Chapter 4 Basin Monitoring

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1 Chapter Basin Monitoring Nile Basin Water Resources Atlas /

2 Key messages There are approximately 98 meteorological and hydrometric stations in the Nile Basin. Over 0 percent of the meteorological stations measure either just daily rainfall totals or rainfall and temperature. Most hydrometric stations measure river or lake water levels. Monitoring of water quality, sediment transport in rivers, and groundwater are at their early stages in most countries. Data transmission from the stations to central data repository in most countries is manual. The current total number of national monitoring stations in the Nile Basin countries is well below its historical maximum. Staff and financial resources to operate and maintain the complete national network of stations are limited in all countries. Automated data transmission using modern technology is being newly introduced in many countries. In all countries the potential use of data for real-time water resources management is not realized because of a lack of telemetry and data processing and management systems. There have been national as well as regional initiatives to improve river basin monitoring in the Nile Basin. The Nile Basin Initiative has recently completed the design of a Nile Basin regional Hydromet system. This system will comprise a set of meteorological and 9 hydrometric stations, groundwater and water quality laboratory strengthening and monitoring use of remote sensing for monitoring river basin processes. The system relies on existing monitoring stations to be upgraded to meet the requirements as a regional monitoring network with few new stations added where no current monitoring stations exist. The IGAD-HYCOS is another regional initiative that has supported member countries of the IGAD to upgrade their hydrological monitoring network; some of these stations are in the Nile Basin. / Nile Basin Water Resources Atlas

3 introduction Overview meteorological parameters. In addition This chapter presents the current state of water resources monitoring in the Nile Basin. The focus of the chapter is primarily on hydro-meteorological monitoring with additional information to the stations that are established and maintained by National Meteorological Services agencies, there are other networks that have been put in place for specific purposes. An example of such special Lakes provided on monitoring of water quality and groundwater. The information in purpose networks is the 9 hydro-meteorological stations that are operated by the Egypt this chapter is based on data compiled n Flood Diagnostics and Fore- by NBI from the riparian countries. No casting Centre (FDFC) in the Nzoia and information was available for part of the Tana basins. Such networks are not Nile Basin that lies in Egypt and Eritrea. included in the Atlas. The monitoring network presented in this chapter includes only those networks Overall, basic meteorological variables that are operated by national agencies for of precipitation, temperature, relative hydrological and meteorological moni- humidity and evaporation are measured in toring services. It doesn t include those all countries. Automated weather stations monitoring stations that are established have been introduced in all countries and operated by specialized agencies for though the distribution and area coverage specific purposes. Meteorological monitoring greatly vary between countries. Data transmission from the stations in Eritrea There were 98 meteorological stations in most countries is manual. As can be seen the Nile Basin in the countries surveyed in from the table, telemetry is introduced in 0. Most () of these stations measure only five countries, namely, DRC, rainfall only or rainfall and tempera- and. The telemetry system in DR ture while the rest measure fuller set of Congo is part