Volume 14 Operational Procedures (JAR Ref 070)

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1 Volume 14 Operational Procedures (JAR Ref 070) Table of Contents CHAPTER 1 Definitions Introduction Terms CHAPTER 2 The Operator and the Air Operations Certificate Introduction Certification Operator General Rules for Certification Conditions to be Met for Issue Variation and Validity of an AOC Quality System Responsibilities Operator Responsibilities Familiarity with Rules and Regulations Responsibilities for Flight Operations Operator Responsibilities Concerning Passengers Carriage of Passengers and Cargo Special Considerations for Special Passenger Categories Persons on the Flight Deck Safety Concerns Documents Flight Documents Documentation to be Kept on the Ground Preservation of Documents Commercial Practices and Associated Rules Leasing Leasing of Aeroplanes between JAA Operators Leasing of Aeroplanes between a JAA Operator and Any Body Other Than a JAA Operator Leasing of Aeroplanes at Short Notice Aeroplane Maintenance CHAPTER 3 Flights Operations The Operations Manual (OM) Introduction Content Acceptability Usability Procedures Taxiing of Aircraft Minimum Equipment List (MEL) Master MEL (MMEL) Flight Preparation Documentation Operational Flight Planning Passenger Briefings Passenger Seat Belts Smoking on Board Aeroplanes Refuelling with Passengers on Board Oxygen Supply Aeroplane Flight Crew General Operational Procedures Jeppesen Sanderson, Inc., All Rights Reserved i

2 Table of Contents Volume 14 Operational Procedures (JAR Ref 070) CHAPTER 3 (continued) Commander/Pilot in Command Duties Co-pilot Cruise Relief Crew Flight Engineer (System Panel Operator) Flight Navigator Pilot Proficiency Checks Line Checks Emergency and Safety Equipment Training and Checking Duty Stations Flight Operations Officer/Flight Dispatcher (FOPSO/FDO) In-Flight Operational Instructions Journey Log CHAPTER 4 Operational Planning Introduction Alternate Aerodromes Take-Off Alternate Destination Alternate All Aeroplanes Propeller-Driven Aeroplanes Aeroplanes equipped with Turbo-jet Engines Weather Conditions VMC VMC JAR OPS Criteria Selection of the Route Criteria Adequate Aerodromes ETOPS Performance Class A Performance Class B or C Ditching Considerations Landing Requirements Performance Class A Performance Class B and C Minimum Time Routes Commander s Considerations Filing the ATS Flight Plan (FPL) Flights Subject to Air Traffic Flow Management (ATFM) Flights into Oceanic Airspace ii Jeppesen Sanderson, Inc., All Rights Reserved Operational Procedures

3 Volume 14 Operational Procedures (JAR Ref 070) Table of Contents CHAPTER 5 The Aeroplane Introduction Basic Requirements Internal Doors and Curtains First Aid Kits Hand-Held Fire Extinguishers Break-in Markings Cockpit Voice Recorders (CVRs) Data Recorded CVRs Operation, Construction and Installation Flight Data Recorders (FDRs) Parameters Recorded Data Link Communications Recording Duration Construction and Installation Operation of FDRS Combination Recorders Flight Recorder Records Equipment for Compliance with Flight Rules Controlled VFR Flights Compliance with IFR Standby Horizon Night Operations Flights Over Water Long Range Flights Remote Areas Weather Radar Radiation Monitoring Indicator Machmeter Ground Proximity Warning System (GPWS) Communications Equipment Internal Communications Audio Selector Panel (ASP) Navigation Equipment Instrument Procedures Installation Electrical Circuit Fusing Windshield Wipers Emergency and Survival Equipment Performance and Operating Limitations Factors Affecting Aeroplane Performance Mass Limitations Take-Off Enroute One Power-Unit Inoperative Enroute Two Power-Units Inoperative Landing Aeroplane Performance Operating Limitations Operational Procedures Jeppesen Sanderson, Inc., All Rights Reserved iii

4 Table of Contents Volume 14 Operational Procedures (JAR Ref 070) CHAPTER 6 Operating the Aeroplane Introduction Performance Considerations Enroute Performance Class A One Engine Inoperative Compliance Performance Class A Aeroplanes with Three or More Engines, Two Engines Inoperative Performance Class B Multi-Engine Aeroplanes Performance Class B Single-Engine Aeroplanes Performance Class C All Engines Operating Performance Class C One Engine Inoperative Performance Class C Aeroplanes with Three or More Engines, Two Engines Inoperative Selection of Cruising Speed and Altitude Endurance Maximum Range Shortest Time CHAPTER 7 Aerodrome Operating Minima and Low Visibility Operations Introduction Aircraft Categorisation Terminology Take-Off Minima General Visual Reference Required RVR/Visibility Non-Precision Approach System Minima Minimum Descent Height Visual Reference Required RVR Night Operations Precision Approach - Category I Operations General Decision Height Visual Reference Required RVR Single Pilot Operations Night Operations Precision Approach - Category II Operations General Decision Height Visual Reference Required RVR Precision Approach - Category III Operations General Category IIIA Operations Category IIIB Operations Category IIIC Operations Decision Height No Decision Height Operations Visual Reference Required RVR Circling Visual Approach Conversion of Reported Meteorological Visibility to RVR Low Visibility Operations General Operating Rules LV Take-off iv Jeppesen Sanderson, Inc., All Rights Reserved Operational Procedures

