Of' FlJ ECORDERS. uooou;~

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1 Of' FlJ ECORDERS uooou;~

2 FOFEWOED This p3inphlet is ir.y~ende i to pro.,1id.e cc :-.. c~~-::e information ot1 tr~e histo:"y and procress cf f:ight recorder::: and voice :~e:ce:rd':'!r:;. /ldii tional d;.;.ta. ic :l1.:des recording teclinjq'1ec' ;; an:1lysis meh.:ds 1~ic1_ e.r~d- produc:t res c.:.l.ts i!:i~ w:-,i_ich flight recc:: d.f::r 1-.e;3_dou_J... ;.~ h;:-;_1,re r:ontrj_:;1j t.~d to ai::--craft accidf~'.t iri.fcj:""tnaticn illustrates 1J:e t;l~:'lefi:~s that h;;-:re i:.:eer: 2nd that ma:r be deri7ei i'10"1 the use of ilitht\ recor ders in the p:comotion oi' aviation sc:.fety. This parnphlet was prepared b;r 0. E. Patton, Aerospace Enginet. and Flight Recorder Specialist. ii

3 CON'IBWl'S I ' ::wmo DU CT ION Page ii 1 II.. ~I:~TORY OF FLIC}I-'.T RECORDEHS III. ~-PI'PQ1Jf,L EA.SIS FOR FLIGHT RSCOP.DEP.5 Lockheed Aircraft Service Flight Eecorder l1cidels 3 Fairchild ace United Data Control Flight Eecorder L. Fode ls.spec Tool Company F.:Cight Recorder 8 2 J 1./L ::-LIGHT RECORDER READOUT l~aceine AIJD B LA'IED :'.:QUIPMEIJT 9 VIE. ~ECC\/LFE~IDATIONS 10 IX. ~.;._:::;13?'.JI~ AL:JTTIONAL PARAHE?ERS IN FLICET RECORDERS 13 ''..?A:':t:~1w:m:fli I'.ffOR1 1 1ATIQN RELATIVE TO COCKPIT VOICE: lh?j. ~'.ECORDEH AND \iffi.et}(age LOCATION DF;\71.L'ES 1) XII.?LIGHT RECORDER SYSTEMS FOR SUPER~30NIC T2ANSPOR1' I) Aiii'. CR.fl.FT UUUUU-!

4 I. " ITR'JDl'C'IION ~ T!:is ~"8pJrt i.s cof1piled.~.o provide i'.~.form:ition B.bout the flig.~: : :-'e co:trier pre zra.1', and the faire 1:: of.safety part i.c j_pation th2rein L) th~; :::e ~-eople uho f:- cr; t.. irne-tc-t.ime -a.ve a need to kr.;.ow but..,.1r.ose noy't'l.al dt~i ~0:::s ;;-. 1.i ~:ct~vi.ties lc 1 1--,ot keep th srn closely associcited with the de\re.:iopi"~er.d.. '.~~, _,~:ie r~oblens a~-:d C'::-:- rect~~.gns to tl':e recor~ier. ~~;.e r~port j_~3 not j_nte(1ded to be all-inclusi--~-e nor i.s it~ int'3ri.ciej i-1 Le ::o;;:p1ete in all details. Its sole p11rpo:,;e i~: to r:.::-ovj_ae i: iior-.c>-. J:.. J'; a gr:or:er:il n2.tu:ce on the his'c.ory and development oi flight r,::;c.. r:i0r:~. 1 :~ 1,:8 ::"'2-r.st c~--/j_~_ Air Regulation on flight re:;ordera,.a.rnenc..~"!~t l=-: 1 1, e:':"p;c:i re Anrc:.l It reauired the inst.;lj.at:ion of a de,:ice -'...', :'r:::;.-j=:.- -; ~;_l ~~~-tt:\:.le- 2.nJ radio 0ransrr~{+.~,.~,, operation (on Bnd off),, The c:c~. :..'.. ''.lcc rl:; CG i Jac: suc:::;equently revi:'>. i ~;hree tir.k~s arid f::.nall;t :i:'1 J.:.::-1 ~-,--,J:... : 1 t.f~e C~L\1j_l_ Aeronautic:s Board rescinded the l'.''oq_uirement.. 'l he 1 ::;~F} ~ct vra:o brought.qbout by rnair.teaance di.fficulties anr..1. lack c:c: re:.p L,ce- : '~.-,, fja:'ts for the cecorders u\1e to the war effort. A si:.l'..ar regulation was adopte'.l ir, September 1947 and re'1l1ired :c ~.;:::.--.~, re8ord.er in aircr<.:.ft of' J.C,000 pounds or- mo::--e, tc. recoy:j, al~_,i;~_;~je ~,:; i 1err,ical accei":rations. Again, on,july 1, 1946, the C.C.B r 3Sct;.::i.;,. :l-:is requj_remer,t as tr.ere were no ir:struments re8-'iily 'lva::.1able of pr -;en ;"ei~a:jility and fully adequate for the purpose in~ended. No flight ::- eccrders were installed as a rest:.1t of this regulatory action, D-11ri;:ci' t~~e E:r-:sui::ig n::i.ne ye8rsj the C.IJ-..?.:---,d Ct..B studied the res:.:j "'e-.~.er.1.. ~, rr)e~ 1;1ith inciustr~.r repr2s8:tative.s, a::d proposed ::i1t1end.rnents,~tf.:_.:-~ir~.~ ~~!-_::.; fj_::,iz"r-:t recorder µrogr:tm. F.1... ~lly, in A~t...'.gu.st 1957 t.he CAB adopt,~.~; ~:_.:J'l..:.,: Jj ~ent ~ to Civil Air Regulstions Parts 40, 41, 42, and~) to be effes~i~e in -~er;te;~.ber '.i!-:ese I'l~cpired fligh', recorde:.s to bt~ :i.nstalled arte:-,, 1 in all aircraft over 12,SG, pounds that would be op~rated i~ air :;a::::;~er ::;errice e;~)rne 25,DO') fee':.. aj.titude. The functions to te r"'c;,:,;"je:.. ~ ;1e~--e: air2peed, altit_,i ~c:e.~ direction, 1Iertic2l ar.:celeratior~s and tj.rlr:!, J~n :>:::ptember 1959 the::e reguj_a.t:'.ons w~re rev:lsed to 3'5tabl:'..sh a reter.-:..i:::i~. pe.:'iod cf 60 da~rs for rt;cor:js and to clarify the t:'une period that the flight recorder siv1ll :-.Je in operation, that is~ con ti nuous}y die in~ f'"l.i,(1 L, f:;o:r: takeoff roll u;iti.l landing roll is co:rnp}.eted. These requirerne:.it,s, together w1 th subsequent :1rlencb1ents to the Federal Aviation R.egulo.t.:i.')113, \?AR) rec:ulted in f'iig:ht records being reco~'de:i contin _iou'.:,ly durin;:. ;.Li:;Lt,~,.f 2-iJ. tur't.iine po wered transport category a:i.rcr=~ft operated b:r air f:,rrr: i.:.-r~~ '.' the Un'" TA:d :;tates T8EJ'istry. I l I. ;l.ppflci'jt.l SAS I'.'1 FOR FLIGHT HECORDERS The ""ecorders are designed to comply <Jith FAA 'I'ecr.n:i.cal Standard ~~.. -it~r, which specifies the measurerne!l.t of 1.ndicated :lirspeed, r re~~~:n.. 1~e :)

