1 Sustainable Transport Toolbox By Peter Newman Professor of City Policy Murdoch University, Perth, Australia. Fulbright Fellow, UVA. and Mark Bachels Sustainable Community Development, Parsons Brinkerhoff Sunshine Coast, Australia.
3 Sustainable Transport Toolbox 1. Using good data. 2. Arguing the case for rail, especially its good politics. 3. Engaging the Public. 4. How dense to make the centre work? 5. Creating great public spaces and sustainable streets to support transit. 6. Including other green innovations.
4 Using good data Especially ours.
6 UITP/ISTP Millenium City Database Data are from a comparative study of 100 global cities and involved 27 parameters using highly controlled processes to ensure comparability of data. The study took 5 years and builds on previous data collection since The 2005 data collection will commence shortly. Some data on the cities can be viewed on 16 cities were incomplete so mostly the data are of 84 cities.
7 Private Passenger Transport Energy Use per Person, 1995 American Australia/New Zealand Canadian Western European High Income Asian Eastern European Middle Eastern African Low Income Asian Latin American Chinese Atlanta Houston Denver San Francisco San Diego Phoenix Los Angeles Washington Chicago New York Calgary Toronto Perth Melbourne Vancouver Brisbane Sydney Ottawa Montreal Riyadh Wellington Geneva Oslo Brussels Frankfurt Rome Hamburg Nantes Stockholm Marseille Zurich Ruhr Lyon Newcastle Munich Vienna Stuttgart Glasgow Paris Dusseldorf Copenhagen Berne Bologna Graz Tel Aviv Madrid Athens London Sapporo Milan Berlin Amsterdam Manchester Bangkok Kuala Lumpur Johannesbur Helsinki Tokyo Singapore Sao Paulo Osaka Taipei Seoul Curitiba Prague Budapest Barcelona Cape Town Harare Tehran Tunis Hong Kong Manila Cracow Jakarta Beijing Bogota Guangzhou Cairo Chennai Shanghai Mumbai Dakar Ho Chi Minh Cities
8 Urban Density, 1995 (Persons/Ha) American Australia/New Zealand Canadian Western European High Income Asian Eastern European Middle Eastern African Low Income Asian Latin American Chinese Ho Chi Minh City Mumbai Hong Kong Cairo Seoul Taipei Manila Barcelona Shanghai Jakarta Bangkok Chennai Beijing Guangzhou Bogota Tehran Dakar Osaka Singapore Tunis Tokyo Madrid Sao Paulo Milan Brussels Tel Aviv Sapporo Cape Town Athens Vienna Bologna London Stuttgart Cracow Marseille Kuala Lumpur Amsterdam Berlin Rome Munich Geneva Manchester Budapest Dusseldorf Prague Frankfurt Paris Lyon Zurich Riyadh Berne Hamburg Newcastle Graz Ruhr Nantes Harare Glasgow Helsinki Montreal Ottawa Curitiba Johannesburg Stockholm Copenhagen Toronto Los Angeles Oslo Wellington Vancouver Calgary San Francisco Sydney New York Chicago Denver San Diego Washington Melbourne Perth Phoenix Brisbane Houston Atlanta Cities
9 Proportion of Total Motorised Passenger Kilometres on Public Transport, 1995 American Australia/New Zealand Canadian Western European High Income Asian Eastern European Middle Eastern African Low Income Asian Latin American Chinese Mumbai Dakar Chennai Hong Kong Shanghai Bogota Osaka Cracow Tokyo Harare Budapest Beijing Tunis Prague Sao Paulo Jakarta Guangzhou Singapore Cairo Johannesbur Seoul Tehran Bangkok Barcelona Rome Manila Cape Town Curitiba Munich Berlin Berne London Helsinki Vienna Paris Taipei Zurich Milan Madrid Brussels Sapporo Stockholm Tel Aviv Graz Copenhagen Amsterdam Newcastle Stuttgart Oslo Hamburg Athens Frankfurt Dusseldorf Toronto Manchester Sydney Montreal Ruhr Kuala Lumpur Nantes Glasgow Marseille Geneva Ottawa New York Bologna Melbourne Wellington Calgary Vancouver Lyon Ho Chi Minh Brisbane Perth Washington San Francisco Chicago Los Angeles Atlanta Riyadh Denver San Diego Houston Phoenix Cities
