology See Miranda Tour EXPLANATON 29. WS Ranch HQ in Cimarron - the main industries of Cimarron include lumbering and ranching; the largest privately owned ranch in the U.S. is headquartered in Cimarron, this is the WS Ranch which owns more than 800,000 acres; other ranches include the CS Ranch, the UU Bar Ranch, and Phi1montG 30. Old Spur of Cimarron & Northwest Railroad - the road to Ponil follows the old spur line of this railroad; at times ~t can be seen running parallel to the road and crosses Ponil Creek 51 times~ The railroad was built in 1907, mainly to haul timber from ~Philmont's north country for mine props in the coal mines around Raton and Dawson.,Mine props were generally red spruce,but ponderosa pine was used also; logging crews also cut trees for lumber and railroad tles for the Santa Fe Railroad. The railroad stopped running in 1928, and the rail was sold to a Japanese industry. (Supposedly used against the U.S~ in World War 1&) 31. Chase Ranch - started by Musar Chase in the 1880'se General Lew Wallace, one of New Mexico's territorial governors and author of Ben Hur, was a good friend of Chase, and spent considerable time at this ranch; today it is owned and operated by the female descendants of the Chase familyg 32. WS Ranch - the road passes through part of their laude 33. Coal Mines - remains of two old coal mines near the Chase Ranch HQ, one on each side of the road; also, seams of low grade coal that may be seen in road cuts. The mineral rights of a lot of these old mines are owned by Kaiser Steel Corp. Between Raton and Cimarron one can find the richest coal beds in the Southwest. 34. Telegraph Line -54-

61 35G Penitente Canyon - a 5raveyard at the mouth of the canyon as well as a small chapel, probably used by the Penitentes in the Cimarron and Springer areaso There was a "morada", or Penitente church, northwest of the Cimarron graveyard until the 1960's when some rancher bought the land and the church was carried away, brick by brick, in the night by the remaining Penitentes in Cimarron. 36~ Pueblo Development - just before Ponil, right across from the horse feed rack, a small archaeological site, dated from around 1,100 A.D~ Also, a small house ruin. 37. Ponil ~ a staffed camp; the Pauil is the name of a knee~high bushy plant with feathery blooms also called Apache plume. Area once called Five Points because 5 canyons (Middle Panil, South Ponil~ Panil, Cedar, and Horse) all terminate at this location; Ponil was the heart of Philturn Rocky Mountain Scout Camp. Back then, the campers used to dress as ndians and lived in teepees. 38. Bent ~ named after Charles Bent) friend of Beaubien and fourth partner in the huge land grant~ He and his brother built the famous Bent's Fort in Colorado along the Santa Fe Trail. He was the first American governor of the Territory of New Mexico but was killed 6 months later dur1ng the Taos Uprising of GEOLOGY v Window Rock, Cathedral Rock ~ outcrops of Dacite Porphory, an intrusive igneous rock that seeped into joints and cracks in the older shales during the Tertiary Period (60 million years ago). The softer shale has since eroded away from the more resistant Dacite Phorphory~ 2. Bear Mountain, Mount Phillips - composed of Pre-Cambrian (500+ years ago) Granodiorite and Gneiss, the ades rocks on Philmont. 3~ Porril Canyon - the same structure as Cimarron Canyon, walls of the canyon are beach and basin deposits from the Cretaceous and Tertiary Periods (90-25 million years ago) Part of a huge sandstone belt extending down from Coloradoe ~55-