of the SADC- HYCOS. South Democratic Republic of Congo photo: Vivian Nabyonga Meteorological station at Entebbe, NBI countries, met stations summary Country Full Met s Rainfall or rainfall and temperature measuring stations Burundi 0 DR Congo Rwanda South Tanzania 8 Total Rwanda Burundi United Republic of Tanzania National institutions responsible for meteorological monitoring Country Institution Institution full name Burundi IGEBU Institut Géographic of Burundi DR Congo METTELSAT Agence Nationale de Meteorologie et de Teledetection par Satellite MOWR Ministry of Water, Irrigation and Electricity, National Meteorological Services Authority MEWNR Ministry of Environment, Water and Natural Resources Rwanda MINIRENA Ministry of Natural Resources South MEDIWR Ministry of Electricity, Dams, Irrigation and Water Resources MWRE Ministry of Water Resources and Electricity Tanzania TMA Tanzania Meteorological Agency UNMA National Meteorological Authority Existing meteorological monitoring capabilities Country Burundi DR Congo Rwanda South Tanzania Meteorological Automated stations Y N Y* Y Y Y Y Y Y Telemetry N Y Y Y N N N Y N Precipitation Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Temperature Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Relative humidity Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Evaporation Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y "* Capability recently introduced Note: the Survey didn t include Egypt Nile Basin Water Resources Atlas /

4 Historical evolution of meteorological stations In most countries, meteorological monitoring started in 900 s. The Hydromet Project (9 99) boosted river basin monitoring in the participating countries, namely, Egypt, DR Congo,,, Burundi, and Rwanda. Over the years, however, the number of monitoring stations declined in some of the countries. Charts are provided for Burundi and to indicate the historical growth and decline in number of meteorological stations for which data was available. Evaporation pan Wind vane Photo: Nile-SEC Meteoroligical station at Entebbe, 8 / Nile Basin Water Resources Atlas

5 Hydrometric monitoring Hydrometric monitoring networks are defined as observations networks that primarily measure stream flow related parameters (primarily river/lake water levels and river discharge). In 0, there were hydrometric stations in the countries included in the survey. These registered stations primarily measure river/lake water levels and river discharge. In very few stations, suspended sediment load at rivers are measured. Egypt Hydro meteorological stations Lakes NBI countries, hydrometric stations summary Country Hydrometric stations Country Hydrometric stations Burundi 8 Kagera - Lower DR Congo 0 8 Lake Albert 0 Tekeze-Atbara 0 Baro-Akobo-Sobat Tanzania 9 Blue-Nile Lake Victoria - Kagera Tekeze-Atbara Lake Victoria - Tanzania 9 Lake Victoria 8 Bahr el Jebel Victoria Nile Lake Albert 9 Rwanda Lake Victoria -Kagera Lake Victoria - Kagera Lake Victoria - South Victoria Nile 0 Bahr el Ghazal Bahr el Jebel Baro-Akobo-Sobat Total 8 South Eritrea Democratic Republic of Congo photo: Kiwalbye Nyamugasani at Lake Victoria inlet Burundi Rwanda United Republic of Tanzania Most of the gauging stations employ staff gauges as the only instrument for water level measurement. The available capabilities of the countries with respect to hydrometric monitoring are shown in the adjacent table. Telemetry for automated data transmission has been introduced in, and Tanzania recently. Existing hydrometric capabilities Hydrometric Burundi DR Congo Rwanda South Tanzania Automated stations Y N Y Y Y N Y Y Y Telemetry N N Y* N N N N Y* Y Water level Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Discharge Y N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Reservoir/Lake level Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y "* Capability recently indtroduced Note: the