1 PERTH CITY - GROWTH NEEDS FOR THE FUTURE PLOT RATIO AND BUILT FORM STUDY PART A - BUSINESS AS USUAL EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
2 ii This page has been left blank intentionally.
3 1 INTRODUCTION The City of Perth resolved in 2008, to commence a review of the plot ratio and built form provisions of City Planning Scheme No. 2. The study is being undertaken in two parts with the City of Perth undertaking, as a separate process, the preparation of an Urban Design Framework to guide the future development of the city. Part A of the study is to assess the existing business as usual situation under City Planning Scheme No. 2 and provide a description of the expected changes for a 20 year planning horizon. The brief requires the following outcomes: Estimates of floor space needs for office, residential and retail/ commercial for a 20 year planning horizon; A determination of how much of this floor space will be provided by existing development approvals and known major redevelopment proposals; An assessment of the likely distribution of land uses and where and in what form development will occur under existing CPS No. 2 through scenario planning; Identify any macro impacts and trends that would result if CPS No. 2 remains unchanged; Provide a description of Perth in the local, national and international economies; and Provide a comparison of development provisions, trends and scenarios in the other capital cities of Australia. The study involved a desktop assessment based on existing data sources. A number of stakeholders were consulted in undertaking the study including regulatory authorities, major project authorities, service providers, property associations and major state and private landowners/developers/ tenants.
4 2 Existing Development To determine the future land use and built form distribution, it is first essential to understand the existing situation. An analysis has been undertaken in terms of whether the distribution of land uses achieves the objectives of CPS No. 2 and whether there are any macro impacts associated with the current distribution by Precinct. LAND USE DISTRIBUTION OFFICE The distribution of office land uses is consistent with the objectives of City Planning Scheme No. 2 in that the majority of large-scale office development is focused on the Perth CBD and in particular the area along St Georges Terrace between the Mitchell Freeway and Barrack Street. There are secondary office precincts located within West Perth and East Perth. RESIDENTIAL The distribution of residential land uses is dominated by the residential quarters of East Perth and West Perth. The location of the residential quarters is consistent with the objectives of City Planning Scheme No. 2. The Central Area and Northbridge have only a minor amount of residential development. Focus of Office CBD Secondary Office Precinct Only minor residential in Central Perth and Northbridge Secondary office Precinct City of Perth Office Land Use City of Perth Residential Land Use Residential City of Perth Hotel L Residential Office Floor Space (sq m) Residential (Landgate) 0 to 1000 No. Dwellings 1001 to to More than Hotels Kilometers Kilometers City of Perth Retail Land Use Residential not well located to public transport City of Perth Office L
5 3 RETAIL/COMMERCIAL The distribution of retail/commercial land uses is more generic as retail development, other than the core shopping area and large format retail, tends to be associated with office and residential development. The retail/commercial land use distribution identifies the core area generally focused on the intersection of Murray Street Mall and Forrest Place. The distribution also shows retail development predominantly along Hay Street, east of William Street and to a lesser extent along Murray Street. East of the Malls, the retail intensity is considerably lower than to the west of the Malls. The Town Centres of Royal Street and Hay Street (West Perth) contain retail/commercial development, however, the intensity of retail/ Commercial floor space (m 2 ) is relatively low compared to other parts of the City. Additionally the Town Centre of Hay Street (east) also shows a relatively low level of retail intensity. HOTEL The distribution of hotel land uses is typically focused along Adelaide Terrace and in the areas surrounding the CBD Kilometers Retail anomolies Retail expansion along Hay Street Core retail Royal Street Town Centre Hotel uses do not take advantage of key tourist attractions such as Kings Park/Northbridge City of Perth Residential Land Use City of Perth Retail Land Use City of Perth Hotel Land Use City of Perth Office Land Use West Perth Town Centre Retail / Shop Residential (Landgate) Floor Space (sq m) No. Dwellings 0 to to to More than Office Floor Space (sq m) 0 to to to More than Hotels Kilometers Kilometers Kilometers Kilometers City of Perth Retail Land Use Hay Street East Town Centre City of Perth Office Land Use Major Hotel areas to capitalise on views
6 4 EXISTING PLOT RATIO DISTRIBUTION KEY OBSERVATIONS Northbridge is focussed on other commercial land uses (entertainment) at the expense of residential and office land uses which impacts on the use of the precinct during the day; Residential development within West Perth and East Perth is generally located outside a 500 metre walkable catchment to train stations; There is an absence of significant residential land uses west of Victoria Avenue and east of the Mitchell Freeway in the central part of the city and into Northbridge; There is a lack of land use intensity north of the Perth Central Train Station to capitalise on public transport; The western end of the Central City has a greater retail and office land use intensity than the eastern end; West Perth has succeeded as a mixed use area in terms of residential and office land uses, however lacks other commercial activity and social infrastructure; The Town Centres of West Perth, Royal Street and Hay Street East have achieved their desired land uses, however, the land use intensity (m 2 ) is relatively low when compared to other areas within the city, which may be attributed to the intensity and type of land uses surrounding the centres. There is approximately 10 million square metres of plot ratio available under City Planning Scheme No. 2 of which approximately 4.6 million square metres of plot ratio has been used, which equates to approximately 46% of the available plot ratio. KEY OBSERVATIONS The plot ratio use around train stations, other than the new train stations, is low eg Northbridge, Stirling, Claisebrook, McIver and West Perth; The Central Business