5 _c,_:..,c. : ~. ma~ge~ic heading, and vertical acceleration against a base of.:,,.,~-1 ti::'.e. 1:30- ~3l also spec:i.fies c,hat t.hc r'ecorded infcrr:.at.ion shall. ' e: '.:ilj.e aftei r.on-e,jectd.ble recorde;~s have been subjecteio. to a loog ;.:ic-;- ;0 1.oc<< 3.0:'.i enveloped i!l. flarne at 1.JS!O degr ees C fo~' 30 mirr. t :.s. ' - - ~ - 1 ~.. early ;o.:..:. c.f che recorc«:ors 1Jsec o;r the a:~r "I ca.rn.9rs to comp.1.;)t with -,, ~.:.:_rerr,a'.1t.s 5.re ei.tr.er of t tlo L.sic non-e,jectable tnn';s. One uti-. _:e:_ ~:,conel foil as t'.-.e recc:rd:'..ng rr1ediu.'1l: the high melting point of.t::::1~ p1--c«..;:.c:::..0.g t:1e necessary fi:---e protecl~i0n. As the foil advru1ces.:>:.,.;t'lr.. ra-:.e of six i:-.:::le:i per hour, c.hamond tipped st.yl:i. engrave ;.:.: ~ j t"' 1ce s. i'.-,e o ti: er ty:oe J tili ze s ah;.:ninu. n foil as the record- ~- :-L _._;- d ~r.~~~ rsc~.c_:~es tf"h3rr"~al p';~otr?ct.i.oc, which is provided in a ::,c;l~ e:;cj.o. :_::io 1J:.e :. ecc:"der :'..ech;:ni:-om. ~he vario11s tr&c8s ;,:;.ra c:~ tr-~e s_~_:_~-.=-~u.n fo.-;_~'- 0/ :sf~arpj.r poi.r.teg si:,y<jj~ as it passes o ver --.::.. -~ ~-c.t-e.~._;f 2.t :ec... st s~x inshes per hc;t:::-~ T'he six-4 inch ad,ra.r.ce r..1rj'.je:l :.~~e ~:,tnj_.;-,ujr. for ge :-~erz..lly 3a.tisfact.or;r resol1j.tion an!. tlt"f1... e,,c. c,,_~::;:-_ :::!' -c'."'.e '/2~ic.\j5 tr<~ces. ~ aste-r advance would be benefic.ial d:.ir ~ r~ ~e~iods of hig~ ~~ace activi~y ~ ~..:.; c: a:ft c..:-.s1~2.li.ation ;;pp ovals '.Jf flight recorders are predic2.ted Ol' -"'"'1s of sa:.is.;:'actor:.r co;;:pliance with the pe!"timmt r':la_uir1:oments in the t.;.~~! ct=- ~~-i:r:.c~j~-,:~-.. ~-~s... ~ation::.:. j :.~ cr:1 t f'"";d::~,ifs.c 1~ ~!""'~r3 a:-td the c~:..!'"'li:jes..3::.::ce tle i:1t1 od'1ction b 1959 of ti..:.rbine powereci transport aircrait a.i~ carrier service to tne e:id J± Sept.err.Ger the Civil Aeronaut,ics _ iff'.i ::..r."re st:.gated over lc1 accid9nts imrclvir.g airc:caft with r:j.ght :-1:<>~.1:-jers :.rlstalled ~ v:_ta.l in.f 1J.r:~r12.t~-0n,.e.e obt:!.ir.ed from readout cf the ; ec: r::e::i cia:.1 ir. ccr:;iec'ticn with 125 of these cases. Howewer, the accuracy '. " ::2.ta -,1a::: ~:".ps.ire::i -~)"/ eras~' i:i.pacr, damage t.o six of the 125 tapes. "' ~e:. o':her accider:ts d;.:,ring th~~s period the fli.ght recorder infc:rmatio::1. :s :..:;~ 2Ya:'.-lablP- fer -cr.e follcwi:1g r easons: tr.ree T,apes were fragmer.ted,; :.;~pc.c: :: orces a::d the pert.inent p:.aces were not recovered; three alumirn:.:m,_;pe :apes were consu.'i\ed by prolonged exposure c.o fire; two recorders had.,., q;e,...,ded the ta::ie supply prior to the accidenc.; one was malfunctioning :i.n :_~;s.t t,r--,e "(,:1pr; -..;as not advancing; and or.e recorder was not turn~d on. The re:,.s.1::j_r-,g ar;cic:en'ts were of such a nature that no readout-s of the. recorded ~:-_fcjrrr-.a"':.icn was considered r.t!cessary for determina'tion of the probable ~ _,_,-": c ct c'.lntrit,,r ing facto~'s.. In ad.di tion to the accident experience, ;;f:.: f~ 1,;ht recorder Teco1'ds are i'eac; out in connection with a cons:i.derg.tlei,,;:c!".:;t::,rre of t'.:e i.ncidenl:: :irwes-c:i.gated b~r the Board, pr:i.maril~r those in ; ~-. er. c0unte,, ::; with t ur':'l~cr>:;e" Then, too, ths flight record.3r data,'."_,;:-: <:r1es a:: the prur:ary bas.1.s f::ir ex-censi,re studies and tests b;r the -2- uuooor>

6 '!. JE)CRI?TICIJ QT<' U. " FLIGHT RECORDEP ~---~~, The L\S Mede:'.. l09c fligr.t recor:16r is mci.r.u.!'acture'i by Special ::::evices Jivision of' I ockheed Aircraft Service Con:i;:-any, Ontaric, Califcrnia, acd conforms to Federal Aviati0n P.gency T.S{J--C)l 1 which is a unit approval L'lais for flight n~corders, Tl1e flight recc1rde1 is constructed w-'.lth o. he21;;;r cast al:.rr,,inun G'1:ce h2viri~ 2.11 the necessar:r components 1r.ounted on :Lt t :-i provide o ~c-~12.o,zrap:-.i c tr~:;ce s j_nscrtt.ed on the one--mil alurriintu11 foil T'eccrd ~;-c? r.e(ji,1, The entir-e r;.echanj_s:n, with the exceptj_c:j. of -~,he s~nall :.. r:-~n ::Jj_ '.3tori ze'1.. J.mplifier for the ':"leading 'J.nt t, is conta-j_~ed in a ~":J'r- e:::"'ic,'.jl =-~haperi c:n.s ::; -:-,.1ith 2- squdrt:: fthj1...lntir1g flange ::i.t it~~ equ~:i.tor.,~ :-.8 L::::i.ti:re ou~er s~1ell }.~3 Ti1S.':Tufact11red in t;v10 :.::ectior-.:s ol' stcli:-11ess ~~eel ~aterial w~ich slso has in~er stainless steel :hells wit~ a '1:.::-~nc}-: ::3rj,Jce tr::tr,;er:!r; the :::hell~:-: fille :l 1-rith pear1ite :r;ater:l.;:. l to ;)l'o"',~j ie he2.: fj.:.~ot?'_:ction to f",~,:;t rr.i.niifl'_j!;, r':qt:ire:rtents of ~100 percent (~ 'or at }.E:J_st 3~ ird.r:utes duration~ Tl'-',e t:uo r.. al:" ::il~ll ~5ecticns were o::i.[inecll.7 fastened togetl-~er b;t four q,1ick r eleo.se latches. Ey -::..1 t.ie of a.n FAA Air,,crthrnef:s Direc-ci-vi:, (AD) based upon a CAB recorn :>.end;ition, this model fli;;'.ht recorder incorporates a staj.nles.:i steel ~l1.mp-type retainer ring arouni its equator p::iir.t,, This i. rrprc-1<:11v:mt ohould pre7ent the separaticn of the twn shell sec~ions resulting ~ ro:r. cr-cishing loads That usi;ally occllr in JTca,jor a:;c:tdents, Most c::irr:i.~rs using trie LAS recorder made the chane;e >rclunto.rily in ad 'Jance of the AD!'equirement. Tbe fli,:-:llt re cc, rd.i.s i ~-scribe 1 on a!.j.lrni::--c 1Jrr~ foil 2~ i.:--1ches ;ride ' o:.e r;.il tl'~c~- T ~ is wour:ll on a :~~~ai~,less stee: sricol; t,~,.e ~T~::::iol ~.:'Jppl:r) ~,.., plac.:ed :Jn c-i spir~ll;:; ~ri ~r._e Cd..:;settc e.ssenbly.. Tte al:: ;,:.,;; u~yf. fui~.. ic: f~d fr-or", this spocl, G"';er a flc.;,., teflon CO'\"ered plater,,, c.>:--t.., ;:i br:e1:p spnol mounted on another spindle which is driver! by U:e :.ai;i ]:'.i.vc:: rnech.s.nisr::. 'I!:e f]_ight record consists of the :c'o11owinf 1''Jr'r.tlT.~ters rilt:'..t 1de, airspeed (IA::;), vertical accelerations, rnagn;:;t:'..c hea ling ancl ti:ne. The cast al1<minura cassette a5sembly originally 1..;tLLized in the ~bcel losic fl:i.ght recorder is replaced with a stai.nless steel d~sl::':1 which alsr) incorporat.es spbcii.ic improvements, i.e.~ provides greater strength with a top cover for better record protect:i on, as a resull of CAB recor:m~endat::.on3. in the original Model 109C flight r ecorrj.ers 5 the main drivt: rnech ;,:1i ::;;r, conc.:ists of a sir.gle phase motor :i!'iving a gear train ttrough a Lel::'..cal spring and ratchet. The gear train drive::.~ sin1llltaneously a clocl: escapement via a to~rque l:i..mit"ing device, the dcive pawl which drives the foil takeup spool spindle. and the timing disc whic."1 operat8s lhe time stylus. In the current models the flight recorders are eql:ipped with a direct drive motor ( w~lich eliminates the escapement C'n.i c.orque control asserr.blies in the origir:.al 1t0C.els) &.mi they have ?

