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1 TECHWATCH WINTER 2015 EDITION TECHWATCH is published twice a year to provide customers and stakeholders with updated information regarding the technology and systems developed and used by NAV CANADA.

2 Table of Contents Aeronautical Publications (Aeropubs) Modernization 3 Electronic Canada Flight Supplement 3 Aircraft Movement Surface Condition Reports (AMSCRs) 4 Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) 4 ADS-B via Ground Stations 4 ADS-B via LEO Satellites 4 Canadian Automated Air Traffic System (CAATS) 5 CPDLC 6 Wake Vortex Warning Feature 6 Electronic Flight Data 7 Medium Term Conflict Detection 7 Collaborative Flight Planning System 7 FSS Information Management System (FIMS) 8 Gander Automated Air Traffic System (GAATS) 9 Multilateration Surface Detection 10 Multilateration Wide Area Multilateration (WAM) 10 Navaid Life-Cycle Replacement Projects 11 ILS (Instrument Landing Systems) 11 NAVCANsuite (formerly INTAS) 11 NOTAM Modernization 12 Performance Based Navigation 12 Area Navigation (RNAV) 12 Required Navigation Performance (RNP) 13 Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) 12 Preventive Maintenance Automation & Common Hardware Integration Platform 14 Weather Systems Upgrade Program 14 Automated Weather Observation System (AWOS) 14 Digital Weather Cameras 15 Human Weather Observation System (HWOS) 15 Ice Resistant Anemometers 16 Remote Digital Temperature Sensors and Displays 16 For further details please contact 2

3 Aeronautical Publications (Aeropubs) Modernization Electronic Canada Flight Supplement Description: The Canada Flight Supplement will be the latest aeronautical publication to be made available in a digital format for purchase directly from the NAV CANADA store. Customer Benefits: Customers will be able to download the electronic CFS (ecfs) directly from the online store, eliminating shipping charges. The ecfs will be offered as a subscription and will be divided into regions similar to the Canada Air Pilot, reducing the cost for customers who only require certain sections. The ecfs General section will be included with all regions. ecfs 1 Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut ecfs 2 British Columbia ecfs 3 Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba ecfs 4 Ontario ecfs 5 Quebec (English) ecfs 6 Quebec (French) ecfs 7 Atlantic Provinces Each volume of the ecfs will be available at a price of $16.50 for a seven-cycle subscription. Status Update: The ecfs was launched January 8, In addition, all seven volumes of the Canada Air Pilot (CAP), the Restricted Canada Air Pilot (RCAP) and the Water Aerodrome Supplement (WAS) are available for purchase in digital format. Aircraft Movement Surface Condition Reports (AMSCRs) Description: NAV CANADA has automated the submission process for Aircraft Movement Surface Condition Reports. Until recently, runway surface condition reports have been transmitted to NAV CANADA via an AMSCR form, or through advanced reporting systems used by major airports. Regardless of the tool used by the reporting authority, the result has been a fax at the receiving Flight Information Centre that is then manually entered into NAV CANADA s Flight Information Management System. Reporting authorities can now submit the reports directly into NAV CANADA systems using the advanced interfaces developed by companies such as Tradewind, Team Eagle, Twisted-Leaf or FALCON Environmental Services or using a web application developed by NAV CANADA and available for fixed airport office use, called SNOWiz. Using drop-down fields on the SNOWiz web interface, users enter standardized surface condition information on a form that is then automatically made available within seconds to customers when submitted. Customer Benefits: The new processes enhance safety by putting the most recent information in the hands of customers, as soon as it s reported on the Aviation Weather Web Site (AWWS) and Aeronautical Fixed Telecommunications Networks (AFTN). With SNOWiz, less manual entries will be received which will allow for quicker processing of the ones NAV CANADA does receive. 3