District has a significant number of buildings either at or above the permitted plot ratio which may limit development/redevelopment within the CBD; East Perth has a number of sites that exceed plot ratio, however, this is due to the bonus applied for residential land uses and the different method used to calculate plot ratio. There is a lack of land use intensity around the McIver and West Perth Train Stations to capitalise on the benefits of public transport; The Stirling and Hamilton Precincts have remained underdeveloped in terms of land uses as intended by City Planning Scheme No. 2. The Stirling Precinct has not achieved its statement of intent as an office, mixed commercial and residential area, while the Hamilton Precinct has not achieved the commercial uses identified. The newer train stations of William Street and The Esplanade are well located to service the existing City Centre and associated intensity of land use; The retail core is located at the intersection of Murray Street Mall and Forrest Place with retail expanding west along Hay Street; The distribution of plot ratio within the CBD suggests that the main office area is shifting west towards the corner of St Georges Terrace and Milligan Street rather than historically further east between Barrack and William Streets; Adelaide Terrace has a number of sites that exceed plot ratio; The mixed use provisions within West Perth have been successful in encouraging the use of plot ratio for both commercial and residential land uses; The intensity of plot ratio is generally on an east west alignment as opposed to a north south alignment as a result of historical policies (plot ratio allocation, height provisions) and views; and
7 5 Under utilised Below Permitted Plot Ratio Below Permitted Plot Ratio City of Perth Existing Combined Plot Ratio Low intensity development around train stations Legend Legend Railway Stations Railway Stations 500m Buffer Existing Railway Plot Stations Ratio minus 500m CPS Buffer 2 Maximum Plot Ratio Existing Plot or Less Ratio minus CPS 2 Maximum Plot Ratio or to Less to to to 0.00 Above Permitted Plot Ratio Above Permitted Plot Ratio East Perth exceeds plot ratio as a result of residential bonuses and the method of plot ratio calculation Legend Railway Stations Railway Stations 500m Buffer Combined Plot Ratio 0.0 to to to to to 4.9 More than 5 Plot Ratio intensity east west alignment Legend Legend Railway Stations Railway Railway Stations Stations 500m Buffer Existing Railway Plot Stations Ratio minus 500m CPS Buffer 2 Maximum Plot Ratio 0.01 to 1.00 Existing Plot Ratio minus CPS 2 Maximum Plot Ratio 1.01 to to to to 2.00 More than to 3.00 More than 3.01 Adelaide Terrace has a number of sites that exceed plot ratio CBD has a number of sites that exceed plot ratio
8 6 Demand Demand is based on two key drivers being office and residential activity. Other commercial activities, such as retail, hospitality etc are largely correlated to the strength in one or both of these two key sectors. OFFICE DEMAND Office demand in a city is a function of the status of the city in a local, regional and global context, cross aligned with the identity of the city with respect to its economic, industrial, cultural and social characteristics. While traditionally seen as a secondary city in a National context, Perth, as a result of the growth in importance of China, has seen a significant growth in the number of National and Regional headquarters servicing the Mining, Resource and Oil and Gas sectors. Within the Oil and Gas industry, Perth is now regarded as a global city from an engineering viewpoint, alongside Aberdeen in Europe, Houston in the United States and Singapore in Asia. From a Mining and Resources standpoint, the importance of Western Australia is regularly cited as the driver of national growth in the past decade. The critical mass of leasehold commitment west of William Street along St Georges Terrace has defined this as the most desirable commercial office zone. West Perth has traditionally housed the junior mining segment and a number of the key engineering service providers have adopted West Perth as their base. The Eastern CBD (west of Barrack Street) has seen a limited level of development focussed on public sector offices with the commercial zone west of Victoria Avenue along St Georges Terrace (up to Barrack Street) adopted by the legal fraternity. The suburban office market in greater Perth prior to 2005 has been largely limited to a number of pockets of specialised uses, however, with the availability of commercial office space in the Perth CBD nearing zero during the period , suburban office development gained increasing attractiveness. A number of potential new commercial office zones were proposed, with varied levels of success. The fringe locations however, including Subiaco, Perth (North), and Leederville, have seen a significant level of success in terms of development, due primarily to their adjacency to Perth/West Perth and the preexisting amenity and transport options. It is likely that the fringe markets of Subiaco, Leederville and Perth (North) will continue to provide sustainable alternatives to the Perth CBD during periods of moderate demand in the CBD. It is forecast that the next wave of commercial office demand will commence in around following natural levels of absorption of the existing commercial office stock and a return to sub five percent vacancy levels. Beyond 2020, an assumption of an average level of commercial office net absorption of around 4-5% of total office stock per annum has been adopted. The forecast commercial office stock levels for the period 2009 until 2029 are as per the below table: Commercial Office Forecast Total Net Lettable Area in millions of square metres 2009 (a) 2014 (p) (a) - actual (p) - predicted based on known developments 4,500,000 4,000,000 3,500,000 3,000,000 2,500,000 2,000,000 1,500,000 1,000, , Perth Commercial Office Stock sqm From a future development growth perspective, the epicentre of sustained development is centred upon the block bounded by Mounts Bay Road to the south, Murray Street to the north, the Mitchell Freeway to the west and William Street to the east. Future northward development may occur linking the CBD with The Link and other major developments (One40 William Street), however, the office demand drivers are still centred upon the existing CBD. Future westward and southward development opportunities are stymied by the Freeway infrastructure, whilst development to the east is limited in the near term by the significant level of relatively new development along St Georges Terrace.