7 Lock:1eed Aircraft Service Flight Ee corder Iv'.ockls. ~-----.,.._~... ~~---- ( contirmed) ii 'OV8!':1ing escaperr.ent in the :motel'.' head that CGr:teCtS r, J t:l.mes a ~,inute for constc:int output s!'_aft speed. 'il:e direct dr-~'-'8 m:ltor oper-- 3 te s on?8 vol ts DC provided through ;;,_ or~"dge rect:i fier an i 7,ran:=.- for:ner, This 12-tter drive sy2tem ma;r be retrcfitte.d in the ea:clier ~o~els. Th8 fl ii;rht re corder installat=._on sen'.::e s 2Jr1bie~i ~, 2 :~a tic a i.r press.lre fror:-, si:.atic press-ire pore verits located oc-. tte side of tr:.e fusel:::i~ e forwhl'd of the ".J~ng and the pi tot p::"'e ~Js u: e is ::ensed froit'. ei t::er c,!-,e copilot's pitot system c:' an inde;:.ei,c:ent i,it:t s:/stern: Heading in.f~~1 ryia t~o ~' ~-s provided by s j_gnals deri -:.red f!'o:r~ 1:,~~-e copilot's rr.agnetic r:i;~,:;:,~tio~.3_}_ CYI'l) in5t::-"llit.ent J.nd the Ve:-'ti;~a.l B.Ccelsr2tic1n forces is ~el~:~e:j j~j_"'ec-:,-li fro!rl c;rj. occe~_erometr~r ~:-1i-~ ~ con:,c:2..:1ed ~.rtth the fli ht recor jex'-j ~-~-is r;:--incir;:~_:. ~~fj.'ey'e:~ces 2..Y''?.: the :r:,ech.::.r:is;r1,".:j~ st:~'1.c}_i.r=~s cf' the lg_:---~ r~re co~~t,:_:i r~ed in a reeta.ngu:2r sl2"'ped case t2 11itlE di ::1:::nsi..:ir:s of ~875 x x 19~56 inctes (~ PTR case~size) to fac~1~t~te ~1~:~ ~;e-r sa2.l7 lcc3.t~r.[ it in the airc:~a.ft; and util:.zi! 1g G- rtrr1ote t:rpe &ccelerometer sensor which enables c,he recorder c,o be loc2-~e.-j.~.t r:ji~r,1:-1ces atf9j from i..ne aircraft rs cente:'"' of gr~-.rit~r" Tr ; fairc,.,ild lfodel 5Li2L: se;:-ies and t::e Un:.ted. ::Js.te:. Car1 :.rol :ej.?- ~ :::eries fli~:-1t r ec:crders provile a record. of 2-~t..i.tude_, i'" E~;::ted 2irspeed, headin~,?.nd vertical accelsr:::.-'.:,ion, ::i t'.--1 respect :.) ~:irr:e. Tl-,e recorr1s are oscillographic in type ar:d are :.'lcie c,~, e~zr&vin[ a J_j.ne in~o 3 high-nickj.8-ccnte0t. ~t.~i~lp35 S~eel StTip. ~:-i dddi.tl or. t0 the four major par2j~.eters, recorcis 8.I"'e rri;;de of t_~:.-~11e ;r,0::;r;s o:' a ti nary coder a'.ld an additional binar7 coder is avei 1- at.i(.:: for ::T:2r~:i'.-t ever.. ts or for ot:-~er purposes. A :~1irci er.coder id userj for n:a:'ki r-:[ 2- basic re_ferer!.ce. l:i.ne 0!1.. tf.e r~c~rd~ng r.ediu.m.. c;-he n=:coroj.ng sy::'terr1 is coircpospd or tb; recorder, a r,a;;c:~;ir;i:: con L1ining the reco::ding f'1.ediurn, ar.d ;:,.n accelero:nete~' unit which is remotel~r n.o:rnted at or near "'.:,ne ce~1te: of gra'tit;r cf the aircraft. The flight recorder asseml-:ly :Ls in a standard -~ AT!-t size equi.pme:--,t case. An electrical connector i3 lx:ated at the rear ar.d th" ;:ii tot 2nd c'tatic pressare connections arr:: located en tr:e f;:.or:t panel Th8 record8r consi_sts 01 two major sect~ans; a recorder section comprisir:,sc :111 '<:he record:i.ng elements &nd r::agazi:-:e for tne act;jc~l recordi'.1~, and li section which contains all of the elec:ro~ic components. Tn~s is electricall/ connected to tl.-.e r1n:~n recorder f::--arr,e by mear1s of t.e~ T:1i: :±1. bo~'tcf,. The main _::'rame C'.Jnt,ait':s the followin5 functional ccmpo:1e:tts: TJ.keup Drive, Actuator Drive, Timer, Heading Servo, Vertical A1:.:.:e l eration Servo, Alti ti.:de and Indicated Airspeed Sem;ors,

8 2. Fairchild and Unired Data Co0 ~rol Fl.i.cht Recorder Modt~ls (cont) ---~ ~~----- ~~----.-~~--~ Three 3inary Uni ts, the Tiice Remaining J:r,.1icator, and EL;psed Tirne Inc.::..cator, Maga::cine Receiver Ass'.'mbly, and a Front Pa.nel Assem :)ly. TLe electronic cl:assis contains two servo arr,plifier w.hs, a power :relay_, a 26-volt DC power supply, a time delay rela~, 2.il.d 2ssoe;'._ated tc;r::i.inal board::;, components and wiring. The magazine assembly incli.:des tne rollers and S'Jj:;port me1~hanisf1 to guide the reco:::-ding medium from a supply ::-eej_ sh::- o'.lg:h the necessary speed control and locating rollers to a ta:.:eup rer:l< Th<:>. recording r;;eii;z_ is ~' stainless steel strip, 4.92 ir.ches 1rlde and approximatel~r Ci. JCl inch thick, ;;h:i.ch is capable of scistaining the ful::.. accident.~n';j_rc:1rr,en+, without 'rn~r rr.echanic'lj., thermal or otr;er protection. The T:-,ec_i1Jrn is,;.~~so capable of }.ri. th.s:anding inciefini te j_~l.":c.e~~- s1.on in salt WJ~er wi-:hout d:e!j:1af!e to the record or a re--:.u,~tior: in t~1e accuracy of t:"e engrg~ved traces,. The m~tal is a speci2.l alloy w~.. icl.!. is capacle o~i'.1i t~j 2 t2n1li!~1g h:i.gl-1 tem 1 ;2r,-: tj11re 2:-1d i.jripa ;:;-;:,, she ct: s ~,,.;i thout 2_:nji,:leg_~M.d.atJ.0r: 5.n its rr.echan:i.ca.l. p:r:1pe::--ty c:i ar:.y p23sibil i,t~r c:f er~e:ure of -~he record itself. Sprocket 'holes ar"! prqvicied at both edges of tht': ;r,edium to guide the medlun through the magazine 2.nd ;::o cc ntr ol its r<~ovement as a function of the Actuator Drive in the reco::-der i t:::elf. v1i thin the constanc:,r of the aj_rcl'<j.ft pm;ier line frequer,cy_. tee: li'.ediwn rr.oves uniformly a1~ri at "ch" re:te of ejx inches per 'hour (J~ sprocket hcles per hour). The acceleron-.eter unit is o. se'l.led conponent ",;hich trans:r:its an electric2.l signal proportiotia}. to the acceleratio:i C<.fong its vertic::l a.z::.s. Ti':e unit j,s calibrated to provide sign'l.ls proportional to ac~"'el_f.!r::i.tiry;-s fror:1 -Jg- to +f, : ~r-1:1 is designated to be mounted.;.t or clcse to t:1e :~enter of gra'rit:r o:::' -t!;e.1i-y.cr2-ft" RecoPling j s 'lcconplis'.'led by period1ca1.ly sa111pling the parai"t'.eters w:~ ~.c'.~ 2~re tie:: ing: rr,eae;ured an:l eng:rav ir.t lin8s ty!"near.s of e.cribers ~~nto ':,r:e ~:c:cardin[ rr.ediuxn. The s~;fipling rate "-" in accordance w::. th tl1e ::er;..;irements specified j_n FA.A TSO-C)l. T:,e scriber styli are above the recording rredi.:.r" as it pas:jes C'1er 2 small dia.-ii.::;t.er scribing roller ir: the magazi r.e. Si,,,ul tane.jusl:f 0 the ~~criber styli r or the fc'.lr f:'. ight pae'.:-:c~.eters are 11.ec':anicall:r!Y.iched. ir:t:o ccntact wir,h the r-ecord2.ng :11e1.itirn a;-, it goes o'ler tr:e sc!'i':cir:g roller, After bach mark is made, tht: styh are released from the'..r contact with the rnedi1.u:i, and are them ~:apatle of d.ssi:!n:'..ng a new posiuon as dater:nir:ed by the semsing elements. t'.l thou[h the sty.li themselves are pivoted i!1 extremely low friction pi,_rot ;, the reccrd tha"l is 11a<ie is rectilinear rather than CUI''Jilinear. 'Iti 5 i::; accomplished by using a knif~ edge type ;:d 2;crj_ber and nakir;g Ue n~~irk e:.s the knife edge is pressed into contact with the recordj ng cejiijtn :is the medhrrn passes ever a ; oller which is perpendict;lar to the direction of mediu:n travel. A line across the width of the medium represento: the s.:une in::;tant of time. -5- UUOOU;l