Survey didn t include Egypt Water quality and sediment monitoring is practiced in very few countries, which is clearly a major gap in current monitoring networks in the Nile Basin. In most countries there is not sufficient capability (laboratories, mobile calibration labs, field sampling kits). Existing water quality monitoring capabilities Water quality/sediment Burundi DR Congo Rwanda South Tanzania Basic water quality Y N Y* Y Y N Y Y Y Special water quality N N N Y N N Y N N Sediment sampling Y N Y N N N Y Y Y "* Capability recently indtroduced Note: the Survey didn t include Egypt In most countries, groundwater monitoring is virtually non-existent. Comparatively, has the largest groundwater observation network that includes 0 groundwater monitoring stations. Existing groundwater monitoring capabilities Groundwater Burundi DR Congo Rwanda South Tanzania Water level Y N Y* Y N N N N Y Water quality Y N Y* N Y N N N N "* Capability recently indtroduced Note: the Survey didn t include Egypt Nile Basin Water Resources Atlas / 9

6 The situation with respect to data management and data communication capabilities is shown in adjacent table. None of the countries with the exception of, and Tanzania employ systematic data storage and management tools for managing the hydro-meteorological data. Only in few countries, for example in,, Tanzania telemetry system has been introduced to support near-real time data transmission. Existing data management and communication capabilities Data Management / Communication Burundi DR Congo Rwanda South Tanzania Coop-data systems N N N Y N N N N N Auto-access N N N N N N N N N Note: the Survey didn t include Egypt History of hydrometric monitoring stations is a typical example of the development in national hydrometric monitorng stations. Expansion took place in the 90 s and lasted up to 90 s after which a decline took place. Presently the numbers seem rather stable, but this does not necessarily reflect an output in terms of a steady flow of reliable data. The exception is, where measurement of river flow started as early as 90. Over the years, there has been a general decline in the number of stations that are kept operational or added to the network. Graphs that show how the number of stations evolved in the last several decades are provided here for those countries for which reliable data have been obtained. It can be observed that the early 90 s and 0 s exhibited expansion of the monitoring network as more and more stations were added. The late 90 s and early 90 s showed considerable increase in number of stations due to partly the implementation of the Hydromet project that was a collaboration project between countries: Egypt, DRC,,, Burundi, Rwanda. 80 / Nile Basin Water Resources Atlas

7 current monitoring network The : this sub-basin Nile system for irrigation. In addition, includes parts of and Egypt and evaporation from the High Aswan and includes, the Nile Delta, which is one of Merowe dams account for about the most intensively cultivated lands in 09m of water per year that is approxi- the world since millennia. The mately 8 percent of all the evaporation sub-basin is the part of the Nile Basin, from man-made reservoirs basin-wide. which receives least amount of rainfall. With increasing water demands under However, on the other hand, this is the increased climatic variability, it is crucial part of Nile Basin which exhibits most of to strengthen monitoring of water use the consumptive water use. It accounts patterns and evapo-transpiration in this for approximately 80 percent of the total part of the Nile Basin. estimated water abstraction from the photo: Vivian Nabyonga The Stream gauge Meteorological monitoring network in the map below. stations are reported Hydrometric stations water level and discharge. A new station There are meteorological stations in to measure the full range of meteorolog- There are 8 