9 7 RESIDENTIAL DEMAND The residential population in Perth has been relatively low in the period leading up to 1995, with a residential population centred in West Perth and along Mounts Bay Road in, and a number of small pockets of accommodation in East Perth and within the CBD. A caparison of residential use in the City of Perth with other Capital Cities suggest that: Perth has a higher percentage (41.5%) of owner occupied dwellings when compared with Melbourne, Sydney and Brisbane; Perth has a household size (1.73) which is comparable to other Cities with the exception of Sydney which has a higher household size; The median age (34) is generally higher than other capital cities; and There is a gender imbalance towards males within Perth. This suggests an affluent, yet transient population of worker-residents, drawn to the Perth LGA in pursuit of employment opportunities as a result of the economic boom as opposed to a lifestyle decision. The gender imbalance is consistent with mining and resources nature of the Perth economy. The lack of diversity of dwelling choice represents the live to work rather than lifestlye residential development in Perth. Residential demand is largely a combination of lifestyle, amenity, affordability, and access. One of the greatest issues impacting Perth s attraction of a sustainable residential population is the attractiveness of alternative locations in the greater metropolitan region when measured against the key demand factors. From a lifestyle viewpoint, Perth rates reasonably well in the categories of art galleries and theatres, however the lack of social entertainment options such as wine bars and restaurants comparative to the other capitals is possibly a reflection of the live to work rather than lifestyle attraction of the resident population of Perth. This, however, might also be a function of the competition from neighbouring established entertainment areas such as Oxford Street, Beaufort Street, Hay Street and Rokeby Road. Perth rates well with regard to the provision of medical facilities and private, primary and secondary educational facilities, however access to supermarket and daily grocery facilities is significantly lower when compared to other Australian capitals. Within the surrounding areas of Subiaco and Vincent, the availability of supermarket and grocery facilities is far greater providing a comparative benefit for these areas when compared to amenities provided in the City of Perth. A comparison of household affordability in other state capitals projected in terms of repayments as a percentage of total household income notes that the larger capitals of Melbourne and Sydney are far less affordable than Perth, Brisbane or Adelaide. Affordability when compared to the surrounding local government areas of Subiaco and Vincent is significantly better in these surrounding areas. Assuming the development of an average of 90 square metres of floor space per dwelling (current average dwelling size), and the forecast residential population growth from 14,456 in 2009 to 28,958 in 2029, then the following residential floor space is required (in square metres). Residential Forecast 2009 (a) Total Area in millions of square metres Residential Population Total Household Demand 2014 (p) ,456 17,198 20,460 24,321 28,958 9,175 10,549 12,974 15,409 18,300 (a) - actual (p) - predicted based on known developments 4,500,000 4,000,000 3,500,000 3,000,000 2,500,000 2,000,000 1,500,000 1,000, ,000 0 A significant factor in the location of residential development is the application of economics to the development process. The competition for land with commercial office uses increases dramatically in locations west of Barrack Street due to the desirability of this location for commercial office use; as such the impact on land value in this area limits the market for residential end purchasers. The trend therefore has been residential development toward the eastern CBD and East Perth due to land values. Residential development in West Perth is a function of maximisation of developable plot ratio due to the bonus afforded to residential Residential Space 90sqm per unit
10 8 The demand for residential accommodation in Perth is likely to continue, however, at a potentially reduced rate for the next three years until current development under construction has been largely occupied. This is likely to remain work-oriented singles, with a possibility of young couples with the advent of increased lifestyle opportunities. Future opportunities for families demanding accommodation in Perth is unlikely; as this has not been seen in the Australian context in any other capital city largely due to the availability of affordable property within a reasonable travel time of the CBD. From a geographic perspective, the increase in residential activity is largely possible within the existing defined locations of East Perth and the eastern CBD. The integration of additional residential within The Link area as a mixed use opportunity may prove successful. RETAIL DEMAND From an overall standpoint, the increase in retail in the Perth CBD is a function of the overall growth in office and residential demand. It is forecast that an average increase in floor area throughout the Perth CBD of between 2.8% and 3.1% per annum for retail use from 2009 until 2029 would be considered a prudent measure, with a tendency towards providing additional supply in Hay Street (between Hill Street and the WACA) in line with increasing residential demand in the area. HOTEL DEMAND The recently commissioned study into hotel accommodation needs within Perth by Tourism WA and the Property Council of Australia summarised that the likely requirement to facilitate the construction of a new substantial hotel development in Perth would be the granting of a property by the State Government to a hotel operator for an extended period, due to the comparatively low returns when compared to office or residential use. It is highly unlikely that a significant new hotel will be developed, rather that properties in significant decline and unsuitable for commercial office use or residential conversion will be used for hotel development. Based upon the scenarios outlined above, it is possible, subject to investor appetite, for an additional rooms to be added to the Perth CBD up to the year DEMAND SUMMARY From a collective perspective, the increase in commercial and residential demand in the next 20 years (to 2029) will require a total increase in developable area from approximately 2.5 million square metres to 4.2 million square metres, or an average of 90,000 square metres per annum. 4,000,000 3,500,000 3,000,000 2,500,000 2,000,000 1,500,000 1,000, , sqm per unit ice Stock sqm Residential Space 90sqm per unit Perth Commercial Office Stock sqm Total Requirement
11 9 Supply City of Perth Development Approvals January 2007 to December Commercial (Office / Retail) Supply has been assessed based on existing known developments and major projects. Approved Floor Space (sq m) 0 to to 2000 The current supply of plot ratio floor space includes: Developments currently under construction within the City of Perth as of December 2008; Major developments approved by the City of Perth from January 2007 to December 2008; Major projects undertaken by EPRA including New Northbridge, The Link, Riverside and Royal Street West. Additional supply within East Perth (other than Royal Street West and EPRA Precinct 13) has not been included as most of the land has been normalised back to the City of Perth or is currently used for transport infrastructure. Precinct 13 has not been normalised and controls are in place for its development. For New Northbridge, the remaining yields are low and therefore do not distort the figures to any great extent. OFFICE/COMMERCIAL Office Buildings Under Construction 300,000 Approvals Jan 2007 Dec , ,000 Major Projects - EPRA 280, ,000 Major Project - Waterfront 232, ,000 Total 1,112,000 1,240,000 There is an expected demand for approximately 800, ,000m 2 over the 20 year period. Removing the 300,000m 2 under construction would leave a demand for approximately 500, ,000m 2. Therefore there is currently an excess supply of proposed office floorspace of approximately 312, ,000m 2 based on the demand for the 20 year timeframe to 5000 More than 5000 City of Perth Buildings Under Construction - Commercial (Office / Retail) The major waterfront project being undertaken includes Landcorp s estimates of minimum and maximum development based on the concept prepared in It is noted that this may change, however, as no further plans have been released, the existing data has been used. Floor Space (sq m) 0 to to to 5000 More than 5000 EPRA - No area values available City of Perth Buildings Under Construction - Residential / Hotel