10 Ratio of Public to Private Transport Speed, 1995 American Australia/New Zealand Canadian Western European High Income Asian Eastern European Middle Eastern African Low Income Asian Latin American Chinese Tokyo Osaka Mumbai Hamburg Munich Cairo Seoul Marseille London Prague Sydney Frankfurt Oslo Cape Town Vienna Paris Zurich Stuttgart Berlin Beijing Hong Kong Dusseldorf Ruhr New York Stockholm Chennai Rome Sapporo Harare Athens Tehran Taipei Johannesburg Helsinki Brisbane Brussels Washington Glasgow Ho Chi Minh City Barcelona Chicago Vancouver Berne Guangzhou Copenhagen Geneva Cracow Lyon Wellington Sao Paulo Milan Jakarta Dakar Bangkok Perth Singapore Madrid Riyadh Nantes Kuala Lumpur Melbourne Shanghai Graz Manila San Francisco Montreal Bologna Amsterdam Atlanta Newcastle Curitiba Calgary Manchester Ottawa Bogota Phoenix Denver Tel Aviv Budapest Toronto Los Angeles Tunis Houston San Diego Cities
11 Length of Freeway per Capita, 1995 (metres) American Australia/New Zealand Canadian Western European High Income Asian Eastern European Middle Eastern African Low Income Asian Latin American Chinese Wellington Houston Atlanta Denver San Diego Phoenix Melbourne Calgary Brisbane Berne Frankfurt Helsinki San Francisco Rome Montreal Ottawa Riyadh Washington Stockholm Nantes Dusseldorf Copenhagen Stuttgart New York Zurich Ruhr Newcastle Los Angeles Amsterdam Madrid Chicago Glasgow Toronto Vancouver Oslo Tel Aviv Graz Kuala Lyon Milan Paris Geneva Sydney Prague Manchester Bologna Cape Town Hamburg Munich Singapore Perth Marseille Athens Barcelona Brussels Tehran Vienna Cracow Osaka Sapporo Berlin Johannesbur Tunis Seoul Bangkok Hong Kong Budapest Taipei Chennai Tokyo Sao Paulo London Jakarta Beijing Manila Dakar Shanghai Cairo Guangzhou Ho Chi Minh Harare Curitiba Bogota Mumbai Cities
12 Rail revolution. Big old cities are renewing their rail systems, eg London, Chicago, New York Small European cities are building light rail, eg German cities, Copenhagen, New world car dependent cities are putting in rail, eg all Australian cities (after Perth), 100 US cities Third world cities are doing a mixture of rail and BRT, including Chinese cities.
16 Curitiba: the Brazilian city which left the third world through urban planning.
18 Boulder: bioregional and local community strategic planning. Now the US most desired city to live in.
19 Local bus network free upon purchase of Eco-Pass. New rail to Denver being built and the city is creating a new TOD centre on an old car yard.
21 Governance Best Quality and Equity of Services Best Good Quality of Places Best OK Poor Housing Quality and Diversity Best Good OK Poor Best Jobs and Economy Access Best Natural Resources Best Environment Sustainability Criteria Spidergram for Sydney s New Land Release Program
22 Visionary and transformative rail project
23 Links new land release areas to the global arc new economy areas.
24 GLOBAL ARC RAIL
25 US rail revolution % of transit ballot initiatives successful in 33 states (cf 34% in other initiatives), 80% in 04/05. This is over $70 billion for 200 projects. Centre for Transit Oriented Development and Reconnecting America.
26 ARGUING THE CASE How does good transit benefit cities? 1. By reducing the proportion of wealth spent on transport. 2. By reducing the external costs of transport. 3. By saving time. 4. By saving space. 5. By creating city spaces suitable for the global knowledge/services economy. 6. By creating certainty for investment. 7. By good politics.
27 1. By reducing the proportion of wealth spent on transport. Car dependence is expensive.
30 Source: Kenworthy and Laube (1999) The significance of rail in building competitive and effective urban public transport systems: An international perspective. Business Briefing: Global Mass Transit Systems, pp Strong Rail Versus Weak Rail Cities: Economic Indicators Strong Rail Cities Weak Rail Cities Difference GRP Per Capita ($US, 1990) $29,493 $20,352 45% More Wealthy of GRP Spent On Operating Pass. Transport Road xpenditure Per $1,000 of GRP 9% 13% $5.96 $9.07 2/3 The Wealth On Transport 34% Less Road Expenditure Transit Cost Recovery 53% 51% 4% More Cost-Effective
31 The costs of car dependence in Australia The transport poor are now living on the fringes and on the coast.some families use 40% of their income on transport. Saving one car in a family is equivalent to saving $0.75m in superannuation.