4 The web application, which was launched in October 2012, is offered alongside the traditional fax-based method of submitting AMSCRs. As of Fall 2014, more than 170 airports have signed up to use SNOWiz, representing 70% of airport movements. Over 87% of all runway surface condition reports were submitted via SNOWiz, or more than 90,000 reports, in the last winter season. Tradewind, Team Eagle and Twisted-Leaf and FALCON Environmental Services also offer a tablet based solution which connects into the NAV CANADA SNOWiz system. Airport authorities can request a login by sending an to and completing a Service Level Agreement. With the login, users receive a training package to help them get started. A future phase will include the full transition from Canada s NOTAMJ format to the ICAOendorsed SNOTAM format which enables reporting of conditions by runway thirds. Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) ADS-B via Ground Stations Description: ADS-B provides radar-like surveillance of suitably equipped aircraft using satellites (GPS), aircraft avionics and ground infrastructure to relay aircraft identification, position and altitude to air traffic controllers. Aircraft with ADS-B automatically transmit accurate position reports with integrity every second to air traffic control. As a result, ADS- B allows reduced separation minima to be applied between equipped aircraft and allows more aircraft to follow the most efficient flight trajectory. Customer Benefits: The system brings significant safety and efficiency benefits, enabling ATC to offer equipped aircraft more flexible, fuel-saving routes and earlier climbs through airspace previously managed using only procedural air traffic control. Between the start of the program and 2020, NAV CANADA estimates that ADS-B over Hudson Bay, northeastern Canada and over southern Greenland will save customers 372 million litres of fuel and reduce GHG emissions by 979,000 metric tons. ADS-B services are currently provided by three ACC units Edmonton, Montreal and Gander mostly in the high level airspace, FL290 and above, over Hudson Bay, Baffin Island, northeast Quebec and southern Greenland. As of December 2014, some 92 per cent of all flights operating in these coverage areas were equipped for ADS-B services. ADS-B via Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Satellites Description: The expansion of ADS-B in Canada and in many other countries has improved air traffic management in airspace previously managed using procedural control. Provision of ADS-B services will increase significantly as airlines equip with this technology. However, the ability to bring the substantial benefits of modern and sophisticated ATC surveillance technologies to more remote areas and oceans has been limited by geographic constraints for ground station installations. NAV CANADA, ENAV of Italy, the Irish Aviation Authority (IAA), Naviair of Denmark and Iridium Communications Inc. have entered into a joint venture, called Aireon, to install 4

5 ADS-B sensors as a hosted payload on the newest generation of the Iridium constellation of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites that will begin launching in This project will expand air traffic surveillance capability to the entire planet in future years. When the required constellation of 66 cross-linked LEO satellites is in place, geographic restraints will no longer be a limiting factor in the provision of ADS-B coverage. NAV CANADA is a significant partner in this joint venture and will be the first customer of this new service. Our initial focus will be on deployment in the oceanic airspace over the North Atlantic. Customer Benefits: With the increase in surveillance, air traffic controllers will be able to safely apply reduced separation standards between aircraft, resulting in a significant increase in efficiency by the provision of flexible and predictable fuel efficient routings. NAV CANADA estimates that this new capability will result in fuel savings for customers on the North Atlantic alone of over 125 million litres per year as well as reduced annual GHG emissions of 324,000 metric tons. The ADS-B receivers will be built into Iridium NEXT, the second generation satellite constellation that will be launched by Iridium. An Advisory Committee has been established with representatives of IATA, Airlines and ANSPs. Customer data service agreements have been reached with NAV CANADA, NATS, ENAV, Naviair, and IAA. ADS-B payload has passed space qualification tests and is in production. Iridium NEXT satellite constellation to launch ADS-B services to commence in Aireon will provide a global emergency tracking solution that will be available free of charge for all ADS-B equipped aircraft. The Aireon Aircraft Locating and Emergency Response Tracking (Aireon ALERT) service will allow rescue agencies to request the location and last flight track of any suitably equipped aircraft flying in airspace currently without surveillance. NAV CANADA is focussed on making the necessary changes to its systems to be ready to take advantage of full ADS-B surveillance in our oceanic and remote airspace. Canadian Automated Air Traffic System (CAATS) Description: CAATS is one of the world s most advanced flight data processing systems and the foundation for the Company s air traffic management system. CAATS is an integrated flight data processor which automates flight profile monitoring and extends conflict prediction and detection into non-radar airspace. It also processes and distributes flight data information to other NAV CANADA and international systems. Customer Benefits: CAATS enables collaborative decision-making in flight planning which results in operators flying preferred routes more often. Further functionality improvements will increase fuel saving opportunities. CAATS simplifies the flight management process for air traffic controllers and other operational staff by automatically updating flight information coming from other centers, computing flight estimates and processing flight plans. The elimination of many manual processes, including the need to verbally hand off aircraft, improves safety by increasing the time available to focus on separating aircraft. 5