12 10 City of Perth Development Approvals January 2007 to December Residential / Hotel City of Perth Buildings Under Construction - Commercial (Office / Retail) RESIDENTIAL Residential Dwellings Buildings Under Construction 1000 Approvals Jan 2007 Dec Major Projects - EPRA 6000 Major Project - Waterfront Total 11,120-12,220 Floor Space (sq m) Approved Floor Space (sq m) 0 to to to to to to 5000 More than 5000 More than 5000 EPRA - No area values available There is a predicted demand for 800,000m 2 of residential floor space which when subtracting the floor area under construction would leave approximately 710,000m 2. Therefore there is an excess supply of proposed residential floor space of approximately 200, , 000m 2 based on demand. This equates to approximately dwellings. City of Perth Buildings Under Construction - Residential / Hotel SUMMARY Based on the projected 20 year demand for both office and residential floor space, the approved developments and major projects will create an oversupply of floor space for both residential and office development. This does not take into account additional supply on sites that may be appropriate for redevelopment, which have not been commenced, approved or identified under major projects. 9 Floor Space (sq m) 0 to to to 5000 More than 5000 EPRA - No area values available
13 11 Development Scenario Development scenario for the future of the City of Perth over a 20 year period based on the demand/supply and City Planning Scheme No. 2. City of Perth Residential Land Use Future Residential Land Use Intensity High Medium Low A number of development scenarios have been considered taking into account major projects, the future demand, current approvals and a number of assumptions. It is important to note that the scenario is based on a business as usual approach. Residential (Landgate) The No. assumptions Dwellings used to consider the development scenarios 1-10 include, the current development standards, the location of vacant sites and sites awaiting redevelopment, the location of approved developments, existing locational qualities, land price and major projects Kilometers Approx 50,000m 2 Approx 140, ,000m dwellings 1,000 dwellings City of Perth Office Land Use Future Office Land Use Intensity City of Perth Residential Land Use Future Residential Land Use Intensity High High Medium Medium Low Approx 50,000m 2 Low Approx 190, ,000m 2 Office 2,000-2,250 dwellings Floor Space (sq m) 0 to to to More than Approx 50,000m 2 Residential (Landgate) No. Dwellings Kilometers Kilometers 20,000 in other Areas 500 dwellings in other areas PL3 Base ai 2,000-2,250 dwellings 2,000-2,250 dwellings Future Office Land Use Intensity High Medium
14 12 SUMMARY The most likely development scenario will be: Major office development will be located principally in the CBD towards the western end with additional office floor space taken up through the Link Project. West Perth, Adelaide Terrace and the Stirling Precinct are likely to attract office markets, but to a lesser extent than both the CBD and the Link. The Hamilton Precinct may attract minor office development, however, the existing plot ratio restrictions limit any significant commercial development. Development Scenario - Future Plot Ratio / Built Form Intensity City of Perth Existing Combined Plot Ratio Links between the CBD and Link Project may occur There is likely to be a small distribution of office floor space outside of these areas. Residential will remain focused within the Adelaide Terrace Precinct and East Perth (includes EPRA s Riverside Project); There is likely to be residential development both within the Link Project, Royal Street West and the Waterfront. Future Plot Ratio High Medium Low West Perth will continue to attract residential development given the plot ratio incentives. Northbridge is likely to remain relatively stable with no real growth as there are no demand drivers underpinning future development. Legend Railway Stations N Railway Stations 500m Buffer Combined Plot Ratio ,000 Meters 0.0 to to to to to 4.9 More than PL3A Base ai
15 13 Development Provisions Comparison A comparison has been undertaken with other Capital Cities to determine the strenghts and weaknesses of other planning controls and outcomes. PERTH BUILT FORM Strengths Controls are generally easily understood. Discretion, other than plot ratio which exceeds the bonus, can be applied for excellent urban outcomes. Policies treat specific situations with a local analysis. Weaknesses It is possible to build wall to wall canyons in Perth s CBD. The setbacks policy is too vague in allowing reduced side setbacks for narrow lots which are not defined. Other city planning schemes are more prescriptive to generate a tower in the round approach. Other cities take a much more site specific approach to built form. Whilst the tools used in the Perth scheme are similar in many respects, they are not used over large areas of the city. No considered approach to energy issues. It is mentioned in polices but there is no real encouragement or requirement to adopt energy efficient design and building practices. According to the Green Building Council, buildings in Australia account for 40% of consumed energy and 23% of emissions. There should be definitive policies aimed at encouraging reduction of energy and water use and efficient production of energy and water reuse where possible. Does not assist to achieve social infrastructure or sustainability. PLOT RATIO Strengths Provides certainty for development and equality across adjacent sites. Used as a tool to create incentives for residential and mixed use outcomes in select areas. Assists to achieve heritage outcomes (transfer of plot ratio). Assists to achieve improved facilities through bonus plot ratio. Weaknesses Levels of plot ratio do not provide incentives by comparison to plot ratio available in some other Australian capitals where Perth is competing for business. Inhibits the addition of quality urban outcomes particularly at street level in existing developments unless used in combination with other plot ratio incentives. No incentive for conversion of ground level parking to uses which will improve the streetscape, particularly where it is not plot ratio assessable. Plot ratio is the dominent development standard at the expense of other design standards. Plot ratio has not significantly changed since PLOT RATIO COMPARISON An analysis has been undertaken using a standard Perth building to determine how the measurement of plot ratio impacts the overall allocation of plot ratio under town planning schemes. The example assessed an existing building within Perth at a plot ratio of 5:1. Generally the other capital cities use a measurement closer to gross floor area rather than the Perth measurement, which is more aligned to nett lettable area. There are a few variables that affect the calculation, such as above ground car parking, and therefore these have been removed to provide a more relevant comparison. The results indicate that a plot ratio of 5:1 in Perth represents a plot ratio of 5.7:1 in Sydney, 6.2:1 in Melbourne, 5.4:1 in Adelaide and 5.8: 1 in Brisbane. Therefore based on a consistent measurement of plot ratio, the permitted plot ratio in Perth is generally lower than the other capital cities (eg Sydney 8:1), which impacts the attractiveness of Perth in the National context.