9 F:lirch:LLi c;nd LnLted Data Control (c:::;nt) For al ti t-ude, :'._njicated airspeed, an:! he a ding par?::net,e: s, tr:e r8corc[ings 0re r~c, 12 at the rate of one ccnt:lct per secor,:l. For 'ifcrtical ;.:.c.~elec'lcioci, recordings are rr,ade s.t the r;;_te of cen per :=eco~-1:..1 in ~or'.r~<l:~.a~-:ce with -~he requirerr~ents of the T.:>J.. 1f}1e ~;ila: ies ;_;_- e 2 :!ntir:~~~c -l_,j1:,r :Ln ei t her the UH pos=-. tion or the er : :PC Sit~l6r2!-'8- ~ardless of t. ~~1r function. The p::isi tio.:ing cf the scribe styli for the foc..:r pc.rameters..-'.-~ic:~-; are 'r.ieing :-~ea sured arf3 as fo llo1 1s: l~ A1t/Lt'..: 1_je is rnensured anj tr~~ S'l1l1..::.s is posittone1 b:r cl'1 <1.~i_tJ t~.1.ie sensor wht.~~- is one-half :)f c coj.pletc c.ssembly cfr:.:_cl!j.so ir:corpor.'.i.tes the indic2.~~ed ai.rspeed sr-:;r,:xr, :1 1~~ ~~it is conneuted ~o the aircraf~ static pre~s~re ::~,r3t-e:-~....~ir..ce the static pres~n:.re is a func ~_..:~_cn cf l.he.'_ ~=-.. ~_t _~-1e :if :~be aircraft_, v.:t.en the alt_;:.t::.:df~ ~::-, the svu_c nressure w1l)-.in the enclosure of t!:e ::OJ-;_1~iT:::ie sensor a~ :-:: 1) cha:1ge s. A de ere ae~e i:1 static pre ss1;re res ul t~:.ng f:rom a,_-ain in ::;.l;:,i tude makes the aneroid expand.:cmd fo:cces the pr'::cision pin through the close fitting bushing. The pi~-i rr;o 1e s the st:flus i«the sa:rne direction in whic".1 the pin is : -.o-. ;_me_ ovcrcot'.'.es the force of the flexure s'.:.pportir:g ~ ~~r:e scribe arm. The a-r:-1ount of 1:1overne!"lt of t.he s~ri~ e a:-:r. is cieterr~r'..rie d by tf:e al ti tu de of the aircraft, tr;e ctar acter-- Lt ic of the flexu:ce and the position of tne preci:sion pin \vhb respect to the flexure point of the scri'ce ar:n. 'L:-l~; ~ :--.Jica":ej airspeed ser:.sot operccces in essentia_lly tf1e soc--,.;a:_; 3.s the altir,ude ser,sor except thc.t it contains a :!.ij.tjhr:igrr: =..rlstead of' an aneroid syster.. l re dj_a?hra0i1!~as ;_.-c~ jcerior.;onnecte:':! to tr.e pitot sy::n.e:n 'li' the airsr.:i.ft l:i.i le the s;iace around the diap:rcragrr, is connected to the o:;t2~.ic s:rstern. The precisio:1 pin is aga:i.n mounted ou tle Uc' t:::ije of U ~ diap:-,ragm t_'.lcini.:: through a ::imi::.ar b«.:shing anrl ;:;ressing agaln::t a sirr,ilar scribe arm held in position by a similar ±:'rictionless flexure. The ir!dic2,ted ' "irspeed sensor rne:bures the clifferenti8.l pressure bet;;een the p:i tot press ire 2nd the static pressure and posit-!_.on~, the scribe ann in accorciin~ly. 3. The ~!eading recording system comprises essent.. j.ally a posnion servo o:ys".:.e:n which operates directly from the gyroscopically statilizecl, rr.agneticall:r slaved directior;ro.l grro instrument in the 2ircraft. A t.hree-phase syn.chro transmi ttu is utilizerl in the aircraft to tra.1smit T.-l1e heading signal to the reco:':'der, The i-.eading system in the re corder is e;-iergized and operated from the MDI s:rstem in the aircraft arid has no e lee trical connections to an.rthing in the recordel'

10 A bl1ary device is used t-.: deteniinp whi1;h hemisphere is eel.rig recorded.. With the binary in the '}!orth 11 pcsj:cfon the record produced b:r the heading syster indicates those bearings lying between 270 d2gre":s (due Uest-) through 360 degrees (due North) to 90 degrees (due East)..At 90 d.egrees 1 the -~inarv switches to the '13m_;_th" posit~_on as the scriber travels t~n ou&h 150 degrr-:es (due South) liar~k to 270 dezree::_;. At 27:J degrees_, the binaryr a[c..in switchef> to the "North" position to indicate records,,_ade or the heading in the regiorc_ t2tween 270 degrees through 360 again degrees, The ca1:i.. bration of this headj_ng s;,rstem j_s completely lir..ear c.nd no a1nbj_fui ty results from the use of the auxiha:ry bin:ir~;r de1.rice.. The acce1ei_".c1ti_l't1 recor'ii~~s s.ystem operates in a manr:.er simil.:--~~ tc t~at for tte heading system. The acceleration recording s::s~_2ft'. u-i_,iiize:o 2-n inductic:1 potentiometer to bala::1ce the else tr lca~l sifnal proci11ced in -rhe renote rr.ourn:ed accele;:--- o:nc ter -. Ti1e C2.f; which is ope1'ated from t.he shaft ::if tne inductioc:-1 potentiometer to position the scriber 'has been accurately calibrated and :nachined so as to pro'ride a Lircea.r calibration over the fi_;_ll range from -Jg to "og. A m'l.jor tfference in the UDC flight recorder betw.cen cr.e record_ 1:,ade for vertical acceleration and that ;r.ade. f._1r the ou-,er three parameters is that ten recordings per second are Jr.2_de for t;-,e measurement for the ver~,ical acceleration. The c:-"-rn shaft wroicr, is driven by the actuator drive s:rsterr. contai.: 1s not 0:-11:~~ the ca"".'1.s which operate "Lhe pressure bar J'cn F.c;:-: one reco::i per second for the other parsrr.eters_, b-11t aj.so rnoµ:~ts a speci~tl ter!.-lobe earn and operates a special pressure bar to provide ten impressions from the accel":rorn1?te:r scribe arrr:. The diamond used in the 2ecelerorr.eter scrib2 arm is not a knife diamond as in the ether three recording systems but is a point dic;r,1ond. It :i.s, therefore:, possibj_e by the use of t:-i~se scribe marks to analyze the r&c0rd a tenth of a secor,d at a time. However, the Fciircl:ild flight recorder scribes a continuous acceleration trac'3. The accelero:neter unit consists,)f a spi_smic mass mo:mted on 01pr:i.ngs inside a hem.etically sealed enclosure, The 01:tput from the accelerometer is an AC voltage, inductively pi'ccluced, whose phase ani magnitude is proportional t::i the direction of the acceleration forces and their extent. The r&nge of this unit is from -Jg: to +6g with zero vol ts,:.utput est;rjlished at -'-lg. The calibration of' the accelerometer :L~; accurat-e -."i tl~ir: plus or minus one percent including all of the effects 1.>f 1ineari ty, temperature, variation, environment, hysteresis and ncise