6 CAATS has been implemented in all Area Control Centers in Canada since Internet flight planning for IFR and VFR customers was integrated into CAATS in July Additional features will be added over the next two years. o Domestic implementation of ADS-C surveillance capability will commence in early 2015 with the Montreal and Edmonton ACCs, followed later on in the year by the Vancouver ACC. o An automated flight data exchange with Oakland ARTCC was completed and is expected to be enabled in early o In addition, the following enhancements are described in more detail below: CPDLC, Wake Vortex Warning, Electronic Flight Strips/Lists and Medium Term Conflict Detection. Controller Pilot Data Link Communication (CPDLC) Description: CPDLC is a means of direct electronic communication between controller and pilot using data link instead of voice. CPDLC communications can include altitude and speed clearances, change requests, or any related ATS information. Customer Benefits: CPDLC delivers customer service enhancements by relieving frequency congestion, reducing potential communications errors and contributing to efficient customer operations. It helps reduce frequency congestion by decreasing the need for voice communications and enhances safety by using standardized messages and reducing the likelihood of read-back and hear-back errors. CPDLC has been in use in the Gander Oceanic FIR for the last decade. CPDLC is now in use in all Canadian Flight Information Regions above Flight Level 290. Domestic CPDLC equipage rates are growing but continue to vary by region. The equipage rates are as follows (as of December 2014): 88% for Gander Oceanic and 84% for the Gander domestic sector, 72% for Moncton, 55% for Montreal, 32% for Edmonton, 34% for Winnipeg and 36% for Vancouver. During October 2014, more than 296,000 messages were exchanged in domestic airspace and more than 89,000 in Oceanic airspace using the system. NAV CANADA, in collaboration with customers, is examining opportunities to ensure that communications via CPDLC are as efficient as they can be. This includes analysis of downlink and uplink counts to establish communications patterns, as well as response patterns at various time intervals. The Company is working on an enhancement that will support the delivery of full route clearances to aircraft and is examining the feasibility of introducing CPLDC into the lower level airspace in the country. Wake Vortex Warning Feature Description: NAV CANADA is working to develop a Wake Vortex Warning feature in CAATS that will simulate or predict where an aircraft vortex will travel taking into consideration the effects of wind. An alarm would notify the air traffic controller if another aircraft is predicted to enter it based on the aircraft weight category and distance. Customer Benefits: The Vortex Warning Feature has the potential to enhance safety by increasing situational awareness and providing information regarding potential wake vortex threats related to customer operations. 6

7 A deployment plan will be developed, including ATC procedures, following R & D. Electronic Flight Data Description: Electronic Flight Data is replacing the paper strips in ACCs. Electronic Flight Data will provide controllers with the ability to read and change the flight data information without the requirement to keep track of changes on paper strips. By integrating the CAATS Situational Display (CSit) with an auxiliary display controllers will have access to the Flight Data information either directly on the Data Tag or more detailed Flight Data information able to be displayed on an auxiliary display. The system will keep track of all flight data changes in real time and display the most current but also historical data to the controllers at any given time. Customer Benefits: CAATS Electronic Flight Data will reduce the amount of time retrieving and updating flight data for controllers and eliminating the potential for mistakes when writing the information on a flight strip. This translates into more time spent monitoring the situational display which could lead to increased safety and efficiency for our customers. Deployed in Montreal ACC NORD specialty on November Deployment in the remaining Vancouver High specialty airspace in December 2014 and the remaining Edmonton High specialty in May The deployment of Electronic Flight Data at Gander (Domestic) is underway, with completion in early Toronto deployment is planned for Medium Term Conflict Detection Description: Medium Term Conflict Detection (MTCD) provides a notification of a potential conflict situation to the controller with a look-ahead window of 5 to 20 minutes. The tool allows the controller to perform trial probes on controller planned resolutions to ensure a conflict free clearance is issued. MTCD augments the existing Conflict Prediction functionality that is in place for procedural airspace. Customer Benefits: MTCD has the potential to enhance safety by increasing situational awareness and providing information regarding potential conflict situations. MTCD is currently installed at Winnipeg, Edmonton, Montreal, Moncton, and Vancouver ACCs. Moncton and Vancouver have expanded MTCD use to FL200. Gander and Toronto ACCs are planning to implement in early Collaborative Flight Planning System Description: The Collaborative Flight Planning System (CFPS) makes it possible to file, update or cancel a flight plan online. CFPS improves on the previous system (launched in 2004) by providing a two-way flow of information. Customers now receive a clear confirmation following a transaction, and amendments to a flight plan no longer require a call to the ACC or FIC. With CFPS, customers can set up an account online and the vast majority of flight plan changes can be completed through this account. Customer Benefits: CFPS improves collaboration between pilots, dispatchers, flight service specialists and air traffic controllers. Changes made by customers to a flight plan are 7