16 14 COMPARISON WITH OTHER CAPITAL CITIES BUILT FORM Sydney Tool Sydney Use Perth Use Sun access Overshadowing and shadow planes for height control Allows sunlight to specific areas during nominated times. No additional overshadowing where some buildings exceed requirements. Category A and B sites introduced to lower height in specific locations over time. Used in Perth but not on a site specific basis. Opportunity to look at finer grain. Opportunity to look at finer grain. Scale and transition Scale is transitioned between blocks. Already a strength in policies and precinct. Heritage protection in terms of sun access Urban form - tower in the round Ground level wind speed Site size Allows sun onto significant sandstone buildings. Sky and daylight exposure to the sides and rear of tower forms. Floorspace limits on tower floorplates at various heights related to gross area and site size. Controlling the size of floorplates on upper levels of tall buildings reduces impact on the public domain at ground level and improves permeability. Control ground level wind speed and promote ventilation. High buildings only on sites of sufficient size to provide urban quality and amenity. Not the same extent of sandstone buildings. Setbacks policy promotes form in the round but exempts narrow lots. Opportunity to combine with site size and street front widths policy to control canyon development. Podium requirements to help control wind turbulence at present under heights and setbacks policy. Opportunity to look at site size and street access and its impact of ground level amenity and Tower in the Round approach. Views and vistas Maintain and enhance view corridors. Has been identified in the UDF as a Modifier and opportunity exists to be supported by policy. Could look at setbacks for individual sites where vistas are important. Height limits subject to conditions Opportunity sites 55m limit but can be exceeded subject to site size and quality design outcomes. Identify specific sites where appropriate development could be encouraged. Opportunity to quantify for desired outcomes. Opportunity to introduce this concept. Brisbane Tool Brisbane Use Perth Use Site frontage Amenity of residential units from adjacent towers Maps Adelaide Limits number of storeys and floor area above podium for sites with less than 20m frontage. Design constraints for windows of commercial developments closer than 9m to windows of habitable rooms of residential developments. A clear mapped outline of issues such as the podium strategy and pedestrian shelter. Tool Adelaide Use Perth Use Height control by block urban form considerations Maximum and minimum height limits and discretion Sun access Temporary use of vacant or undeveloped land Stipulates height of buildings should reinforce the desired character and scale of the city with the highest buildings in the central business area zone grading down to the lowest in the residential and heritage zones. No building to exceed 115m. Maximum and minimum heights create consistency of urban form. Encourages sunlight and daylight access to street level with different angles each side of the street. Temporary use of vacant or underdeveloped land which is not likely to be the subject of long term development in the short term. This tool limits development on narrow sites. Setbacks can vary according to land use. Opportunity for consideration in UDF. Urban form to be addressed in the UDF. Already applied in Perth to podiums, e.g., Terrace Road. Consider implementing minimum heights. Perth currently has the same setback angles on CBD streets regardless of orientation. Opportunity to modify. Consider how to infill vacant sites. Applies to vacant buildings also. Melbourne Tool Melbourne Use Perth Use Opportunities Maps Identifies through strategic statements and maps, urban design opportunities and principles for the central city and for housing. Opportunity for incorporation into the UDF. Setbacks Specified podium setback of 10m. Perth has 5m. Again this relates to site size and the ability to design for greater permeability and reduction of wind turbulence. Facade Roof Profiles Wind and Weather Protection Align to street pattern Stepped setbacks. Development above 45m to be set back 24m from any surrounding podium tower development. Separate policy sections for facades based of excellent design outcomes. Separate policy sections for roof profiles based of excellent design outcomes. Designates areas to be protected from rain. Opportunity for acknowledgement of existing adjacent development in setting permeability constraints. Blank walls visible from the street or public spaces should be avoided. All visible side of a building should be fully designed. Views from higher surrounding buildings should be taken into account. Buildings designed to integrate attachment such as antennae rather than as add on. Walking Perth blocks is hit and miss in relation to pedestrian cover. Opportunity to create continuous pedestrian cover in a city block in desired areas. Perth has good character policy in specific areas but not in the central city commercial area. Design direction is fragmented often with little regard to adjoining development and blank side walls evident.
17 15 PLOT RATIO Strengths and Opportunities of Plot Ratio as a planning tool. Can be used to; Control the amount of floor space in an area in combination with built form guidelines. Encourage desired land use by assigning plot ratio based on land use. Create bonus development potential generally in return for quality urban outcomes. Create bonus development potential for desired land uses over and above designated plot ratios in combination with built form guidelines. Encourage amenity within a design by excluding appropriate amenities from plot ratio. Encourage design excellence by providing plot ratio exclusions for building elements if they are positioned in a way that encourages design excellence, e.g., below ground parking. Argyle House would be a good example where the basement carpark is below ground but fully ventilated in terms of energy efficiency. Above ground tenant parking in Sydney is plot ratio assessable. Assist in controlling development in terms of available infrastructure and services. Assist in the strategic planning of cities and areas in terms of total available plot ratio, particularly if related to land use. Provide a degree of certainty in relation to feasibilities of the development potential of a site. Transfer development rights for heritage listed sites. Create additional incentives to develop opportunity sites and desired uses in an area. Weaknesses of Plot Ratio as a planning tool Does not contribute to design excellence in built form unless combined with above examples, many of which can be achieved through other measures. Developers focus on maximizing plot ratio as the predominant planning tool, then seeking concessions in other areas. SUMMARY There are a number of options to consider under Part B of the study with respect to the comparison of built form and plot ratio to ensure that the development provisions created provide a high level of design and sustainability. There is a need to consider the impact of built form on streetscape, open space, heritage buildings and form of the City which will be guided by the Urban Design Framework.
18 16 Macro Impacts The success and limitations of CPS No. 2. The existing distribution of land uses is generally in accordance with the Statement of Intent for each precinct within CPS No 2 with the primary office district consolidated west of Barrack Street along St Georges Terrace, the retail core expanded along adjoining streets to spread retail activities on Hay Street and Murray Street, the continued expansion of Northbridge as Australia s most successful entertainment district, mixed use within West Perth, Adelaide Precinct as a smaller scale office area with residential, hotel, tourist and leisure uses which are consistent with the intent and Goderich, East Perth, West Perth, Mount Street and Terrace Road Precincts as residential quarters. The limitations to CPS No. 2 include the fact that the Cultural Centre Precinct has not been integrated with the surrounding area and the City has not been integrated with the foreshore and Kings Park. This may be a result of the MRS Reservation of these areas. The development outcomes have only partially embraced alternative transport options to reduce the reliance on car dominated travel into the city. The Stirling and Hamilton Precincts have not been successful in achieving their statement of intent. Retail activity has expanded along Hay Street west of the malls, however, to a lesser extent along Murray Street and east of the malls. The development of the Town Centres, being West Perth, Royal Street and Hay Street east have been successful however still lack critical activity. The following macro limitations are evident from the study. The City Planning Scheme does not focus development around public transport and in particular train stations and the major bus stations; While the identification of specific use areas does create legibility it has been to the detriment of the city, ie residential focused on East Perth and West Perth, Office/Retail in Central Perth and Entertainment in Northbridge; Plot ratio is the dominant development standard applicable to the Scheme; The quantum of plot ratio has not significantly changed since the 1980 s; Given that in more than 50% of applications approved over the last 2 years, building height was varied it needs to be questioned whether the building heights imposed by the Scheme are appropriate for development within the city. LAND USE Northbridge is focused on entertainment at the expense of residential and office land uses which impacts on the use of the precinct during the day; Residential development within West Perth and East Perth is generally located outside a 500 metre walklable catchment to train stations; There is a lack of land use intensity north of the Perth Central Train Station to capitalise on public transport. This includes the Cultural Centre, Northbridge and the Stirling Precinct; There is a lack of land use intensity around the McIver, Claisebrook and West Perth Train Stations to capitalise on the benefits of public transport; There is an absence of significant residential land uses west of Victoria Avenue and east of the Mitchell Freeway in the central part of the city and into Northbridge; The western end of the Central City has a greater retail and office land use intensity than the eastern end. PLOT RATIO/BUILT FORM The plot ratio use around train stations, other than the new train stations is low e.g. Northbridge, Stirling and West Perth; The Central Business District has a significant number of buildings either at or above the permitted plot ratio which may limit development/redevelopment within the CBD; The intensity of plot ratio use is generally on an east west alignment as opposed to a north south alignment. HERITAGE If the present control tools were to remain in place, the inconsistencies between heritage conservation and development entitlement will put pressure on places of heritage value that are not protected by heritage legislation. TRANSPORT Transport planning for the growth of the city centre will need to be based on the principle of restricting growth of car driver trips by limiting the growth of all-day car parking; Instead, public transport capacity should be increased to accommodate the growth of peak period trips associated with further development in the city centre; Proximity to public transport is a key factor in encouraging public transport use, so major public transport focal points should be favourable locations for further intensification of land use development; The light rail route would be a beneficial focus for development if it were implemented in future. SUSTAINABILITY CONSIDERATIONS There is no considered approach to sustainability in terms of integrated environment, social or economic considerations.