5 Volume 14 Operational Procedures (JAR Ref 070) Table of Contents CHAPTER 7 (continued) Aerodrome Considerations Operating Procedures Minimum Equipment Commencement and Continuation of Approach Controlling RVR Special VFR CHAPTER 8 Special Operational Procedures and Hazards Introduction Ice and Other Contaminants Icing Ice Removal De-Icing on the Ground De-Icing/Anti-Icing Fluids Holdover Times Fire and Smoke Fire Carburettor Fire Engine Fire Hand Fire Extinguishers Class of Fires Fire Detection Brake Overheat Crash Axes and Crowbars Smoke Smoke in the Cargo Compartment Security Requirements Training Programmes Aeroplane Search Procedure Checklist Reporting Acts of Unlawful Interference Aeroplane Search Procedure Checklist Flight Crew Compartment Security Weapons Unlawful Interference Annex Procedures If the Aircraft Is Unable To Notify an ATS Unit Annex 14 - Isolated Aircraft Parking Position Fuel Jettisoning System Fuel Jettisoning Procedures Pressurisation Failure Windshear and Microburst Definitions and the Meteorological Background Low Altitude Windshear Meteorological Features Thunderstorms Frontal Passage Inversions Turbulent Boundary Layer Topographical Windshear The Effects of Windshear on an Aircraft in Flight Summary Techniques to Counter the Effects of Windshear Wake Turbulence Aircraft Wake Vortex Characteristics Wake Vortex Avoidance Advice to Pilots Wake Turbulence Spacing Wake Turbulence Spacing Minima Displaced Landing Threshold Wake Turbulence Spacing Minima Opposite Direction Operational Procedures Jeppesen Sanderson, Inc., All Rights Reserved v

6 Table of Contents Volume 14 Operational Procedures (JAR Ref 070) CHAPTER 8 (continued) Wake Turbulence Spacing Minima Crossing and Parallel Runways Wake Turbulence Spacing Minima Intermediate Approach Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air Terminology Dangerous Goods Categories Requirements Dangerous Goods on an Aeroplane for Operating Reasons Loading Restrictions Cargo Compartments Packing and Labelling Information for Passengers and Other Persons Information to Crew Members Information to the Commander Information in the Event of an Aeroplane Incident or Accident Contaminated Runways Terminology Aquaplaning (Hydroplaning) Stationary Tyre Recommendations Wheel Braking on Wet Runways Interpretation Snow, Slush, or Ice on a Runway Bird Hazard Reduction Bird Hazards and Strikes IBIS Noise Abatement Procedures Noise Abatement Departure Procedure 1 (NADP1) Noise Abatement Departure Procedure 2 (NADP2) Noise Abatement on Approach Stabilised Approach CHAPTER 9 TRANSOCEANIC AND POLAR FLIGHT Operational Approval and Aircraft System Requirements for Flight in the NAT MNPS Airspace Minimum Navigation Performance Specification Airspace (MNPSA) RVSM Abbreviations General Emergency Locator Transmitters (ELT) Navigation Requirements for Unrestricted MNPS Airspace Operations Longitudinal Navigation Lateral Navigation Routes for Aircraft with Only One LRNS Routes for Aircraft with Short-Range Navigation Equipment Only Special Arrangements for the Penetration of MNPS Airspace by Non-MNPS Approved Aircraft Equipment Required For Operations at RVSM Levels Special Arrangements for Non-RVSM Approved Aircraft Climb/Descent through RVSM Levels Operation at RVSM Levels vi Jeppesen Sanderson, Inc., All Rights Reserved Operational Procedures