hydrometric stations in has been established recently at Merowe within the sub-basin. ical parameters and the rest measure the sub-basin in. The number of dam (commissioned in 009). The distribution of the stations is shown daily rainfall totals only. stations in Egypt, i.e. downstream of the hil a l-s ta 'a Tir Tir'at a n Nub ariyya ia ail h m l is ta a Tir Subbasin High Aswan Dam is not included in the Main issues that require strengthened survey results. The oldest station, Main monitoring in this sub-basin are water Nile at Thamaniat was established in 9 quality deterioration, sediment load and and, hence, has over 00 years of records. sand encroachment and water loss through The ultimate downstream station before river bank overflows. Dongola, Tamaniat the Nile enters the High Aswan Dam is at and Hassanab stations are included in the Dongola, which was established in 9. Nile Basin Regional Hydromet Network Three stations, namely, Tamaniat, Dongo- with main strengthening required in sedi- la, measure sediment loads in addition to ment and water quality monitoring. in Ma Nil Tukh Cana l e Egypt Hydrometeorological station wa Tukh Canal glal W. Ku om b W. Habo 9 Eritrea i Wad W. Shigrib 8 e Keh 0 0 W. Mog lal W. Okliss W. Abu Do Wadi El Mogadam W. U m mb ahr d awa El H alik Al M W. Habob i Wad i Wad at urm W.K Rabwa Shaboola Sodari Um bader Um Karoam Goz Ashger na Eritrea ib at W. Aw Damer no. Turagma Zeidab Abu hamra Hamrat Alsheikh Kogmer Tib W l El Hudeiba Shambat Eldamer Gumaiza Merowe Dam Axis Left Bank Algoz Bauga rko a W. B war Wadi Ha Name of Abu Hammad El Showak Dongola Karima Shendi Wadi Halfa m No mu A Wadi W. Amun W. Io t u Ha K. Ab Wadi El Hamad raz r El Gu Bahr El Gazal ueim bu D K. A ili Tekeze-Atbara wa d awa a El H W. Tib n 8 W. Iot K. A ud W. K u alik Al M W. Amun i Wad i Wad Amu s W. Oklis W. A b W. Ba rko l i Wad Wadi El Hamad awar Wadi H Wadi El Mogadam ud Ab W. M o Har az bu 0 K. Nile Main r W. Shigrib ili u El G ehe di K Wa Egypt m uei Tekeze-Atbara Bahr El Gazal Tamanyat Barbar Merowe Bridge Merowe Dam Axis Downstream Merowe Dam Axis Upstream Dongola ElKuru Nile Basin Water Resources Atlas / 8

8 The Tekeze Atbara The Tekeze-Atbara : the Tekeze-Atbara drains the highlands of central north. Its main rivers are the Tekeze (also known as Setit in its lower reaches), Gwang and Atbara, which constitutes the ultimate downstream river reaches. The long-term average annual water yield of the sub-basin is approximately 0 9 m. The rivers are highly seasonal in their flows. The rivers are used to supply water for hydropower generation and irrigation. There are three dams in the sub-basin, the TK in (commissioned in 009), Khashm el Girba in (commissioned in 9) and the Atbara dam complex (also known as Rumela-Burdana dam, not yet operational). Berber Atbara Ed Damir 9 Tekeze Atbara K. Orgein Atbara Khor Gura W. Arab K. Derudeb K. Umm Safa W. Mahaleit K. Amab KAdarot K. Arab K. Tohamiyam K. Serobit k. dernadeb K. Asot K. Eigaikwat K. Deri Subbasin Meteorological monitoring network There are meteorological stations in the sub-basin, with 8 of them in and 8 in. The distribution of the stations is shown in the map. 0 stations ( in and in ) are reported to measure the full range of meteorological parameters and the rest 0 measure daily rainfall totals only. Wind vane photo: Nile-SEC Dinder Al Hawata Al Qadarif New Halfa Shuwak K. Tikrid K. Mindia Rahad Aroma 9 K. Garatit Qash Teseney Tekeze-Atbara Mekeza Aykelem Ruwasa Angereb 90 Jarma Mereb 0 May Tsaida 0 Kaza 0 8 Adi Keyh Gonder Melgu Bera Lake Tana Sitona Durkutan Eritrea Tekeze Meri Uri Goha Yimra Dekemhare Werei Giba Tirare Gereb No Name of Debark Humera Metema Sanja Adwa Atsebi May Tsebri 8 Maygaba 9 Nebelet 0 Senkata Shire Endasilasse Amde Work Lalibela Tsitsika Axum Air Port Mekele Air Port Adi Arkay 8 Agere Genet 9 Ambagiorgis 0 Ashere Baeker Belesa (Hamusit) Chanchok Chenek Chew Ber Ebinat