8 automatically reflected on NAV CANADA s systems. Conversely, changes made by air traffic services now show up on a customer s account. In addition, the intuitive flight plan form featured in CFPS reduces the need for manual verification of flight plans while automatically flagging flight plans that do not meet standard parameters. Upcoming enhancements will seamlessly combine weather, aeronautical, chart, flight plan and NOTAM information on a map, providing all the essential information needed to plan and file a flight plan, and requiring only one login. The CFPS website ( has more than 7,500 registered users and, as of November 2014, more than 100,000 flight plans have been filed. Two-way communication with FICs and ACCs allows both VFR and IFR flight plans to be filed, updated or cancelled online. Dispatchers and organizations can now manage flight plans and templates while permitting other members of the organization to view and use the same templates, eliminating duplicates and improving information-sharing. Organizations can create flight plan templates for aircraft, routes, pilots and flight numbers. These templates can be combined to quickly create flight plans. Flight planning information (weather, aeronautical, NOTAM and flight plan) will be displayed on a geo-referenced base map, allowing customers to select information pertinent to their needs. Features will be incrementally added to the map. Initial roll-out to FICs began in Summer 2014, with customer access to the map expected in Flight Information Management System (FIMS) Description: The Flight Information Management System (FIMS) provides the tools for the Flight Information Centers (FIC) to deliver preflight and enroute services to General Aviation and Commercial flight operations; FIMS is used to provide interpretive weather briefing service, flight planning and VFR alerting service; Aeronautical information (SIGMET, AIRMET, PIREP and NOTAM). FIMS reduces routine workload and associated errors due to manual data input and improves data retrieval for more efficient briefings. This automated flight data processing system centralizes flight information while allowing each specialist to access any part of this information whether they are performing pre-flight or enroute services or communications search activities. Updates to FIMS have improved the interface with CAATS for seamless exchange between systems as well as the ability to exchange flight information with CFPS and also EXCDS in Flight Service Stations and Towers. Customer Benefits: FIMS provides improved service delivery through more advanced intuitive briefing and flight planning tools. Improvements to continuity of service and overall reduction in system support costs are accomplished through the replacement of aging computer equipment with FIMS. FIMS latest software version (10.0) was delivered in November FIMS 10.0 delivered 60 Modification requests (MRs). Collaborative Flight Planning System (CFPS) access has been improved. Next major release is FIMS 11.0 due in

9 Gander Automated Air Traffic System (GAATS) Description: The Gander Automated Air Traffic System (GAATS) is an advanced oceanic air traffic system used to control aircraft crossing the North Atlantic (NAT) airspace between North America and Europe. Features include flight plan processing, 4-dimensional trajectory modeling, generation of the Organized Track System (OTS) based on current jet stream winds, advanced conflict prediction/resolution and extensive Data Link communication capabilities including (Automatic Dependent Surveillance Contract (ADS-C)), Controller Pilot Data Link Communication (CPDLC) and Oceanic Clearances (OCL). The latest generation of GAATS, known as GAATS+, was implemented in Gander in February GAATS+ uses an ATC LCD display technology to provide electronic flight strips and advanced planner and controller functionality, including jurisdictional surveillance separation capabilities, based on radar for traffic transiting into and out of domestic airspace and ADS-B for aircraft over the southern portion of Greenland. This will form the basis of space-based ADS-B support when the service from Aireon becomes operational in Reduced Longitudinal Separation Minimum (RLongSM) was jointly implemented in Gander and Shanwick oceanic airspace on March 30, RLongSM allows appropriately equipped aircraft to fly on tracks with a separation of five minutes versus the traditional 10 minutes required for non-radar airspace. Further collaboration activities with NATS are now underway for Reduced Lateral Separation Minimum (RLatSM). By November 2015, RLatSM will allow Data Link Mandate (DLM) compliant aircraft to fly on tracks with half-degree separation versus the traditional full degree required in the past. ADS-B Phase 2 In-Trail was implemented on April 29, 2013, allowing controllers to maintain ADS-B separation between aircraft at the same level, in addition to capabilities for Climb- Through implemented in Phase 1. The Gander Operational Flight Level Initiative (GO-FLI) was implemented on November 7, GO-FLI automatically detects climb opportunities for all flights and makes these readily accessible for controllers to share with pilots and to issue clearances to climb via CPDLC when wanted. The availability of Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) and the integration of North Warning System radars and VHF communications off the East Coast of Canada supported the creation of the Gander Oceanic Transition Area (GOTA). Where procedural control standards were previously used, the new transition area pushes the boundary of surveillance-based control standards 185 nautical miles east over the North Atlantic as aircraft use new oceanic entry/exit points. GOTA provides an additional 20 to 25 minutes of flying time under surveillance as aircraft transit the North Atlantic. NAV CANADA is implementing additional fixes near the new domestic and oceanic boundaries over a two year period 23 fixes were implemented on May 29, Customer Benefits: GAATS automates flight data processing, and integrates automatic dependent surveillance (ADS) position reports, CPDLC communication and Oceanic Clearance (OCL), resulting in faster responses to customer requests. CPDLC and ADS-C also enabled the introduction of Reduced Longitudinal Separation functionality in GAATS+ on March 30, These functionalities provide greater opportunities for equipped aircraft to achieve more optimal flight profiles, yielding significant fuel savings for customers. The ICAO Data Link Mandate (DLM) is now supported by GAATS+ as of February 2013, with support for Phase 2 scheduled to be implemented in February DLM provides FANS1A equipped aircraft with access to routes on designated core tracks, along with more opportunities 9

