Table of Contents. Acknowledgements. Executive Summary. Introduction Scope of the Study. 1 Introduction to Russia

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1 Table of Contents Acknowledgements Executive Summary Introduction Scope of the Study 1 Introduction to Russia 1.1 Country Overview Geographical and Cultural Diversity Wealth of Mineral Resources 1.2 The Russian Federation Population Ancestry, Migration, Language and Religion Administrative Regions 1.3 Historical and Political Background Emergence of Muscovite Russia The Soviet Century The Cold War Glasnost and Perestroika The Unravelling of the Soviet Union The Resurgence of Russia Current Outlook 2 Operating Environment 2.1 Economic Indicators Summary of Key Indicators Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Growth Rates Oil and Gas Production Foreign Trade Foreign Direct Investment Spending Power Medium-term Prospects 2.2 Key Issues Affecting Tourism Business Realities Government Legislation Airline E-ticketing The Visa Issue Education and Training 3 The Russian Consumer 3.1 Propensity to Travel Expenditure on Travel Abroad Pent-up Demand Incomes High Net Worth Individuals Foreign Travel Propensity 3.2 Russians Buying Power A New Breed of Shopaholics Retail Spending Abroad

2 3.3 Understanding the Russian Consumer Different Consumer Segments The Rapidly Emerging Middle Classes Funky Young Professionals The Upper Income Group The Golden Youth Russia s Ultra-rich 3.4 Importance of the Internet and Mobile Telephony The Fastest-growing Internet Population in Europe Retail Sales through the Internet Mobile Phones and Wireless Access 4 Outbound Travel Overview 4.1 Recent Trends Strong Growth in Spending on Travel Abroad Statistics Need to be Interpreted with Caution Mixed Performances from One Destination to Another Outbound Travel from St. Petersburg 4.2 Purpose of Trip Limitations of Official Statistics 4.3 Business Travel and the Meetings Industry A Higher Share than for More Mature Markets Leading Destinations for Meetings Industry Incentive Travel 4.4 Holiday Travel Patterns of Demand Sun and Beach Holidays Dominate Leisure Travel Europe is More than Sun and Beach 4.5 Organization of Travel A Fragmented Industry Moscow Controls Two-thirds of the Tour Operating Market Package Tours Generate One Quarter of Total Sales Airline Travel Gains Market Share Travel Agents and Distribution Online Travel Is still in Its Infancy 4.6 Russian Tour Operators Tour Operator Turnover Is over US$ 3 billion Foreign Groups Increasingly Enter the Market 5 Europe s Performance in the Russian Market 5.1 Caveats A Variety of Different Measures 5.2 Overall Trends Arrivals Growth Overnight Growth Arrivals at Frontiers versus Arrivals at Accommodation Units Tourism Receipts from Russia in European Destinations Purpose of Trip Average Length of Stay Age Breakdown Seasonality 5.3 Trends by Subregion Central and Eastern Europe

3 5.3.2 Northern Europe Western Europe Southern/Mediterranean Europe 6 Air Transport 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Airports Strong Annual Growth Modernization under Way St. Petersburg Pulkovo Moscow s Airports Sheremetyevo Domodedovo Vnukovo 6.3 Air Transport Outbound Travel Main Driver of Air Traffic Growth Russian Airlines Aeroflot S7/Sibir Airlines Transaero Increasing Acquisition of Foreign Aircraft 6.4 Air Travel to Europe Germany Is the Leading Destination in Europe but Aeroflot Is the Leading Airline in Flight and Seat Capacity 7 Entering the Russian Market 7.1 Establishing a Presence on the Ground A Growing Number of National Tourism Organizations (NTOs) as well as Foreign Hotel Groups 7.2 Marketing Challenges Market Realities Having the Right Product and Knowing How to Market It Education, Training and Raising Awareness Growing Number of Exhibitions Advertising Remains Pricey but Generates Good Returns Main Difficulties in Dealing with the Russian Market 7.3 NTO Budgets Big Differences from one NTO to Another 8 Propects for Russian Tourism to Europe 8.1 Overall Growth Potential Increasing Propensity to Travel Abroad despite Some Negative Demographic Shifts Holiday Entitlement More Sophisticated and More Demanding Clients 8.2 Opportunities for Europe Increasing Competition but Europe Holds Its Own Marketing to the Right Segments