11 fhe Spec Tc..: l Cc,r:~pany ~ ~cdel Alphc. >Iarat.floG Recorr~er 3.1-ltc;;:fit ~.cally re,~c c:'js airspeed, al ti t'~.de, r:e adj_ng, c, ertical acceleration and e Lipsed ~,:_r:r: ~ I:-~.:irid::._tj_r_:!-~, Lhe recoy-der prcr r:.. ck-;s for voice recordieg upon.;e;: :e:n::i, ;;,~: f:l'c7ic~es four (4) additio:-"al volta[e controlled dat2. c:-_:-::t:r~s: s :?---~!J-~_?!.j 0:1.ce er::1ch second.. -rte recorder ccn:~orrns to T:'A_~\ r_:-,~:~::-1i.~dj. ~;:,:~.. '"::;r i Or1ieT. CSl~. It if~ :..ntended to facilitate accident --)_~_: -~- -ici:'.e.'l.t -~~;.rf;sti.g2_t:;_on, prc.r;_.j_e :: o:: the acquisition of addit~i.onal.),;er:;t:~ Y.al ;m i '~a.intenr.nci:: ciata be:ro:'.:i th2i:, required by current, ~~.,:c-:::,,nl.'~~.. r~:::t '_ : n ~:_8g 1 1l~:i-~,ions) c-1,.1i ~~o 9ro vid.e for audio recording to ~F:.:...-:~_: :n:-:ite -:.: --r, -:r.'.i".8,...1n 1 ot}-ier o~.~s''"';rt=..onal inf'onnation..-:-._~) ~, )OQ!) rec; or.ie r is a iiffere'."l +,i.-:;-, -- c_,'' -... e ::- ~c, -,. :s: ~ :::; e~; :c::!.:-:e-:j. ~-L ::;_ cr8.sf: ~1nd fire resi:::tant ~.c 1.1si:-1~> ~;~e :=;ep-~_r0.:,,.l'~,..:.'.:: 8 j..c_; co: 1sty-.1c'ted oi' -::..~ lo ':~) steel he:r1isp:-j.eres.:jepa- :ter'. c-t :~i _-J1-l.c;.::-er:_!.tL-.C'e-~ e::..'.~;::~-:~.;tc1.t.. i: 1::,1 :_l2.tin2, r,ater=-.al& ~!-:e dr;~'.,e is.:_:cr::~t:l..'.t~:i "';._; tr e io;/ier bousicg by fo~1: ( ~i) C22~:loc fasteners.. T~ 1e -'.J)er pon_j_c,1 c : the lo, rer housing s.lso forms an insulated ccrr:part- ~~e:-: c:.. r.9,.~;te: _;rj!~~1 tl-.e bot7.. 0rl :;f tf;_e l-:,-,,yey fyyu.sir:.g i:_-. the t.j2.~e pl_a-:,c, -.cc,:.r~l-r. i'l"'.e,_-,se pln.e asser:bl1 i ::eludes all trans'.i1.;.cers exc<:::}yc.:e acce.'..erjr~.eter, ac:-j all electronic equipment._ 1 ~l1e recorder p!' o-.r~~ Jes ey~c i ta tic:: to differential-trar:sforrr~er - l,-re :.!'.:~.~? ~.:ce?"~~: ~.~~'i p.!"'2cures v2 :."'~r~-~:.~- 1,10Jti.~_ge DC.::icr1als f'rr\".7 1.J-.:.~se ~.l"'-~i~-;sciucf~l..,= fl't~i:: DC s~zc:;.ls 2~re c~~,e~t2d ir:.t 1 : pulse ra.7.e :"'.r:iula"lors,.1:--.~cl-: p~ rj"":?'"' :-le ;_ T... ridi::;ly --r1r.jr\rj_:~~ pt:.1:::-:..:: repetition r2te a~.,-er t!j.e ::-equired ~1:.i_o::.:~! ;d ~J:e._:_ecor;1~ p~~j-~1e r~~~:.r:; :';'~, ~-.. ~~;;tcr i~; prc<:r:ideli fl:;r ~i!'1e--s!12::'r~d ~ccr.1r:~.1t.-1t,ej5,) :=.i~:--:als. 1 l-~:,~ e:::,r:.f,1rta1_,~-:t i:::: j_;i~ t}1e ta.pe ttan.=.,r:r..:i-r~~.:;::sentbl,\;--,.. ~;i 2::'...l, p:\:i"::.;,:;...j:--:o :ire i::;.;:.:":!ed f.)?' 2p to e~q;r,t ( 8) tir~c:-s:;are:i inp;;ts, eacl''. 3~~rr:1e:i f.jr O~ l ~;e..-:0~1,~1s e.:'.3ch.::.:ec:::r!~il< -rle r1 ~~2.lse oijtp1jt- is 1."eCCI'li8c: or: mar!r.etic t.g,pe. TJ-1e tape rr.. o~._res at atol::.t ~~- inc~1 per ~:=Jecor~d. FccJ_r ( 1'~) rsc'.)~cjinv tracks 3.r'e p:tcv:_t"je~i by twc (2) J'ei:;or ding Leads. Two trs.d:s (1 2:id-j) are usad ir" the j~cit..:.al -:h rec::.:,on of t::ipe rr1oticn..\:f'ter abe;:.;t siy~t.~.' ( ) hcurs c: crerution (r,;~ar tf ;P. er;d of ths t.:;pe),_he t8pc av1:urn8tic2.lly revenies. Tr;J.::<es ~ nnd L! ;-1re tt-~en tjsed t J re _.orrj on 1.. ~-i.e t;1pe in "Lhe opposite di.r-ection~ T2pe rev8r s0l ti~e j3 esse~ li~~l2: ze~o~ Calibration of the r~c ;.:irder J.s accomp~_isf:.ed e:.~7iinst a d_irr~ension- less ratio relatint~ the pcil::e ra7.e o.itptit from a par.::uneter against c.he pulse r.'l.te output from ;:. volt;.l[!f:: reference. This voltage reference i: ~c~ieved fro;r: a 1 ~reference' 1 ~ransducer which is, identical to

12 C..?.r.~c Tool Cornpanr :T 1 if?ht Re~ (continued) the other tr::m.sducers except that its col'e is fi:xed. The purpos~ of this ref :ren :::e signal is to cor-rect for rninor va.riations in calibrati :m d-ie to tape st:r etch J temperc..ture) ;;;<nd trans1~ucer excitation current 1 etc;. The tape r:!des 2.Eainst a gi.:ide roi.l<::rj rc t;iting the: rollc::r. This rotation i.3 sensed ;.r_1d i.~sed to shcrt a 1~:_;.~v s_i; :lal ~..;ith a look source.j -- 1 _, - I ~ r' "l) ' 1 1 irr~pejar1ce. '.:~is s1g-na... _, "fdi.en con (1ectec. to a neor: \Lt..-.'./. o'\.j.-l.gj or i.l'to a headse ) pro 1ides pcsi tive ev~_dence tlat: ( j_) 'Ihe v:wer j_ 3 Cll' Fl~,ght re ond re.qdouts are perfcrn ced on the Ci 1il Aerc:1aut.ics Board i':!..ic!it recorder res..jc.ut. macr:ine. This rnachir1e is a high prec:=-:::ion rr.easc::- ir.g device wlich was de sivned and built to :'.::1\ B specifi_ci'll_c::1s e spec:~a 1-ly for o:oc.i.llographic t:rpe flight rs corder rec::: rding riedia l~eadouts. A '~:il;rcseope is tr a :ersi:od 3crcss a fixed ~-;J.ei.ten or ts.ble i:'1 a ::;',de to side ~aterc{l 'iin:c+im, represen1 i:i~: '::-he ";.'' ~~cs t:'.:'le pcffa"teter, c,nd in a fo1"' /! :ii r.,c't _[Jnr:it;..:_cii:.. s.~~ dir-ec-+_,i_cn rep1 eser~~~j_.-~g 1_.t'":.: 11 {n ~-i.xis pd.rar~e 1~er rne.=3.s1r:~.--:~ :"ent.f'"r,)i: t.ne re fsre::1ce b~1c;e line trrice. Dri'JPS f,)r sac! : 'l.xis mo~<ement are electr ;J:-1ic- 1 l:r contro}.>::d ;ind. >Y:crpor;::te dictt;;l.'c.,~dic'.1.t.ors which cirnult.:ir;.ecusl:r i e::ord a;-;y rncv-emoi!r1t =..n eitb::r.'.lxb in 'J.000) i.r,ch i::r:r""".mts frorr. the starting point. The ri::gi.tal count:ns ;:i;: e re:iett.-.ole and include I'!athe:nat:'..cal si('.l indiec-j"~ors.oo that excursions on either :Jide of any initial setting.:=:.re positivel;r jdentifierl The micrcsecpe is a binocular type with magnification capabilities of 100 power plus an optic~ l zoom feature which effecti vel? lo 1J.bles the maximum,. It incorporates both white and blacx field light.inc-, :;,:n:~cms j_n which u:sertlon of colored and/or polarizing filters i::; capag1...8 of providtng optirn.um reso.lut.i.on of tra::es. The micronccpe also incorpor :Jtes J m03.ns for ;:ittachi11g a speci'.il Polaroid type camera which en2"lh:3 :i phnt JfTapil tc' be riade of in:::cribed. traces for st.t:dy an.-.: evaj.uaticn purposes. Trte reacio1n machine aho ince:rpor2.tes a.n autc;i,.'~"c dig-it;i' printer -which eype'.iites "Lhe tr::m::;cribir.,~ of U1e raw 11x11 and 11'Y'1 d;ita. - Tlle "Y." and win dat< are being trarisferred r.rese:.ntly onto autorn::itic.lta pro('eso;ing punc!1erl cards, p.::nd:lng th;:, adaptation of a punch card ;---,;,ch::.ne to the reo.dout machine, arid the S8 ca:ras a-i:-e then fed into o. 360 () -,, :~