10 to utilize RLongSM to achieve more optimal flight levels. DLM and the concept of core tracks provide the foundation for the future implementation of Reduced Lateral Separation Minimum (RLatSM). GAATS+ replaced SAATS at the Oceanic Control Centre in Prestwick in November An unprecedented level of technical and operational convergence was achieved as a result of both sites having a common GAATS+ system. In late 2013, NAV CANADA and NATS signed a new collaboration program, called COAST (Collaboration on Oceanic Airspace and System Tools). The new program will provide a structure for NATS and NAV CANADA to work together on operational service improvements that support advancements in safety and efficiency. The implementation of GAATS+ occurred in February Implementation of RLongSM occurred in March Implementation of Oceanic ADS-B occurred in March Implementation of the ICAO Data Link Mandate (DLM) Phase 1 occurred in February 2013, with core tracks in the North Atlantic requiring data link during specific track activation hours. Implementation of GO-FLI occurred in November Implementation of enhancements to existing North Atlantic Common Co-ordination will provide the ability to exchange additional coordinating messages with adjacent Oceanic ATC centers. GAATS+ implemented at Prestwick in November Multilateration Surveillance Surface Detection Description: Multilateration (MLAT) is being used as an effective situational awareness tool at busy airports. The Company has deployed MLAT for surface detection, as a complement to Airport Surface Detection Equipment (ASDE) and a component of Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control Systems (A-SMGCS). Customer Benefits: Since multilateration uses existing transponder technology, no additional investment is required on the part of customers to modify aircraft equipment. Multilateration improves safety at airports where it is installed by providing air traffic controllers with additional situational awareness. NAV CANADA s first operational use of multilateration as a complement to ASDE was at Montreal Pierre Elliot Trudeau International Airport (installed in spring 2010). Multilateration is operational at Toronto Pearson, increasing situational awareness for controllers with information integrated on sophisticated display systems at the country s busiest airport. Multilateration is operational at Calgary International Airport and was expanded for the opening of the new runway in spring Multilateration Wide Area Multilateration (WAM) Description: WAM is a system of ground stations that receive signals from aircraft transponders on Mode 3/A, C and S to determine aircraft position. This information can then be used by ATC for SSR-equivalent surveillance and separation. 10