62

63 BENG A TRANNG RANGER NOW YOU ARE A SUPERV'SOR~ Last year you probably were a Ranger~ Now that you are a TR, what do you have in common with the Chief Scout Executiv-e) your ACR, arid Philmont ~ s General Manager? Well; if nothing else, all of these are supervisors, and so are you~ You have now become a part of the total leadership strueture of the Boy Scouts of America, and a vital link between your Rangers and the rest of the BSA staff~ You are now responsible net only for your own work, but for the work of others, and your chall.enge will be to make this summer both enjoyable and productve for your Rangers~ Being a good supervisor includes: l~ Being the prime resource for your Rangers, and a constant source of encouragement for them. They need to know that someone as always available and eager to listen or to help with information, experience, or just sharing a problem or goal. No one can provide this better than you can9 2~ Providing the training and guidance that will bring out the best in each of your Rangers. 3" Being a two-way c.hannel of communicat10n between the Rangers in your crew and your ACR and others along the line~ 4~ Holding your Rangers accountable for their obligations to Philmont and making sut'e that Philmont's obligations to each Ranger are fulfilledu 5~, Accepting added responsibility in build1ng good relationships throughout the Philmont staff. TRANNG One important responsibility w~ll be the training of your Rangers--using a few short days to give them the skills and confidence they will need. The training days will Lnc l ude a few activities that the. who l e Ranger staff can do together, such as forest fire control and First Ai.d. But for most skills and the general Ranger job, it will be up to you to come up with a plan for training your crew~ Some important steps are: 1 eo, Building 2.. Team - The fir st task is to get your crew together as a bunch of friends who can depend on each o~her, accept each other, and enjoy doing things togetherft The crew should come to look to you as the one most interested in them and most able and ready to help--someone who is always glad to see theme 2. Skills - You should not assume that your people will have much experience in backpacking or wi.ll ever have been to Phi Lmont As with a regular crew, you can size up their inl_tial skills and bulld from there, utilizing the more experienced to teach the less experiencede The attached check list of skills should help in your planning, so that nothing is left out~ Don't make the mistake of going over the skills too lightly; even for a returning Ranger, much detail can be forgotten over the winter~ 1-1-

64 3. Teaching Rangers to Teach - Most of your guys will be in an instructor's position for the first time~ They will be eager for some insights in how to instruct. Coaching in real situations will be a good way to help, but there are also some helps you can give the Ranger as he gets started: a~ The "Manager of Learning" idea gives the Ranger a simple tool that he can use to see and plan instruction~ b~ Many beginning Rangers will tend to sound prescriptive and authoritarian. Teach them to be informal--to teach as a friend to friend in casual situations as much as possiblec c~ Have plenty of opportunities for members of the crew to practice teach each other. f you have succeeded in creating a comfortable and trusting climate in the crew, practice instruction will be valuable and fun. YOUR CREW The team that you build in your training crew will be important to your Rangers. t can give them a group of friends to have throughout the summer. 1. You are the crew's leadere A strong crew,spirit can only develop because of what you do. You can lead by getting the crew together periodically to do something together for fun, ~nd.4just by spending time with your individual Rangers and letting them know they are important to,you. 2e The second and third year Rangers in your crew are a resource and should be used8 nstead of regarding them simply as members of the crew you are about to train to be Rangers, remember that they already know how to be Rangers. Share ~rew leadership with th~m by having them involved in planning and conducting the training in the crew. They can also help throughout the summer by observing and coaching first year Rangers when you can't 'be in two places at once. 3. Meeting the needs of your crew members is one of your most important functions~ What are their needs? Think back to your first days at Philmont~ Did you feel lost, somewhat alone, "in the dark" about what was going on? Figure out your Ranger needs, then think what you can do about theme Then do it. FOLLOW-UP LEADERSHP You can get your Rangers started off with all the enthusiasm and training in the world, but they will s t l. learn much more as they gain experience. You can only assure their success by following up throughout the summer to see that the job is being done well& 1. Observation/Coaching - By being with your Rangers on the trail a few times, you can give the kind of on-the-job coaching that is most helpful--coaching based on the Ranger's actual work with a crew, and coaching that takes place in an informal dayto-day manner~ t also allows you to spot the outstanding Rangers in the crew and to know who needs your help the most, and it allows you to give your guys some deserved encouragement and praise based on real observations. The manner in which you observe is important 0 The key to observing in a way that will make you welcome is just to think how you\would want to be observed with your crews 0 You probably wouldn't want a "spy" peeking at you from behind a tree, and on the other hand, you wouldn't want the big expert right under your nose adding to and correcting your instruction in f r ont of the gr oup., A good way of observing is to walk into the campsite and greet the Ranger, then introduce yourself to the -2-