7 Volume 14 Operational Procedures (JAR Ref 070) Table of Contents CHAPTER 10 The Organised Track System (OTS) General Mach Number Technique Description of Terms Objective Procedures in NAT Oceanic Airspace Procedure after Leaving Oceanic Airspace Construction of the Organised Track System (OTS) The NAT Track Message NAT Track Message Content Periods of Validity OTS Changeover Period CHAPTER 11 The Polar Track Structure (PTS) General Abbreviated Clearances Abbreviated Position Reports Polar Track Structure (PTS) CHAPTER 12 Other Routes and Route Structures Within or Adjacent to NAT MNPS Airspace General Other Routes within NAT MNPS Airspace Route Structures Adjacent to NAT MNPS Airspace Irish/UK Domestic Route Structures North American Routes (NARs) Routes Between North America and the Caribbean Area Shannon Oceanic Transition Area (SOTA) Brest Oceanic Transition Area (BOTA) CHAPTER 13 Flight Planning for NAT Routes Preferred Route Messages (PRMS) Flight Plan Requirements Routings Flight Levels Appropriate Direction Levels ATC Flight Plans Filing Approved Flights Mach Number and Speed Flights Planning on the Organised Track System Flights Planning on Random Route Segments at/or South of 70 N Flights Planning on a Generally Eastbound or Westbound Direction on Random Route Segments North of 70 N Flights Planning on Random Routes in a Generally Northbound or Southbound Direction Flights Planning on the Polar Track Structure (PTS) Flights Planning to Operate Without HF Communications Operational Procedures Jeppesen Sanderson, Inc., All Rights Reserved vii

8 Table of Contents Volume 14 Operational Procedures (JAR Ref 070) CHAPTER 14 Oceanic ATC Clearances General Performance Limitation Clearance Delivery Critical Failure ETA at OCA Boundary Different Route Clearance Elements Clearance Not Received Contents of Clearances Oceanic Clearances for Flights Intending To Operate Within the NAT Region and Subsequently Enter the EUR or NAM Regions Oceanic Clearances for Random Flights Intending To Operate Within the NAT Region and Subsequently Enter Regions Other Than NAM or EUR Oceanic Flights Originating From the CAR or SAM Regions and Entering NAT MNPS Airspace via the New York OCA Errors Associated With Oceanic Clearances Waypoint Insertion Errors ATC System Loop Error CHAPTER 15 Communications and Position Reporting Procedures HF Communications VHF Communications Time and Place of Position Reports Contents of Position Reports Standard Message Types Addressing of Position Reports When Able Higher (WAH) Reports Meteorological Reports SELCAL General Purpose VHF Communications (GP/VHF) Data Link Communications HF Communications Failure General Communications Failure Prior to Entering NAT Region Communications Failure after Entering NAT Region Procedure Operation of Transponders Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems (ACAS) viii Jeppesen Sanderson, Inc., All Rights Reserved Operational Procedures

9 Volume 14 Operational Procedures (JAR Ref 070) Table of Contents CHAPTER 16 MNPS Flight Operation and Navigation Procedures Flight Operation Importance of Accurate Time The Use of the Master Document GPS Operational Control Restrictions Effects of Satellite Availability Flight Plan Check In Flight Procedures ATC Oceanic Clearance Navigation Procedures Entering the MNPS Airspace and Reaching an Oceanic Waypoint Approaching Landfall Avoiding Confusion between Magnetic and True Track Reference Navigation in the Areas of Compass Unreliability CHAPTER 17 Grid Navigation Introduction Grid and Plotting on a Polar Chart Gyros and Inertial Systems Precession Types of Gyro Space (or Free) Gyro Tied (or Displacement) Gyro Earth Gyro Rate Gyro Rate Integrating Gyro Solid State (Ring Laser) Gyro Gyro Wander Real Wander Apparent Wander Horizontal Axis Gyro Transport Wander Examples of Gyro Wander CHAPTER 18 Procedures in the Event of Navigation System Degradation or Failure General Detection of Failures Methods of Determining which System is Faulty Guidance on What Constitutes a Failed System GPS Satellite Fault Detection Outage Partial or Complete Loss of Navigation/FMS Capability by Aircraft Having State Approval for Unrestricted Operations in MNPS Airspace Monitoring Complete Failure of Navigation Systems Computer Operational Procedures Jeppesen Sanderson, Inc., All Rights Reserved ix

10 Table of Contents Volume 14 Operational Procedures (JAR Ref 070) CHAPTER 19 Regional Supplementary Procedures Doc 7030/4: North Atlantic (NAT) and European (EUR) Supps North Atlantic (NAT) Region Introduction MNPS Specifications Flight Planning Separation of Aircraft Lateral Separation Longitudinal Separation Western Atlantic Route System (WATRS) Operations Not Meeting the MNPS Airspace Except the WATRS European (EUR) Region Submission of Flight Plans KHz Spacing Separation of Aircraft Longitudinal Separation Transfer of Radar Control CHAPTER 20 In-Flight Contingencies Emergency and Precautionary Landings General Ditching Precautionary Landing Passenger Briefing Evacuation North Atlantic Procedures Introduction General Procedures Special Procedures Wake Turbulence TCAS Alerts and Warnings x Jeppesen Sanderson, Inc., All Rights Reserved Operational Procedures