11 Customer Benefits: WAM can provide coverage in areas where it is not possible or too costly to install radar. As a result, NAV CANADA will be able to increase or augment surveillance capability in areas where it would improve the safety and/or efficiency of flight operations. NAV CANADA has received an exemption from Transport Canada that allows the Company to use multilateration in the same manner as secondary surveillance radar. WAM installations in Fort St. John, Vancouver Mainland, Kelowna, Springbank and Fredericton are now operational. Navaid Life-Cycle Replacement Projects ILS (Instrument Landing Systems) Description: To improve service reliability and reduce maintenance costs, ILS equipment installed in the 1970s through 1990s is being replaced with new state-of-the-art equipment at 117 runways across Canada. Unlike the old systems, the replacement ILS transmit localizer and glide path signals which are capable of meeting Category I, II and III precision and reliability standards. As the new systems do not radiate a useable back course signal for the reciprocal runway end, LNAV, LNAV/VNAV and/or LPV approaches (with vertical guidance) are being designed to replace the localizer back course approach capability where required to maintain or improve airport accessibility. Customer Benefits: The new systems are more reliable and more stable thus providing better service to our customers. 95 ILS have been replaced with new systems over the past ten years. During this period, new ILS precision approach service has been established for 6 runways, including Kamloops Runway 08 (2009), Nanaimo Runway 16 (2009), Calgary Runway 10 (2011), Villeneuve Runway 26 (2014), and two Category III ILS for Calgary s new parallel runway (2014). The fourth phase of the national replacement program was approved in February With this new phase underway, the current ILS replacement program now covers 16 remaining installations through NAVCANsuite NAVCANsuite is a family of tower automation products, providing fast and reliable access to airport, tower, and terminal ATC information. It features an integrated controller working position comprised of up to four touch screen monitors that provide NAVCANatm products such as: NAVCANstrips electronic flight data strips; NAVCANinfo a graphical display of real-time airport, NOTAM and meteorological data; NAVCANcontrol navaid and airfield lighting information; NAVCANatis an automatic terminal information service; and NAVCANsitu which combines fused track data with on-screen surveillance data on situational displays. A fully digital voice communications subsystem, supplied by Harris/SolaCom, will be incorporated directly into NAVCANsuite for air-ground/ground-ground communications. Customer Benefits: NAVCANsuite offers air traffic controllers an environment that enhances safety and efficiency by providing real-time access to critical flight, surveillance and operational 11

12 data as well as voice communications. Sales of the system to other ANSPs generate revenue for reinvestment in the Canadian ANS. Visit for the status of NAVCANsuite projects. NOTAM Modernization Description: The Company is in the process of developing a self-serve, web-based application for the submission of NOTAMs by external reporting authorities (such as airports and telecommunication companies) for approval and prompt dissemination of notices to customers, called NOTAMWiz. The new application will support the production of NOTAMs to the ICAO format, versus the domestic standard currently being used. Customer Benefits: By digitizing NOTAM requests the Company will provide reporting authorities with a user friendly option for the submission of notices. In addition, this will reduce workload as a result of standardization and the current need for air traffic services to manually input information. The result will be quicker turnaround times between submission of a notice and its availability to customers on the Collaborative Flight Planning System, the Aviation Weather Web Site and through external providers. Status: NOTAMWiz is currently in the development stage with internal deployment targeted for spring 2016 and external deployment targeted for summer Performance-based Navigation (PBN) Description: Performance-based Navigation is mainly about transitioning to area navigation in a globally-harmonized fashion by means of implementing navigation specifications. It encompasses both Area Navigation (RNAV) and Required Navigation Performance (RNP). The implementation of PBN everywhere in Canada is aimed at using the most appropriate navigation specification, whether it is RNAV or RNP, to suit customers operational requirements. As customers upgrade their avionics, greater ATM opportunities will be presented with an eventual transition towards 4D (Lateral, Longitudinal, Vertical and Time) operations, that consider gate-to-gate implementations producing greater efficiencies. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is one of the major tools to introduce efficient airspace management and is expected to become essential in high traffic density terminal areas over time. NAV CANADA has already implemented many PBN procedures both in the terminal and enroute environments and will continue to incrementally build on these successes. RNAV and RNP systems are fundamentally similar. The key difference between them is that RNP systems require on-board performance monitoring and alerting. A navigation specification that includes this requirement is referred to as an RNP specification. An RNAV specification does not require the monitoring and alerting function. The added position integrity from an RNP system will usually result in the ability to bring aircraft closer to each other or fixed obstacles while maintaining an equivalent level of safety. Area Navigation (RNAV) Description: Area Navigation (RNAV) enables aircraft to fly on any desired flight path within the coverage of ground or space-based navigation aids, within the limits of the capability of self-contained aircraft systems. Area Navigation can include Standard Instrument Departures (SIDs) and Standard Terminal Arrival Routes (STARs) 12