32 Costs of transport in US The proportion of household expenditure spent on transportation has risen from 10% in 1960 s s to 19% in Cities with the highest car dependence have the highest proportion (Houston, Detroit) and those with the best transit have the lowest proportion (New York, Portland). Driven to Spend STPP, 2005.
33 The TOD market in the US 1. Demand to live within half a mile of a rail system (existing and planned) is 14.6 million households (double number living there now). 2. Households living now within a TOD are smaller, same age and same income as rest of US but own fewer cars (0.9 cf 1.6) and have 20% of income freed due to less costs for transportation. Centre for Transit Oriented Development, Reconnecting America.
34 2. By reducing the external costs of transport. Car dependence is very costly.
35 MULTIPLE SUSTAINABILITY PROBLEMS OF AUTOMOBILE DEPENDENCE ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMIC SOCIAL Oil vulnerability Highway costs Loss of community Smog and CO2 Sprawl costs Loss of safety Traffic impacts External costs Equity issues Sprawl into rural land Loss of land Accessibility loss Stormwater High running costs Social network loss WHAT ABOUT HEALTH? IF A CITY USES ALL ITS TRAVEL TIME BUDGET IN AUTOMOBILES WITH NO WALKING TIME LEFT THEN IT WILL DEVELOP HEALTH PROBLEMS RELATED TO OBESITY AND LACK OF IDENTITY.
38 We ve ve embarked on the beginning of the Last Days of the Age of Oil Mike Bowlin,, CEO of ARCO 1999 Transport must move to local energy sources -electric and gas.
40 ACTIVITY INTENSITY VERSUS PRIVATE CAR TRAVEL IN 5 HIGHER INCOME CITIES 30,000 25,000 y = x R 2 = ,000 15,000 10,000 5, ACTIVITY INTENSITY (PERSONS + JOBS PER HA
41 PER CAPITA PASSENGER TRANSPORT ENERGY USE VERSUS ACTIVITY INTENSITY IN SYDNEY LGAs, 1981 ANNUAL PER CAPITA PASSENGER TRANSPORT ENERGY USE (MJ PER PERSON) y = 58290x R 2 = ACTIVITY INTENSITY (PERSONS+JOBS PER HA)
42 Activity Intensity and Transport Energy Sydney Energy User per Capita (GJ/annum) R 2 = Activity Intensity (per ha)
43 Hope in a time of oil-derived terrorism?
44 3. By saving time. Time savings drive city infrastructure and planning.
46 How transport priorities shape cities MARCHETTI CONSTANT The average travel time budget is around one hour per person per day. (i.e. half an hour average for the journey to work). Found to apply across the world and throughout urban history. This means? THE CITY IS ALWAYS ONE HOUR WIDE. And people will use the modes that keep them in that budget.
53 Bossley Park
59 CITY LIMITS.. The Marchetti constant means that when a city grows beyond its one hour wide size it will begin to become dysfunctional.depending on its average speed and its density. Auto dependent cities are seeing these limits earlier than other cities. Result: road rage, anti-sprawl movements, market-based re-urbanisation especially TOD, 100 new rail projects across the US.
61 New city form? Marchetti is forcing us into a new city form based on centres and public transport - re-creating a series of Transit Cities within the region. It is also assisted by the new global city economy which is a concentrating force.
62 Centres and corridors Sydney Metropolitan Strategy
63 Model of the city showing centres and corridors
64 Maximum Transit City Distances 30 km 30 km 20 km 20 km 30 km 20 km
66 Joyce-Collingwood Station Precinct: An example of the kind of centres required around transit to reduce car dependence. These are contemporary walking cities linked to transit.
67 4. By saving space. 2,500 people/hr - Freeway lane. 8,000 people/hr - Bus lane ,000 people/hr - LRT line 50,000 people/hr - Train line.
71 If Sydney removed its train to the CBD You would need: 65 lanes of freeway 782 ha of car parks, or 1042 floors of multi-storey car park. In reality business would scatter as in other car dependent cities.