13 I cc:".p t.er and the re:ou.ltant values are printed on a tape. T! ese re:-;i.;]_ts Tre plotted on a data grap ;, as corwerted units of the pararneter::c. Ulti ;.a~e ly, a'1tcmatic plaiting a; fraphs W:..11 i: e possitle tn!"o11gh the a~s_u~_si -_;..,~:1 ~f ac HX'' and "Y" coor.iin<i.te p1..:itting tn.achine. ~~c fu_rtle1~ er.l1c:-.ce t:~.e flight rec,:,rde-r readout p~ogr"litl, the Eng-:..~;eE:ring :ii :".. sion bas developed a specificatior. fer the acquisit:lc" of a spp,cial plc1 to ;'rapi-~ic t'.achir:.ec Tr.i::; pr;oto :raphic ; ac:-,::.:-.s is for the purpose of reprodu~ing pho-::.o -~-:- f.p:--,.:.~;~-'--l~ri t,~,~ :'"tii.-:~:t : ecsf:je::-' sy.sterr. 1~ecordi~:.g media contair: ~_ng tl:.e ~.. :.._-::t :~ecc:r'i l)::r~,;.ete1.::: oi' ::,11 osc-lilcgraph:tc type ensr'.lved b;r st.fii or.. :.. E. ~, ~ ~_:_::_'- :--_e,_: l;j. t!~ 1=: P~- ~,tu~r~p~~ :.rilj. lncl-;ide o superirr:pg[.~ed. prec::..se~~t.~::._~::~-.~::.r:;'i c, 1,;er'l<l/ ~rid c)i. t~~e :'e~ec~ive para:::eter ir;,c~r-:-mental 2.ndic;a-...-~,J'.~::, ~~J I t=.: :-: ~_\,, 1.::~:-:ta.L-:.:J.necn.:_:::- J..~~1tt;rpretaticns t~) be rr:.:de' fer a.~: ey :: 1 ~~~'_...~~-_.i,:irl ;::~! :_:/.~r 0r~8.2.-,;si~ ~:;: ;..3pe.cific fligb.t recc-rc!ll).. pe-iier~t T'.le recor:j::.;;; ;TJe:li-..un is pl.aced on a readout r-laten or table a.'1ci ::ne!"8 j ;vi th :1.,,pee~. '3.l opt:;_r;::i.1 glass equipp~c with co~pression t;rpe r.old :ic.-n: c:!.aj1ds, :r:d ali.;;'1e'1 to :::irwide optimum coni'orr;:ance of tj:1e reference ~-, :e :...n2 Hi th t:.e ": : 1.ixi:i tr'<tversa. N'=:<.t, a clearly dei'i:,e:l j::1:scriled... ~,,.-,.: ~,-, t'.-,e ~l ti r.ude p'?..ra:;-.ec.er tr'lce is t..suall:r selected.j,s the :.ni tial re.!.'erer:ce :-icint. This referer.ce point is subsequently used as the r-.eans i.'c::::- cr.ec~::i..nr:- the accuracy of each para-r.eter readout at unspecified inter 'T:::.~s ;:-,:.d c,;: ':.rr-= corip:r..<::ticr~ of each r:o"!.-iout by returning Hie r.:.crosccpe t.::; ti.:'..:; D-Ji.;;1. ':":.3tart -che rea'iings for any para't!eter th:s ::::er:. :;:;::int o:-:. tte n~(': 8-:1-is :_.J set in 8.Ccordanc,:; wit!1 the above 1n ntic1 r:ed pcir;~ of ~e1,..e~e;.c:e ~ ;, t:ie ;; l ti t.'..\r)e t. r:.i.ce: -: :, ~.ny other pre:viously se:le cted trs.ce, c.nd ~ :-: ~~:. t.:-i~ ;r.:.c:-oscupe ~s ~lo~.re...: :_il. the nyu axis to the reference ~a~:i:~ :i!"le ~;:-..~. :::eroe:cl. G..aw dat;:,. rear:iir::~s are then ta.l<en ::i.t all points on ail t.r:;ces Mt R.lJ. in3ta:-1ls ~n tirr1e "'w-rhe:!. "there is any ~ig:iificant change of any tr2t;e. To verif1 tr,e -;ccurc;.cy c1f tr.e digital ir. _,::ators and tape print('. lts, the 0:achine is r.ir, hack tc c.,he ::-e.ference point at unspecified intervals and c:1ter a'..l points ±'or each pararr.eter are read. In each case the clearly define,j m~1rk o:-i[ins.ily selected as the reference r;;u::'.:t be cbserved t_-_:, te -::.'..r8ctly aligned with c.he cross-hairs in the microscope. I Tii.I. RECOVir\El'lDAT..LONS Civil Aeronautics Board recommendations, developed b ; the Bureau Ssfety, and pe!'tine?:t to flight recorders and their i!'lstal:ations, are listed crroc1::i1ggicci.llj below I

14 CA~ r'ec :JTr..:':i=~,-.:;ed tj-;~:t flig-':~t. reso:.. rie::-"2 be operate.. -J it.ihi.le 1 :~.i'c~ine ::i_i_rcr?.ft are bei:-~r ~seri ~ r 1~ ~~~ c1r ~~.er 1 07: f~jchts b~ing co~~d~..; c;t'2j ~.:.r.,~:er C.\:~.?: ~:=-t. L.3 r.. _.:~'._e~_. Ft..~"'~ c1'.ior,"!:.{~--j,;~ji. _:..-[,;r.;:~,::.t-:-.en: -~:.-l_j 5 ~<a..:r l, i9~1j re::~:_;_=-_:-ri~.~ tc r~~ir:e :-;.:: '\<: e: is j gj_j' 1.::rt1ft beir.f ope:ra.te:l ucde:r CAFi. := ;-,c::, ;_.3 n::j.es t::i have the fli;:-l:t re,:::orrier i,.ir:-;f;d o:-i. ''i=.:cr:;~,rj- /, ljc/) I ~ ~~ ~ l l ~ J 1-1r:... ~'. 1:Jctot,er ~~- ;/, 15'~ 2 Act icn Take:: for :""'li :~ -_t inve.. 3tig-c:t iof' ::;;. ~"'ec~crrier :~ types of for eval ~~tio~ p 1;~pcsesw As ~f Sep1.8nte~ ~!), 196:, but~- t~;pes of re~cr~:ers }~2-~Ie r-,.e_:3f1 delj:v ered to?,4a fer :5.~.st2l1atior. i.n ~f~e sar-:e Ft\_4 ;;_ircrdft to r>:>nduct e 12lu.at.ions si~ul t8::ec c:~ly. Cr~ basis ~.i' r"_,a?,!'i.ncli-:lf'"s f;_jr t '..70 nccid~n-:,~., involving & Fairchild F-27 ~nd a Viscou~~ 745 airc1 aft, in which the heading para'l"ci?ters were der"ctiv&.tea electricallr upon touchdc-1-m of the Hhee1s on the runway a::icl. engage:r,e:-it of t'."le gust lock c:ontrol: respectivej.:r, Ck2 recomr<<::nded JT'.andatorv comnlianc:e with Part 40.20c(o) tofether with r~l3t<::d Parts 41, 42 and 43, of the C.ivP Air Ees-:...Ja1;ions, vrhich req11.ires aj.l para1~eter::: to op0r:i.te continuoi.:sl:r from the st2rt of ta'r::eoff roll until the cor"pl.eu.on of t":e laeclini:; t'v 11. Action Taken - FAA letter dated.june li.;., 19t:J, advi.::ed t:~at tased on inspector repori:.s compliance ir, each ca;;e is now current. - CAB reco1r1r.er.'.led to FILA Th'C. ~ :Coeing 70? aircraft fl ig:~t recor"ier irj.s-:r:::.ll~tior.s '.Je r:1cdi...- fied to ir_cc:rporate a powe;: s,r'.t.tcl ;_n t:c.e cockpit to as~ure that recorder is in oper G.b.le condi tio!"'~ pricn-- to ~; ~2.!"'t cf ts>.eo ff ro !)