65 advisor and tell him why you are there, asking h15 permission to visit in his campsite for a while" Then fade into the area and let the Ranger go about his busrness. When you are about to leave, if che Ranger can join you for a m1nute, this is a good time to offer encouragement and praise, along with any suggestions you may have fot him or her. Since you are being ~ounted on to serve as Ranger for your share of the crew load, observations must be planned so that they can be done efficiently, You will be scheduled for two blocks of 3~5 days each during Lhe summer in which to observe and evaluate members of your crew~ Ranger scheduling will be done with every effort toward consolidating your crew members to make this possible and easier. Much of the planning is up to you, so you should check all avallable re~outces in getting transportation to and from starting campsr Where possible, you may be scheduled for particular observations to help assure that all Rangers do get visited 1n the fieldn 2~ Personal Growth Opportunities - These are the staff evaluation conferences between each supervisor and individual staff member~ The1t p~imary purpose is to assist each staff member in growing and improving ln skills and ~nsights that will both make him a more effective staff member and be valuable for the person in the future~ A second purpose of the s econd evaluation is to Leave Philmont- with a record of the staff member' s performance that can be used to reply to requests for reference letters and to determine future hiring by Philmont. The f rrs t Personal Growth Opportuni t y occurs at mid-summer, and it is purely to stop and look at how the staff member is doingt> t should include encouragement and praise for his or her accomplishments and constructive criticism in which the staff member can identify areas t o work on, and a.mp r ove. f there are problems with a staff members performance) it is very important that these be discussed as soon as they are apparen t, S':" that the staff member t.hen has the opportunity to correct the situation~ A give-and-take conversation in which the staff member identifies strengths and weaknesse-s himself as much as possible makes for a conclusion in which the staff member makes his fown dec'ision and commitment on how he is doing and what to improve~ 3:) Staff Disciplinary Action - Un ortunately~ every summer in Philmont's very large staff, t her e a r Lse LndLv i dual situations of be hav i o r, often violations of the law or of Philmont polic~es, that cannol be allow d or condoned, and for which supervisory action is required. As evidenced in the Philmont staff contract and in the Staff Guidebook, some violations and problem areas can be handled with some chance for the person to shape up over a period of time j while immedi.ate dismssal is prescribed for others~ The best way to handle these matters,of course, is to fully orient the staff member and emphasize the importance of these at the beginning of the summer~ Even so, problem situations can be expected to arise occasionally, and in these cases) the more the problem can be handled by the supervsor closest to the staff member, the better~ Thus, in any dsciplinary action involving" one of your Rangers, every attempt will be made to involve you to the extent that you want to be involved~realizing that some situations may require immediate attention and action while you may be out on the trail~ _As a staff superv i sor, you are now "Phi Lmont ".in those employment conditions whe.re "Philmont" states that ceriain things are required~ Our diligence in seeing that these rules and procedures are followed closely in th~'ranger8 has much to do with our good relationships with other departments that ~J~ expected to follow the same rules. 4. Positive Leadership - Words of thanks add praise, legitimately deserved, are too seldom heard by guys who are Just going along doing a pretty job but feeling almost unnoticed. Everybody appreciates u kind word about his efforts--everybody doesc And a person is more likely to go all out in hs efforts if they are appreciated. Let your Rangers know that you think the work they do is important, that you think they can handle the job wel 1 ~ and that you.rpp r e c La t e t he i.r service and s uc c es s.

CBD 2014 Spring Camporee. Backpacking Merit Badge Course Description and Bring With List

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