Endris 8 Guhala 9 Ibnat 0 Kafta Mykadra Mekane Birhane Tegdie (Kirakir) Abi Adi Adiawala Adigoshu Adikilte 8 Adimehemeday 9 Adiremets 0 Aditsetser Badme Biezet Bora Daro Hafash Debrekerbe Dera Dimma 8 Edaga Selus 9 Edaga Hibret 0 Endabaguna Feresmay Finarawa Gelebeda Gijjet Guroro Hagere Selam Halelo 8 Hawzen 9 Hewane 0 Ketema Negus Mayhanes Merhsenay Muglat Rahya Selehelehe (IV) Semema Shiraro 8 Wedisemro 9 Wukuro 0 Yichila Yiha Ayna Bugna Belebala Giyorgis Chilla Dibiko Esrel (Libanos) Gibana 8 Hamusit 9 Kewzeba 80 Sekota 8 Telajen/Hamusit 8 Zata 8 Adidaro 8 Dabat 8 Dib Bahir 8 Felwuha 8 Gedebeye 88 Gobgob 89 Kimir Dingay 90 Negadebaher 9 Tikil Dengay 9 Welela bahir 9 Zerma 9 Adidaro 9 Adigudom 9 Adigebru 9 Adishehu 98 Agibe 99 Agulai 00 Asegede 0 Aynalem 0 Chila 0 Dansha 0 Debud 0 Dengolet 0 Edaga Hamus 0 Edagaribi 08 Enticho 09 Fatsi 0 Gerehu Srnay Hashenge Haykmshal Rama Samre Tsegereda Workamba Asketema 8 Dabo Ketema 9 Kulmesk 0 Muja Kassala New Halfa Khashm Elgirba Elshwak Fireweini Shiraro Tekeze Hydro power 8 Wad alheleo 9 Aroma 0 Banrt Degen Gashm algerba Goz Ragab Hadalia Halfa Elgadida Matateb Mekali 8 Mokram 9 Sidon 0 Tendalayi Togan Tomorgu Barbar Doka ElGuraish Showak Elazaza North 8 Es salama 9 Hillat Hakuma 0 shasheina Um brakeit Um Grgor Um Rahau Aykel Ed Damir Berber Atbara Dinder W. Hilgi K. Orgein Al Hawata Khor Gura Atbara W. Arab K. Derudeb K. Umm Safa New Halfa W. Mahaleit K. Amab Tekeze Atbara Shuwak Al Qadarif Rahad K. Tohamiyam KAdarot k. dernadeb K. Tikrid Aroma K. Mindia K. Garatit K. Serobit K. Arab K. Asot Kassala Qash Teseney Tekeze Atbara Mekeza K. Deri K. Eigaikwat Ruwasa Angereb Aykelem Jarma Mereb May Tsaida Kaza Melgu Bera Sitona Gonder Durkutan Eritrea Tekeze Hydrometeorological Country Boundary Uri Goha Dekemhare 8 Giba Werei Gereb Tirare Adi Keyh 8 9 Hydrometric stations there are hydrometric stations in the sub-basin; in and the rest in. The oldest station, Atbara near Kilo was established in 9. Most stations in were established after the mid 90 s. All stations measure river water level with most stations employing manual staff gauges while 8 stations in the upstream part are equipped with automatic water level recorders. Erosion and sediment transport are key processes in the sub-basin but not adequately monitored. Strengthening sediment monitoring is one of the key areas for improving the monitoring system in the sub-basin. The rivers in this sub-basin are highly seasonal and water resources are scarce No Name Gendawoha near Kokit Atsela near Adishihu Goang near Metema Asera near Debark Al Asira Tekeze near Yechila Metere near Ainalem 8 Gheba near Adi Kumsi 9 Dolo near Quiha 0 Buya near Maitsemri Illala near Mekele Mekezo near Dansha Gheba near Mekele Tekeze near Embamadre Angareb near Abdi Rafi compared to the current and anticipated future demands. Therefore, coordinated management of storage dams in and would help in reducing losses, and maximizing water use efficiency. For this purpose, a real-time data collection and communication system is required to support future coordinated management of water storage dams in and. Genfel at Wukro Worie near Maikenetal 8 Sulluh near Hawsien 9 Ayehida near Axum 0 Maimidimar near Adwa Sebtta near Adidahiro Maidungur near Adwa Hamdait Tekeze at Humera Molge near Shiraro Zarema at Zarema Meri Lake Tana Yimra / Nile Basin Water Resources Atlas