15 1'ay 29, 1962 ijctober ;'9, 1962 December 17, 1963!uly 17, 196h Action Taken - CAB recommende::l. to FH. the fol:'...owine_'.: - L :-reed for additional protectior, of flight recorders against U'.,j1'1c1~ forces and fire damage. 2. Reloc<\ting flight recorder inst;:-_llations in aft arec. of f-~sel.:,ge to pro"jide m<tximum protec':.ion of recording media F:~ issued Ain-.rorthiness Directi-:es. ;,~;) pertinent to the Fa:i.rchilci, Loct<:l-:eei ~"r.::_ 1Jnited D;;.ta flight recor5ers w'li.ch require ma:ldator;r rr.odificc-ctio!ls b;t' i:1':cr;_,c1- rating ma.jar design cl:'.ar ges to PL":~::e added protectior. against r-: fi1 e ;-;.nd impact :forces FAA issued ~.Y:P?J1: rro. ts-l, Gated r-sr~r _:,~ir- 1/ 1~, 1965~ relative to relocs_ting fliq ht rec-:: r,ier installations in i:he aft a:r:e<> in the f;_t~elage. 3. FAA Letter dated Decerr:ber 30, 19'.:5, :o:d'.'i:;eri that the Adn1inistrat.or signed :;e7er2-:_ ~-.;:,n:::- rr.ents, based generally on regulatory p:'oposals set forth in Notice 65-4 (Aireraft Flight Recorders; Installation Req-c_irer-.er1 ts and Revised Minimum Per.fc.:rmance.St.s_::jar.j:::), which were published in the Federal R"'gi';ter on <1anuary 6, These a;"enc!r.er1ts - a. Ud flight recorder ir,stal::..s.t'.._o~~ req11ire~1ents (includirlg specj_f:.. ~8..tion of location ir. the airplane).to 1 -IU~?art 2s. c. Upgrade the performance standards :Ln the aircraft flight recorder TecrT1ical Star,dard Order (TSO-CSla) (37.150) to improve crash sm:>ivabili ty. The recolll!l:endation relative to relocating the flight recorders, -. U:e :ift fuselage area, recommended in the Board 1 s. letter of Decen1ber 17, 1963 a::d September 9, 1965 is included in the above amendments. b. Make the FAR?art 25 ins t.allaticn requirer~ents applicable to airplo.nes for which flig'.1t recorders are prescribed in FAR Part 1"

16 :J;r,<1s'.lal va' iations in the recorded traces someti.:1,<::s provide leads to essenti~"l ir:for'1''~1tion not directly r:easu::-ed. In a landing.3.ccidenl for ex::o..rr.ple, the a.l ti tude trace began fluctuating very rapidl1 & few.. E:C'.)nc;s ;;.ft.er touc.:ijown o;; a runway. The fluctuatior, wa::. tj'c:ce::i to ;j_:~-!",,.1::-:~.e c1~;. f}_ol T ] t tbe Sl0.tic ports ~S the resul-::~ of 1lnSY1nrr.etrical ;'f; r:.:r'~_:.r1~~ -;-c:.:: tc ~; ~ :rs te~;~ ~,alfu:1ction. Tf1is start.:;~j a yaw erldj_!:'lg i.'n ;;_ i,;1_l Cl'~t:- :;i 1. Fc>~.. I2. 1er, e"!.~e;~ ;1fter very,. extensi Je i!'1vestir.-:iti0:1, studies and Ges13 ~"',-:-~ _,_-:~. 1~;~_: ~:-.J~c1r ;_;cci.je; 1ts 2uch 8.S those iy'.vcl~t2-ct:i to:s.l ciest: uctior1 of i_,:-.3 :-:.: ::-~-p :_:---lr:s:, t:-.e i:if~-irrnaticn Eleaned frcnn all sotj.rces, incllldir:? th:1t ~"':-07"'- :_:-_i: fj. recorje~~, is sc~eti;nes insufficient ti:. narrcw dovm thf:.,,;.!:e: '~ ': p ~ s si":::.li:: CEtc1se s to one w::ll s'u.bstant~.ated p-co bable cause. 'I'.-.e :.ost p::- cy.:'..sinc :',eans to improve: c2.use detem.ination ar;pears to be the ""'co~::. 0.f a:hi.tional ps.rar::ete~ s. These whicr. a!'e rnr.sidc red rr1ost enefi~~~~ are as follows: 'i'ime Press'J.re altitude Indicated ;o,irspeed Vertical acceleration Magnetic head~ ng Angle of atta:.:k Pitch rate Iaw rate F'.o:l rate Angle cf bank Engine power: Engine torque, engine pressure ratio Engine gas temperature, RPH Position of con~;rol column Position of rudder pedals Position of control wheel Positjon of horizontal stabilizer Position of wing flaps Arnbiem, air tfomperature ::a~ed on the above, as previously covered, two :nodel3 of flight rec,jr jer'3 which record 21.i para111eters of data are beir.g evaluated c:.u-re'":.tly by the FAA. The results of these evaluations should be ;:;vail2ble i.jithin the next two years. TLe lii",i te C. pararr:ete::-s :nea~,.l. ~d by the present fj..:,~ht recorders [li':''ije ri-cc~ essential i;;fo.:7:c-:u.0:1 0thi::rw:i.se uno\.jtair,0.-.~e. T'.-:e;r have :' nt,is:i--.e:d. p: oof of or essential leads to nurr.erous causal fa.ctcrs. This -;ital ::..nfo~cation has also incl-;.:ded the elimination of suspected possi _,il:\.ti.":!s 3 such as exces::;ive turbulence, sabotage a.rd other surid.en OL:currence s