13 procedures. These allow aircraft to transition between an airport and the enroute structure, and vice-versa, on pre-determined routes that are programmed into the aircraft s navigation database or accessed via a panel mount receiver/navigator. Customer Benefits: RNAV-certified aircraft have better access to, and flexibility for, point-to-point operations, rather than being required to navigate between ground-based navigation aids such as VORs and NDBs. Between program start and 2020, NAV CANADA estimates that RNAV will save customers 598 million litres of fuel and reduce GHG emissions by 2,107,000 metric tons. Current status: There are over 1,000 RNAV procedures published in Canada. The first phase of the Windsor/Toronto/Montreal (WTM) Airspace Project was implemented on February 9 th, 2012 and resulted in a new RNAV structure including SID and STAR procedures leading to and from a new RNAV enroute structure. The second phase of the WTM project was implemented on November 13 th, 2014 and included cross border linkages to the FAA. A similar project reviewed the Calgary-Edmonton airspace corridor taking into consideration the new parallel runway at Calgary. This project was implemented in the May 2014 publications. In 2014, some 300 procedures entered development for airports in Canada that have sufficient equipped airframes and traffic levels to warrant designs. Required Navigation Performance (RNP) Description: Required Navigation Performance (RNP) also enables aircraft to fly on any desired flight path within the coverage of space-based navigation aids, within the limits of the capability of self-contained aircraft systems using onboard navigation performance monitoring and alerting systems. Customer Benefits: RNP provides for more direct and constant descent rates. Between program start and 2020, it is estimated that these procedures will save customers approximately 142 million litres of fuel and reduce GHG emissions by 378,000 metric tons. Current status: In collaboration with WestJet, NAV CANADA has implemented a number of instrument approaches that include a constant descent and, in a number of cases, a much shorter flight route than the normal approach. TP 308 V6 now incorporates all elements of FAA criteria as adopted by Transport Canada, effective October 17, Jeppessen Sanderson Boeing Design services division has been contracted by NAV CANADA to build the RNP AR approaches to the TP308 V6 release that incorporates RNP AR public criteria in Canada. NAV CANADA and Jeppesen are developing RNP AR approaches at the Calgary, Vancouver, Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto, Kelowna, Kamloops and Cranbrook aerodromes. In 2015, work will start on an additional 15 sites. NAV CANADA deployed a full version of a GIS design tool capable of RNP and FAA Terminal Instrument Procedures criteria in December Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) Description: WAAS is a satellite-based GPS augmentation system that uses a network of ground reference stations and geostationary satellites to monitor signal delays caused 13

14 by the ionosphere and provide improved position accuracy and integrity of messages to aircraft via satellites. This American system is designed specifically for aviation with a high level of reliability and availability and has a North America-wide reach. NAV CANADA has participated in the development of WAAS by installing four reference stations in Canada. Customer Benefits: With WAAS, the accuracy, integrity and availability of enroute, terminal and approach guidance navigation are significantly improved. There is also a significant safety benefit as WAAS makes possible localizer performance with vertical guidance (LPV) approaches with limits as low as 200 feet where terrain, runway equipment and aerodrome certification permit. This means that an LPV precision-like approach with both lateral and vertical guidance can be flown using WAAS at any qualifying airport within WAAS coverage. More than 210 LPV approaches, supported by WAAS have been published to date. Additional sites are planned but are dependent upon provision of necessary airport survey data. Recent improvements in reference station software and prediction performance has extended LPV coverage from coast to coast and up to 70 N throughout the Arctic. Preventive Maintenance Automation & Common Hardware Integration Platform Description: The current ATM Operational environment is built on a mix of systems - each deployed and maintained independently through life cycle management. With future updates planned to several core systems, such as the Canadian Automated Air Traffic System (CAATS), Fusion, and NAVCANsuite products, NAV CANADA has the opportunity to consolidate much of the key underlying architecture to LINUX and a hardware infrastructure centered on blade server technology at Area Control Centres. This will support a move towards a Restart, Reload, Swap philosophy that is emerging in other leading ANSPs. Customer Benefits: By moving to a common platform, the Company will be able to increase automation for monitoring and other tasks (such as file clean up, verification of parameters, accuracy checks), decrease maintenance costs and improve overall reliability of the systems. The system will support shorter turn-around times for system maintenance and component replacement as well as allow for future growth. The project is currently in the planning phase with a target completion date in Weather Systems Upgrade Program NAV CANADA is undertaking a major upgrade to the weather reporting infrastructure, by taking an integrated approach to replacement of AWOS, weather cameras, anemometers and temperature sensors. It will provide for more accurate and reliable reporting of essential aviation weather information. Implementation of this program began in AWOS (Automated Weather Observation System) Description: Legacy AWOS provided sky condition, visibility, precipitation, temperature, dew point, wind, pressure and ice accretion data for weather reports and forecasts at 72 14