19 17 CONCLUSION This study has identified the existing landuse, plot ratio and built form outcomes under City Planning Scheme No. 2 and has forecast demand for a 20 year period. There is currently an oversupply of identified future floor space for both office and residential land uses compared to the predicted demand. The next Part of the Study is to identify through a gap analysis, the required changes to City Planning Scheme No. 2 to address the outcomes of the Urban Design Framework and the current limitations of City Planning Scheme No. 2. The demand and supply has been taken into account to prepare a likely development scenario for Perth under City Planning Scheme No. 2 (business as usual). The western CBD will remain the office focus with lower levels of office development in West Perth, The Link, Adelaide Terrace and the Stirling Precinct. Residential will remain focused in East Perth and possibly the Waterfront with lower levels of residential development in West Perth and The Link. Northbridge and the areas between Hay Street and Wellington Street in central Perth will remain relatively stable given the lack of demand drivers to facilitate development. There are a number of macro impacts based on the business as usual approach including: Lack of intensity of development around public transport nodes; No significant residential development within the central area of Perth; and No considered approach to sustainability.
20 18 This page has been left blank intentionally.
Proposed Residential Development, Old Church Road, Caledon East TABLE CONTENTS: 1.0 DEVELOPMENT 1.1 Introduction-Analysis of Guiding Principles and Documents 1.2 Community Design and Architectural Design
134 AC_BEU_CCMP_3_TM5_8_FD.indd 134 20/07/12 12:30 PM 05 CITY RAIL LINK New Public Transport Stations and Development Opportunities at Karangahape Road, Newton and Aotea Quarter 5 MO VE 0 1 2 8 KEY 1 Britomart
2017-18 NSW PRE-BUDGET STATEMENT FUTURE ECONOMY FUTURE JOBS Executive Summary The 2017-18 NSW State Budget presents an opportunity for the NSW Government to future-proof the tourism and transport sectors.
GRANT THORNTON BANKERS BOOT CAMP Where are we in the cycle? Yield compression slowing, rents growing Yields bottoming but the bottom could last till 2020 The end of yield compression brings income return
21.07 ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND EMPLOYMENT 19/03/2015 C323 Proposed C347 21.07-1 Key issues and influences 14/10/2010 C168 Economic Role and Function Geelong is the largest regional city in Victoria and
Rotorua District Council Economic Impacts of City Focus Technical Annexures by McDermott Miller Strategies 19 December 2014 Copyright McDermott Miller Limited is the author of this report and holds all
COLLEGE STREET STUDY Community Consultation Meeting December 2015 2 Agenda 6:30 pm Introductions, Agenda Review and Welcome 6:40 pm Presentation Planning Recommendations 7:30 pm Questions and Discussion
5.0 TERMINAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN 5.0 TERMINAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN Key points The development plan in the Master Plan includes the expansion of terminal infrastructure, creating integrated terminals for international,
St. John s Region 1.0 Introduction Newfoundland and Labrador s most dominant service centre, St. John s (population = 100,645) is also the province s capital and largest community (Government of Newfoundland
NOW LEASING FOOD AND BEVERAGE OPPORTUNITIES Right in the heart of Perth s CBD, Yagan Square will be one of the city s most popular meeting and celebration places and a major tourist destination. At just
State of the States October 2017 State & territory economic performance report. Executive Summary NSW ON TOP; VICTORIA CLOSES IN How are Australia s states and territories performing? Each quarter CommSec
Date: 11 th January, 2017 From: Plaistow & Ifold Parish Neighbourhood Plan - Steering Group To: Plaistow & Ifold Parish Council Re: Neighbourhood Plan Report to Parish Council Meeting 17 Jan 2017 The Steering
GSC Sydney East Rev Draft -references Port Botany - 30 https://gsc-public-1.s3-ap-southeast-2.amazonaws.com/s3fs-public/draft-eastern-city-district-plan.pdf Pages 6. The District s freight routes, particularly
Parkland County Municipal Development Plan Amendment Acheson Industrial Area Structure Plan New Plan Acheson Industrial Area Structure Plan Amendment Parkland County Municipal Development Plan Board Reference
I507. Devonport Naval Base I507.1. Precinct Description The Devonport Naval Base precinct covers most of the land held by the Crown for the HMNZ Naval Base (south yard) in Devonport. It incorporates the
Submission to Queenstown Lakes District Council on the Queenstown Lakes District Proposed District Plan, Section 32 Evaluation, Stage 2 Components October 2017, for Visitor Accommodation Date: 23 Feb 2018
Report To: EXECUTIVE CABINET Date: 7 February 2018 Cabinet Deputy/Reporting Officer: Subject: Report Summary: Cllr Bill Fairfoull Executive Member (Finance & Performance) Tom Wilkinson, Assistant Director
New Tourism Strategic Plan Northern Territory Submission of Accommodation Association of Australia, 2012 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Without it being overly detrimental to existing tourism accommodation businesses,