17 : ~-- --~ , :r~ ~Ghr:: b2:::.s of c;_~ 21Jici?PJ1,. reco:---1,:r.e~~d2tio:1s to enhs.nce sb.fety :i.n t!:e.. c~je::-:,~.o;..:f,.~,:.::.-aft, :.n 19.::) t!-.e t'aa. 2ord'~.cted a feasi.::iil::.ty sti.;.dy c,~, ll';c:'c'ii.q; 0 po>:e:-, HJrds oi' tb:: fl::_gr,t cre"w for accic~ent investigation ;:~;:.. ~1:ses. Jr.e of' tb.e ~reat.est ol:stacles cla.3 hie) 1 noise level in the c.~:;c~~~ t. It ~-:::.s de terr. ined that :-ec0:-d~~!lf cf crew conversatior..s is 'e:,:~:_~le. 3u:...:~eq,~e::.tly, act:;.on '" '' in:l.tiated fo:r the development )fa vc ice :.-e c :. r."jer ~111". ~ch ~,r:.~1. be ca.r ::i.ble of.jo5,_~j.g r.jie jot. under 7-~he oper - :) -::..~o:~---;~- cor1gi~~2:_.:.-; ;_!~1j E:'T'ili : c:-lr;1c~.i t under wh.:_ch it 1rill be used. It 1.:.J.s ~~:-,j_ t2.: l} y -~op0sed ~.i.t r~he eq'.li p'."l"::i'jt, b 'c!.ve the folj.a: ling capabili ~ies:!-'.t:c,~r-: 2,'1c.:n crsw ::~f;'.:.ber 1 ::. ccnvers;j..t.i.<1:i_, both trd.ns;r~itted and r i:~c::i.--~:.:; ~ ~,.--=-- :~. ~r o Jn.: f.:::_c ~ 1_ ~.ties a-:-1d en the ~~irpl,;.np. 1 s inter- '";c::.:._..:-_:'..:.. r.. ~on ::~ ::;-t-_e'.'-~ :\l.~o::i ctl.sr ccnve:-s.?.:..tion ir~ tr-~e cockp it,,-~:-~_:.~_.::_~,._::..:.~.:l :_t: tji'o 1~-J 1~<J 00 t ~at t.f.ere i; ri'il be no possi-~:-:.._~_:.t:r r... ~ : C:: :- =:.-:>::: '.~ret,: r:--.e1:--.2er rscors. 0::-1 2 cl2nnel at o:-!e 1..-~-~~8 ~ n2r::...:~----~ p~-.j"v:..sior;. f-.:ir stopping the recorder in tl-.e e;ase ':)-::: a er--_-:.:: :=:s Lh;.tt t:.e las~ 3-::1 r.i~~tes of conversaticr~ is ~1ot '!e:- a::ssrj.ec..:: 'J.::::-J.c _.J.. -~ 1,:-.:. tr.~ 1.~:1; :.~~~,;:::-2.sh co;_1dit,i.~jn~::; requil''2d in 'ISJ-C~}._ ~ J-c -~:-.; ee ii~,:~ei- e;.. t, t:rpe.:; 2s cove:-ed t.le!' ein. : 2c:~--: ~;l-~cy...!_ i b~ i~tf:'.l]_i"_;i:;le 01.rer t~be ar:i-gient r;..jise of :,te c;:(>c:: i _ ~:-- i1 3f.cl~.~-J ~~~ pc::jsible "Lo f'ilt.er ow.t the -u.rn :ar..ted, ---,- ~ ~ y.,-,~.. 1 ~~~ :."~~c):~r_:: ~.,.,.:..-r.t-1 2-f>pr:Jp~iatff gro Ll.r:.j ~r~l:ipment. ;ec>':'1er ~~lio:.:"-.1 le c2p2cle of recording crew voices, other i~ha:1 0:1 t-:-_f; c;,:;_.. L:1. i~ ~:ic2 ~ i.o:: alci i.--:; sercomrrr:.~~ic3.tior1 sy::::tems, without t1:-ie t.:se :!_ l~-r o: tlrc;;.t r-.~s~---cpt:ones.. It ~.'."'_o tj.~.1 r..;,j:1tc~i!-1 j_:-1dic!ating p~: ovisions to inforrr: -che crew wr.e:-1 il.~s opereti~g proper ly~ 0.,::, 1 es~1lt, o: u:e ~J:,0ve, tl:e FAP. prorr.ulgaled the necessary rules to j.''>ple ~ er.t i:e voict: recor Jer reqc:.~:.:re'.":ent::. in r,he Feder2l A'.riat.ion Regulatic rls by,jrl ~:), 91 and 121. In addition, the FAA is'.}ue:d Technic:il :.~t:1:-:ci~,~ d Cr ;~r :=-:~4, u:der Pvrt Sll1., which established the unit approval ~-;:. :_: :.::: f 0 r "l J i (.:E: r c eo rde!"" s. ':r:e a~jo'!e: :L~;e :d..'t.ents to the Federal Aviation H.egulat::..ons establ.. sriej :,~:e?.~ri;,;c!'thir_e:3s ir1staj.latior1 ~pproval criteria in Part 25, a.rid the eiper :.:.,_i.:.~ '""le.; ur.,:ier Po.rte; 91 and 121, the compliance dates for tr:e 'TOice -1.1.i

18 i. 2AJY.GPc'JlJND ItfFQrMATIUN RELATIVE TO COCZPI'i' VOICE RECORDERS (cont) recorders to be installed in t1 ansport category aircraft operated in air carrisr servi.ce, The compliance dates are as follm, s: (a) July 1, 1966 for all -r,urbine powered aircraft and (b) January 1, 1967 fo:::' all pressur -i_zed reciprocating four engine aircraft. Ti1e followir1g voice recorders, are ur,it approved i.n accordance with the FAA TS(j C-81.i: (a) Cc :_lins Radio Company ( l::) Fairchild Instrument and Carner a Co. ( --:) Lockheed Aircraft Service, Inc. (a) Spec Tcol Company!e) 'nited Control CoJTI.pany ~:cn!_c de ~ecc:ion devices have been su.ccessfc:lly de-v-i::loped and useo: b:r 1.':e '~i.lltar:l or.lr,;1nce bf'anches for locating mate1: ial otjects submersed in deep water, su.ch as, missiles, rockets, tcrpedces, etc. These devices 1-'.~1 1e pro ren over many y32rs to be extremel:r reliable, accurate and foolrroof in that only a rninimmn of maintenance is required. Such devices ~,re sr1all in size, se1f -contained, ccmpact, lightweig:1t, automatically ac-cu[ited by any type of water and capable of emitting signals on a pre :;electwi frequency for a wide range. These sonic detection :ie'.r:ices appear equally pro.ctica:~ for use in loco fligl 1 t recci:d.ers and/or a::.rcraft wr<j::::kage 2;.;b~-;erged ir deep water. There have been n11merous cases of aircraft accidents on record in which trie accide:-;t investigations were seriously hampered d.:.ie to the time elcrr:<;nt i:ivo l ve d iri lo ca t:i r.g,:::~ '.:.! r~::::o':ering the WTP-ckage and/or fligl:t recorder. ::n two cases to date t t'.e. latter was r.ot recovered. A recent case in point invol'1es an air carrier jet aircraft which crashed in Lake Michigan on,;:'u ls, Several weeks were required to locate the 'N"reckage, mos-c, cf w'.-'1i1:h was recovered_, but the flight recorder is still missing. Gbviously _, the utl".ost importance is attached in obtaining the flight record of this J light. 0 It appears higl1ly desirable, therefore, foat suitable sonic detection devices be installed in flight recorders, the newly required cockpit voice rec'jrde1 s J and at va!"'ious other points in the aircraft structure. XII. FLIGHT RECORJJER SY.STEMS FOR SUPERSONIC TRANSl ORT AIRCHAFT It appears desirable that minirnum ai:rdorthiness standards concerning flight recording systems in SST aircraft require telemetering of many cb.annels of flight data to ground based computers. This would continuously H

19 ',-,F,-., ,:"i r;;p:'._d~v ",:. I._;: ;,:- :TS'. ; FOH. SU?l':JL:ry IC Tn.AlJSPJRT AIECF.A?T (cont) _:_ 1::,c~-i. ~.e~._;._:.2..,,~";.:.t::.1-e 2.lternati.ve tc.1 telemeterirlg data me~.. ns should ~-e.~~e:~, t.~:~ ~llcj.tle!'~ i_- :. ~ r ec.j:~der,. It 2hortld incl~p-ljc flotc.tion and radio :..:: zc,.:1. LocT:~cr ur:~ v~_,;t;;~; to facilitate reco /ery 0f the recoraer in ev'ont of (,:. cic ~~- ie:1~0 i.r ~:., t~,:,..:jce2nic fligl;t. L. n:, 0r-" to : 1~::l:t. recorder data te1-en etry- systems, some of the ec -)::.: :~-.i._c :JO'"JC1: 1~_,'J -:: _; I{, :- ~c;h airl_i:-1es rnight CJ btain 'rom- st.ch a.systeirl are, I_' :-,o:.;;::.:cr: ::' :,;_~1e::~ :i:-:'i inr;-:_cter:t lj.'ees.i a:1d (2) rapid servic:ing -~~nee i'.c~1j_~~te-:.:;.:-:ce p~r..:.o.";_lel wouj.ri hd\fe advance.,...,,- V>:::, ~.. ~ r~:):n~~~e~~t par~= neej~j, ;ina.:_ :::e t.he data and aler+. the flight, crew to an:r deteriorating ::.:i~c.:'._ccs i:-i fl;.ti :::ud~ '--S fuel rrservf:s, r;d.7igation and equipment mal ~0