4 9 Travel Trade Interviews 9.1 Introduction Objectives Method of Approach 9.2 Perception of European Countries Segmentation of European Countries Use of Segmentation by European Countries to Attract Tourists The Most Popular Destinations Europe s Competitors 9.3 Promoting European Destinations Sources of Information on Tourism Destinations Ways of Attracting Russians to European Countries 9.4 Various Types of Leisure Trips Sun and Beach Holidays Mountain Ski Holidays Touring Holidays Health/Wellness Holidays Nature-based Holidays Active Holidays The Meetings Industry Conference and Incentive Travel 9.5 Deterrents to Travel in Europe Visa Support Lack of Information Inadequate Airline Capacity Hotel Booking Problems 9.6 Europe s (ETC) Logo Perception of the Logo Strengths and Weaknesses of the Logo 9.7 Development of Outbound Tourism First-time versus Repeat Travellers Traveller Groups Families with Children Elderly People Young Travellers Middle-aged Travellers (over 35 years) Types of Trips 10 Consumer Interviews 10.1 Introduction Scope of Research and Methodology Objectives of the Research 10.2 Structure of Trips to European Destinations Frequency of Trips Duration of Trips Travel Companions Criteria for Choosing European Destinations 10.3 European Travel Destinations The Most Visited Countries Countries Respondents Plan to Visit 10.4 Booking Trips Difficulties in Booking Trips to European Destinations Booking Methods for Travel to Europe Money Spent on Holidays

5 10.5 Europe as a Tourism Destination Europe s Appeal as a Tourism Destination The Image of Europe: Associations with the Destination Assessment of Different European Regions 10.6 Europes (ETC) Logo Evaluation of the Slogan: Europe, a never-ending journey 11 Consumer Focus Groups 11.1 Introduction Objectives Methodology Participants Comments and Related Notes 11.2 Participant s Travel History and Favourite Types of Holiday Popularity of Different Destinations Favourite Types of Holiday and Characteristics of a Good Holiday The Meaning of a Good Holiday Expectations of a Good Holiday 11.3 Europe as a Holiday Destination First/Spontaneous Impressions Experiences of Europe as a Holiday Destination 11.4 Image of Europe Europe as a Tourism Destination A Typical Russian Holiday Traveller in Europe The Most Appealing European Destinations Appeal of Europe for Repeat Russian Visitors Europe in a Competitive Context 11.5 Future Travel Plans and Europe Non-European Destinations Europe as a Destination Travel Seasons Travel Spending 11.6 Package Tours Advantages and Disadvantages Transport Problems Possible Touring Destinations Length of Tour 11.7 Organising a Trip to Europe 11.8 Europe s Regions Respondents Definition of European Regions Image and Appeal of the Different Regions of Europe 11.9 Promoting Europe as a Tourism Destination Information Channels Promoting Europe Europe s (ETC) Logo Europe s (ETC) Web Portal Annexes Annex I Schengen Countries Annex II Russian Public Holidays, 2008 Annex III Scheduled Airlines Traffic from Russia to Europe Annex IV Travel Trade Events in Russia, 2008 Annex V The Media in Russia Annex VI Key Contacts in Russia s Travel and Tourism

6 Annex VII NTO Questionnaire on the Position and Image of Europe in the Russian Travel Market Annex VIII Questionnaire for Travel Trade Interviews Annex IX List of Retail Travel Agents and Tour Operators Interviewed Annex X Questionnaire for Consumer Interviews Annex XI Discussion Guide for Focus Groups in Moscow and St. Petersburg (Potential first-time travellers to Europe) Annex XII Discussion Guide for Focus Groups in Moscow and St. Petersburg (Those who have travelled to Europe in the past five years) Annex XIII Pre-assignment Questionnaire for Focus Group Participants (Potential first-time travellers to Europe) Annex XIV Pre-assignment Questionnaire (1) for Focus Group Participants (Those who have travelled to Europe in the last five years) Annex XV Pre-assignment Questionnaire (2) for Focus Group Participants (Those who have travelled to Europe in the last five years) Annex XVI Summary of Focus Group Comments on Different Destinations Annex XVII Information Sources for Participants in Focus Groups Annex XVIII European Travel Commission (ETC) Member Organizations Bibliography

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