Global Mega-trends Urbanisation a key driver of growth Steve McCann Group CEO and Managing Director Lend Lease 2 We operate in four regions across 12 countries LONDON Operating since 1991 NEW YORK Operating
MISSING PIECES PCEC Expansion MAY 2016 Image courtesy Perth Convention & Exhibition Centre DESTINATION PERTH Developing Perth s Visitor Economy DESTINATION PERTH Perth is in the midst of a once in a generation
Airport Forecasts Airport forecasting is used in master planning to guide future development of the Airport. 4.1 INTRODUCTION Airport forecasting ensures development is appropriate for passengers, ground
Sky City Entertainment Group 2002 Annual Meeting Managing Director s Address Thank you Jon and good morning ladies and gentlemen. 2002 has been another busy and successful year for Sky City. Jon has alluded
OUTLOOK NORTH WEST GROWTH CENTRE A CONTEXT ON BUSINESS, CULTURE, LIFESTYLE AND RESIDENTIAL The North West Growth Centre is an emerging residential market that is expected to benefit from strong infrastructure
Property Strategy The property strategy delivers improved legibility, responds to the locational attributes of the site, and facilitates essential operational efficiencies. 9.1 INTRODUCTION Non-aviation
GOLD COAST HOUSING REPORT SNAPSHOT Few cities have expanded like the Gold Coast. The once iconic surfing Mecca and holiday destination has grown to become the 6th largest city in Australia with a population
As part of our transport vision, Leeds City Council, working with the West Yorkshire Combined Authority and Leeds Bradford Airport Company, is considering options for improving surface access and connectivity
Nature Based Tourism in Australia Manifesto COVER NOTE This draft Manifesto has been crafted through consultation with State and Federal Governments; tourism and parks agencies; the investment community;
Australian Securities Exchange Notice 30 January 2017 ILUKA BUSINESS REVIEW UPDATE AND THE IMPACT ON 2016 AND 2017 FINANCIAL RESULTS Iluka Resources Limited (Iluka) provides the following update relating
3. DONALD PLACE - KERB AND CHANNEL RENEWAL General Manager responsible: General Manager City Environment Officer responsible: Transport and City Streets Manager Author: Michelle Flanagan, Streets Capital
Gold Coast Rapid Transit Chapter twelve Social impact Chapter content Social impact assessment process...235 Existing community profile...237 Consultation...238 Social impacts and mitigation strategies...239
Terms of Reference: Assessment of airport-airline engagement on the appropriate scope, design and cost of new runway capacity; and Support in analysing technical responses to the Government s draft NPS
Queensland Treasury Corporation Investor Conference Presentation Authored by Cr Bob Manning Mayor Cairns Regional Council 1 Two and half years ago, I stood before the Public Hearing for the Joint Select
PLANNING AREA POLICIES l AIRPORT Airport Planning Area LOCATION AND CONTEXT The Airport Planning Area ( Airport area ) is a key part of Boise s economy and transportation network; it features a multi-purpose
WILLOUGHBY CITY COUNCIL (02) 9777 1000 www.willoughby.nsw.gov.au PO Box 57, Chatswood NSW 2057 31 Victor Street, Chatswood NSW 2067 Willoughby Industrial Lands Position Statement For Discussion 2017 City
Queensland - 18 Queensland OVERVIEW Queensland is nearly five times the size of Japan, seven times the size of Great Britain, and two and a half times the size of Texas. Queensland is Australia s second
investment ProSPeCTuS 2016 SuMMary 2 invest SuNShiNe CoaST - The future is here MeSSaGe from The Mayor MeSSaGe from The Mayor a CiTy region of opportunity The Sunshine Coast offers investors an unrivalled
Winter 2016 MARKETBEAT RESEARCH NEWSLETTER Queenstown Regional Queenstown is booming. A surging tourism sector drawing in more workers, coupled with an increasing wave of lifestylers and rising investor
CAMPER CHARACTERISTICS DIFFER AT PUBLIC AND COMMERCIAL CAMPGROUNDS IN NEW ENGLAND Ahact. Early findings from a 5-year panel survey of New England campers' changing leisure habits are reported. A significant
Proposed amendments to the Air Navigation (Essendon Airport) Regulations 2001 Public Consultation Paper September 2017 Summary Purpose The purpose of this paper is to seek comments through public consultation
30 th January 2016 Local Government s critical role in driving the tourism economy January 2016 de Waal Contents Local Government can make or break tourism in their jurisdiction... 3 TNQ Tourism Vision...
2 Aviation Demand Forecast 2.1 Historic Passenger and RPT Aircraft Movements Historic passenger and Regular Public Transport (RPT) aircraft movements from 1980 to 2007, with significant events that have
Planning Institute of Australia (SA) State of Renewal Conference Securing a Sustainable Future: Implementing the 30-Year Plan for Greater Adelaide Donna Ferretti - Director Statutory Planning Branch, Planning
LIVERPOOL BUSINESS CENTRES AND CORRIDORS STRATEGY Introduction This strategy responds to the findings of a retail hierarchy study prepared by Leshon Consulting for the Liverpool Local Government Area (LGA).