72 5 ー 1 Cheonggyecheon Area before Restoration (
73 6 ー 1 Cheonggyecheon Area after Restoration (
74 The re-opening of Aarhus River
75 People for Public Spaces: Think of transportation as public space David Burwell Road engineers are realising they are in the community development business not just the facilities development business.. Andy Wiley-Schwartz. The slow road movement.
76 5. By creating city spaces suitable for the global knowledge/services economy. People in cities need to meet. Cities with the best meeting spaces are winning the global city jobs.
86 6. By creating certainty for investment. Rail is fixed - mostly. So, can do Transit Oriented Development.
88 What is Transit-Oriented Development doing for US cities? Increased retail yields due to higher levels of pedestrian traffic on streets Increased land value due to amenity of train station Reduced vehicle ownership Tool to achieve Smart Growth Better regional air quality Reduced dependence on cars and fossil fuels More housing options. Reconnecting America 2003
89 What is Transit-Oriented Development doing for US cities? Over 30 hedonic regression model studies from across the United States have proven land value premiums due to station accessibility. Robert Cervero, 2003
90 State Centre TOD, PB Placemaking
91 7. Transit is good politics. People want to see long term visionary thinking from politicians
93 OVERCOMING AUTOMOBILE DEPENDENCE IN ASIAN CITIES Supplementary policies on traffic demand management, parking restrictions, congestion taxes. can all help, but will be reduced to marginal exercises unless the structure of the city is addressed in terms of the relative speed of traffic compared to sustainable transport modes.
95 New southern line will complete 180 kms of electric rail with 72 stations in 20 years.
96 Perth rail revival Associated with four election victories for the ALP In 2005 election the train was the number 1 positive associated with the ALP. Rail system improvements are seen as long term visionary planning. They also provide the market for TOD s
99 Subi-Centro Urban Village, Subiaco railway station, Perth - a walking city environment
100 Perth TOD Strategy now to optimise rail investment. Sydney investor has raised $90m to invest in TOD in Perth as he can make more money there than anywhere else. (Adds an extra15% minimum to any profit he can make.)
106 Politics is everything
108 Participatory engagement techniques 21 st Century Town Meetings. For strategy direction. Key: 1/3 rd non-aligned citizens. Charettes. For details of TODs on the ground. Breaks traffic engineers mould. Citizens Juries. For contentious issues. MCA Workshops. For siting choices.
109 How dense to make centres viable?
110 Activity Intensity and Transport Energy Sydney Energy User per Capita (GJ/annum) R 2 = Activity Intensity (per ha)
111 35 people and jobs per ha is how traditional transit cities were built and how the best TOD s are today. Means 10,000 people and jobs within 1km radius of the centre
113 100 people and jobs per ha is how traditional walking cities were and how strong walkable centres are today. Means 100,000 people and jobs within 1 km of centre.
115 Chicago the US city with most population growth
116 Making good public spaces and sustainable streets to to go with the transit
121 Reclaiming the North American city from car dependence Canadian cities like Toronto led the way in 1960 s s and 70 s s showing that freeways weren t t needed and good transit with good public spaces was. Portland showed it was possible in the US. Most US cities now pursuing less car dependence Vancouver has shown something special
122 City of Vancouver 30,000 fewer car trips per day 100,000 more walk/cycle trips per day 15 to 30% in 15 years. How? Mostly by high rise residential estates attractive to families.
123 How is this done? High density but good street level design Requiring 5% of the value of a development to be social infrastructure.landscaped open space, public art, community centres, schools, arts facilities
124 An example Coal Harbour
129 Joyce Station, Vancouver, 2004 Joyce Station, Vancouver, 1987 Joyce Station, Vancouver, 2004 Rail can be very powerful in influencing the form and scale of development
130 Copenhagen s new Metro
131 Built from land development in TOD s
132 In new areas not yet at 35 people and jobs per ha and and not yet with good streets and public spaces.
133 So it needs lots of car park
134 How to include transit with other green innovations. Resilient, sustainable, solar cities require all the green innovations as well as the transit/walking links. Few examples exist of all being integrated. Vaubun the best
135 Bike facilities Green Roofs Chicago
136 kogarah the vibrant alternative Kogarah Town Centre an Eco-TOD Aspiring for quality
137 Water System Design
139 Christie Walk Eco- Village, Adelaide. Strawbale apartments in central city; grey water to permaculture gardens; PV; no parking.
140 Vaubun Frieburg Eco-village with car-free housing.
153 The new resilient, sustainable, solar city demonstrations will be the global leaders in innovation.
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