15 sites. These older systems were aging and becoming increasingly difficult and costly to maintain. A replacement initiative, nearing completion, has introduced new, moreadvanced AWOS that meet regulatory sensor accuracy requirements. Customer Benefits: More reliable and accurate provision of METAR/SPECI will increase airport accessibility and improve safety. The new AWOS are designed to report thunderstorms and, where available, RVR information and use an ice-resistant anemometer to report wind speed and direction during freezing precipitation, freezing fog, and wet snow events. New AWOS are currently operational at 73 sites across the country. Digital Weather Cameras Description: In 2008, NAV CANADA began installing new Digital Aviation Weather Cameras (WxCam) to replace the 22 existing analog camera systems and to expand the network. WxCam images are intended to be used as a supplement to existing weather information products. The new cameras have a 91 angle of view and provide improved higher resolution images that are updated every 10 minutes and distributed through a redesigned WxCam interface on the NAV CANADA Aviation Weather Web Site (AWWS). Customer Benefits: The colour images are updated every 10 minutes providing visual, near real-time information about weather for flight planning - a feature that is especially useful during marginal conditions and at sites commonly affected by localized weather phenomena. Currently, there are 158 sites with WxCams available on the AWWS. Three sites are awaiting reception of the reference images and these will be added once they are completed. More than 100 sites will be added by the end of Additionally, by the end of 2017, 66 AWOS sites will see the number of cameras available increase to four. HWOS (Human Weather Observation System) Description: In addition to the AWOS, NAV CANADA is in the process of installing HWOS at most human weather observing sites. HWOS provides quick, accurate and reliable weather reporting where manned weather observations are an integral part of aviation operations. The HWOS data entry system replaces the two legacy systems currently used to input weather observations (WinIDE and MIDS). HWOS also includes a set of updated sensors (including Ice Resistant Anemometers and Remote Digital Temperature Sensors and Displays) used in the AWOS that are directly linked to the data entry system. Centralized weather data from the HWOS conveniently interfaces with tower controller and flight service specialist working positions to provide real-time wind, altimeter, and other weather information on their touch screen display. This configuration replaces dedicated instrument displays and enhances the efficiency of the cab environment. NAV CANADA also launched an initiative to allow HWOS to incorporate a Limited Weather Information System (LWIS) capability outside of the hours of operations of part-time human reporting sites. This addition allows the HWOS installed at part-time human sites to issue an hourly LWIS message (temperature, dew point, wind and altimeter). This LWIS message is available via the FIC, the ACC or the Aviation Weather Web Site (AWWS). 15

16 Customer Benefits: The new data entry system provides a standardized system throughout the network which brings a reduction in support costs. It allows for direct ingestion of sensor data. This improves the quality and assurance of data that might otherwise be prone to human error. The LWIS feature provides access to essential weather information for take-off and landing 24 hours/day and 7days/week, supporting the use of an IFR approach when a human weather observation is unavailable. Installation of the data entry system started during fall HWOS systems are currently operational. An additional 8 are undergoing or soon to undergo ORD and 23 have completed Proof of Performance (POP). The remainder of the HWOS systems are planned to be completed by the end of Spring The three LWIS test sites (Red Lake, Pickle Lake and Powell River) were commissioned on July 4 th In addition, a modification release containing the LWIS capability has been implemented at a total of 38 sites. Future HWOS to be installed at part-time human sites will have the LWIS capability activated during ORD. In total, this capability will be implemented at 63 sites by the end of Spring Ice Resistant Anemometers Description: Anemometers are required at 176 staffed airport weather observation sites. Aging, conventional anemometers (rotating cups and wind vanes) will be replaced with heated, ice resistant, sonic probes that have no moving parts. Customer Benefits: These devices will provide more reliable and accurate wind direction and speed information for takeoff and landing. The same system will be used in the AWOS sites thereby realizing cost efficiencies. Installation is being done in concert with the rest of this integrated program and began in late summer Remote Digital Temperature Sensors and Displays Description: Legacy equipment at 172 staffed airports is costly to maintain and requires observers to walk to the instrument s location to take readings. New digital sensors will facilitate the delivery of data directly to the observer. Customer Benefits: Reliable, timely and accurate temperature and dew point information will allow aviation weather observers to include the same information in their special weather reports (SPECI) as they do in their routine hourly reports (METAR). The same system is used in the AWOS, thereby realizing cost efficiencies. Installation began in summer 2010 and is being completed in concert with the rest of the integrated program. 16