Your Transport Levy Your Transport Future Sunshine Coast Council Transport Levy Annual Report 2016-2017 www.sunshinecoast.qld.gov.au T 07 5475 7272 F 07 5475 7277 Locked Bag 72 Sunshine Coast Mail Centre
Badgery s Creek Airport Presention Revised from NAN 2015 AGM Contents History Badgery s Creek Objectives Why is another airport required? Badgery s Creek Airport key facts, approval process and timeline
OUTLOOK A CONTEXT ON BUSINESS, CULTURE, LIFESTYLE AND RESIDENTIAL West End is perfectly positioned to benefit from the balance of inner-city living with commercial, retail and lifestyle amenity alongside
Shaping Townsville s Destiny to be the... Magnetic Heart of Queensland A design for future Townsville by Vee Design : 9point9 Architects : Milford Planning : Meter : Szczepan Urbanowicz shaping Townsville
John Adams City Planner IPSWICH A Wealth of Development Opportunities Presentation to UDIA Breakfast 30 October 2014 Presentation Outline Ipswich Local Government Area Growth South East Queensland context
Economic Contribution of Tourism to NSW 2015-16 Tourism is a significant part of the NSW economy. In 2015-16, tourism contributed $38.1 billion (Tourism Consumption) to the NSW economy and employed 261,100
FLINDERS STREET STATION DESIGN COMPETITION STATEMENT OF KEY OBJECTIVES Page 2 of 28 Flinders Street Station and environs (looking west) INTRODUCTION Page 3 of 28 First built in 1854, Flinders Street Station
Sustainable Rural Tourism Tourism: its nature and potential Tourism = multifaceted economic activity + strong social element Definition of tourism by the World Tourism Organisation (WTO): tourism comprises
Axiom Properties Limited AGM UPDATE 23 November 2016 Axiom Overview 2 Axiom Properties Limited ( Axiom ) is an ASX listed property development and investment company (ASX code: AXI), which has developed
Evaluation of Alternative Aircraft Types Dr. Peter Belobaba Istanbul Technical University Air Transportation Management M.Sc. Program Network, Fleet and Schedule Strategic Planning Module 5: 10 March 2014
PLANNING AND ENVIRONMENT ACT 1987 OBJECTION TO AMENDMENT TO PLANNING SCHEME AND GRANTING OF PLANNING PERMIT AMENDMENT C32 APPLICATION 0873/02 Public Transport Users Association Inc. 247-249 Flinders Lane
The Challenges for the European Tourism Sustainable Denada Olli Lecturer at Fan S. Noli University, Faculty of Economy, Department of Marketing, Branch Korça, Albania. Doi:10.5901/mjss.2013.v4n9p464 Abstract
Memorandum To: Chris Ballestra, City of St. Petersburg From: Paul Lambert, Lambert Advisory Date: August 4, 2016 Subject: Market Assessment St. Petersburg Pier Redevelopment Food & Beverage Service Opportunity
KANGAROO ISLAND WATERGAP PROJECT 1. BACKGROUND Although Kangaroo Island is only 112km from Adelaide, it is economically and socially disadvantaged by its 16km watergap separation from the mainland. There
APPENDIX A FEDERATION SQUARE CIVIC AND CULTURAL CHARTER The Federation Square Civic and Cultural Charter recognises Melbourne s pre-eminence as a centre for creativity and innovation, its diverse and successful
Market Profile Performance overview In 2013, Indonesia was Australia s 12th largest inbound market for visitor arrivals, the 14th largest market for total expenditure, and 19th for visitor nights. It was
1, 2, 3 & 4 BEDROOM WATERFRONT APARTMENTS REVIVE OCEANSIDE, BRIGHT PLACE 7 hours of Sunshine 300 days a year! B I R T I N YA WHY INVEST IN THE SUNSHINE COAST? Population Growth Population growth projected
s Scarborough City Centre a Transit Vii? Martin Barakengera s Scarborough City Centre A Transit Village? Executive Summary The purpose of this Master's Report is to determine whether Scarborough City Centre
VPA Leading Practice Series #2 Suburban Renaissance Urban Renewal and Jobs in the Suburbs About Us For more than 45 years, a focus on stability and diversification has seen Salta Properties flourish. Our
4.1 INTRODUCTION The previous chapters have described the existing facilities and provided planning guidelines as well as a forecast of demand for aviation activity at North Perry Airport. The demand/capacity
International Civil Aviation Organization WORKING PAPER 5/3/13 English only WORLDWIDE AIR TRANSPORT CONFERENCE (ATCONF) SIXTH MEETING Montréal, 18 to 22 March 2013 Agenda Item 2: Examination of key issues
Savills Research Briefing Brisbane Fringe Office Highlights The Queensland economy continues to show strong signs of recovery, with economic growth for the state recorded at 3.0% over the year to September
Kroll Bond Rating Agency, Inc. U.S Airports Harvey Zachem Senior Director September 7, 2014 KBRA Airport Rating Methodology Kroll Bond Rating Agency (KBRA) published its General Airport Revenue Bond (GARB)
UNLOCKING THE BRIGHTON MAINLINE The highly successful Coast to Capital region, which runs from South London to Brighton and across the coast to Chichester, needs significant long-term rail investment to
a bold statement In one of the city s moving suburbs, Five Chester is already somewhere making getting anywhere else a short outing. Nestled in a botanic hub just moments from the Broadwater, transport
Forecasting the Distribution of Stand-Alone Office Employment across Sydney to 2035 PREPARED FOR NSW DEPARTMENT OF PLANNING AND ENVIRONMENT www.bis.com.au BIS Shrapnel Pty Limited August 2015 The information
Adelaide, South Australia... Now is the time! Now is the Time! Adelaide, South Australia is positioning itself on a global scale for major conventions. The destination is currently undergoing an unprecedented
ASX Announcement 16 November 2015 DESTINATION BRISBANE CONSORTIUM AND QUEENSLAND GOVERNMENT ENTER INTO AGREEMENTS FOR QUEEN S WHARF BRISBANE Echo Entertainment Group Limited (Echo) 1 today announced that
June 2017 update Performance Clackamas Clackamas County Strategic Plan Strategic Goals and Milestones This is the June 2017 update to Performance Clackamas, the Clackamas County Strategic Plan. The plan
COMMERCIAL UPDATE 21 September 2006 1 STEVE MANN CEO, Commercial & Industrial Division Stockland Commercial Division update 2 PRESENTATION AGENDA C&I Business Model C&I Mission SEE The Future of Australian
Smart Cities Plan Lake Macquarie City Council Submission 1. Summary Lake Macquarie City Council supports the intent of the Australian Government s Smart Cities Plan to create liveable cities through improved
INTERIM REVIEW OF AUSTRALIAN CONSTRUCTION MARKET CONDITIONS TO MARCH 2016 FOREWORD NICK DEEKS - MANAGING DIRECTOR WT Partnership (WTP) is an award winning international cost and consultancy organisation
Wakatipu Area Strategy Plan September 2009 Executive Summary The Ministry of Education has developed an area strategy plan in response to population growth in the Wakatipu area. The Ministry predicts that
June 2017 TEQ Marketing Strategy 2025 Executive Summary Vision and The Opportunity Tourism and Events Queensland s (TEQ) Marketing Strategy 2025 provides a platform to realise the TEQ vision of inspiring
Strategy Management Consultancy Australia & New Zealand Regional Analysis 2016 k n o w l e d g e c e n t e r Linesight Knowledge Center linesight.com Contents Australia Market Review 3 Australia Key Statistics
CRITICAL FACTORS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF AIRPORT CITIES Mauro Peneda, Prof. Rosário Macário AIRDEV Seminar IST, 20 October 2011 Introduction Airports are becoming new dynamic centres of economic activity.