9 Fincha The The river (known as Abbay in ) drains the highlands of and contributes about 0 per cent of the annual flow of the Nile measured at Aswan in Egypt. The long-term average annual water yield of the sub-basin is approximately 0 BCM. The is highly seasonal with approximately 0 percent of its annual flow occurring in just months. The is source of water for major irrigation schemes in the. The Blue Nile causes severe flood damages in from time to time. The Grand n Renaissance Dam (GERD) is under construction on the designed to store some 0 9 m. With the GERD in place, the will be fully regulated and its downstream flow depends on releases from the dam. This is expected to reduce flood damages significantly. There are opportunities for cross border collaboration on the coordinated management of the in which joint monitoring of river flows is an important component. Meteorological monitoring network There are 0 meteorological stations in the sub-basin, with 8 of them in and 8 in. The distribution of the stations is shown in the map below. 8 Sobat Et Tamada South Pibor No Quara Shahura Adet Ayehu Birr Sheleko Bullen Chagni 8 Dangila 9 Debre Work 0 Finoteselam Lay Birr Mankush Motta Pawe Bedele Gatira Alem Ketema 8 Ambo Agriculture 9 Debre Berhan 0 Eneware Fiche Gunde Meskel Kachise Mehal Meda Angerguten Anger Arjo 8 Dedessa 9 Gidayana 0 Kamashe Nedjo Shambu Amba Mariam Mekane Selam Wegel Tena Wereilu Gondar A.p. 8 Bahir Dar New 9 Debre Markos 0 Nekemte Addis Zemen Amed Ber Chandiba Enfranz Gassay Kolladiba Maksegnit 8 Mekaneyesus 9 Shinfa 0 Wanzaye Wereta (Add) Addis Kidame Almahal Amanueal Asteriyo Bambudi Bichena K. Abu Tabub K. et Taroba 8 9 W. Abu Qanafid K. El Garia Dinder 8 K. Abu Sana 9 K. Kenana 8 Bure 9 Dembecha 0 Dengay Ber Dengel Ber Digua Tsion (Bibugn) Dimma Durbet Elias Fasiledes Finoteselam 8 Gilgelbeles 9 Gundil 0 Jawi Kidamaja Kunzila Liben Mandura Merawi Shandi Shebelberenta (Yeduha) 8 Simada 9 Wegedade 80 Wetet Abay 8 Yetemen 8 Zege 8 Zela (Yarienja) 8 Boreka 8 Dembi 8 Sigmo 8 Agaro 88 Chancho 89 Debele 90 Derba 9 Filiklik 9 Gebere Guracha 9 Gohatsion 9 Gudoberet 9 Jeldu 9 Lemi 9 Meragna 98 Rema 99 Sarmider 00 Sheno 0 Siadebr 0 Sululta 0 Tikur Enchine 0 Abadi 0 Abasina Joger 0 Alibo 0 Bambase 08 Combolcha 09 Dalaty 0 Embabo Fincha Gutten Hareto Mendi Neshi Odda Bildigulu Sherekole 8 Sibusire 9 Uke 0 Wayu Debre Zebit Debre Zeit Degollo Densa Gashena Gimba Gishe Rabel 8 Gishen 9 Guguftu 0 Kabie Kone Koreb Ligwama Masha Saynt Adjibar Shoga Wegidi 8 Kon Abo 9 Ambesame 0 Arb Gebeya (Dera) Arb Gebeya (Gaint) Aymba Chewahit Delgi Dera Hamusite Koma Fasiledos Korata 8 Lewaye 9 Licha 0 Shembekit Yifag Abay Sheleko Addis Alem Andassa Aneded (Amber) Askuna Azana 8 Baruda 9 Chara 0 Chimba Debre Zeit Dejen Dibate Enjabara Felege Berhan Feres Bet Genetabo 8 Geregera 9 Gesengessa stations ( in and in ) are reported to measure the full range of meteorological parameters and the rest 0 measure daily rainfall totals only Lake Tana K. El Aqahin Baro Akobbo Sobat Akobo Rahad ElRahad Dabus Dindir Albeda Dila Mitisi Tekeze K. Mugdu Dinder Kola (Dinder) Rahad Didesa Gelege Baro Debena Shinfa Beles Jira Hanger 0 Gimijabet Mariam Gulback Gundo Woin Kembaba Keranio Kessa Kuy Lumamme 8 Mambuk 9 Mankusa 80 Menta Wuha 8 Merto Lemariam 8 Meshenti 8 Quarit 8 Rob Gebeya 8 Sebader 8 Sekela 8 Tilili 88 Tis Abay 89 Urana 90 Wadeyesus 9 Yechereka 9 Yejube 9 Yesemala 9 Yetnora 9 Zenzelema 9 Abdela 9 Bido 98 Debena 99 Gechi 00 Kone 0 Setema 0 Yambero 0 Yanfa 0 Babu 0 Boto 0 Choche 0 Dame 08 Gembe 09 Semodo 0 Setema Somodo Toba Arb Bila Chacha Debre Tsige Degem Deneba 8 Enchini 9 Fetra 0 Fital Gimbi Bila Gubre Harodoyo Jara Jihur Kotu Muger Tekeze Atbara Fincha Guder Eritrea Subbasin Muger Cheye Beshilo 8 Muke Turi 9 Seladingai 0 Serkulla Shekute Toke Erenso Wegere Zemro Agallo Mitti Amba 0 Amba 8 Arbgebeya 9 Dedessa 0 Ehud Gebeya Gebete Getema Gizen Haro Homi Jarso Jermet 8 Kiltukara 9 Kiramu 0 Kokeffe Kone Menge Mukelemi Muletadiga Sasiga Werejiru Ajibar (Add) 8 Akesta 9 Ancharo 0 Dawunt (Chet) Dessie Zuria Met Estayish Genete Sch Gerado Geregera Gobiye Gosh-Meda 8 Kelem Meda 9 Kellela 0 Kundi Kutaber Tebasit Tenta Tateke Sch Wein-Amba Hena Teleyayen Abu Naama 8 Sennar 9 Umm Benin 80 Wad Medani 8 Ed Damazine 8 Khartoum 8 El Gadaref 8 Elgezira 8 Roseires Jita Weleka Jema Wenchit Chacha 8 Singa 8 Cheffa 88 Simada 89 Yetenora 90 Sher. Gizen (W) 9 Dendar 9 Dender 9 Karkoj 9 Kassab 9 Sennar 9 Singa 9 Tozi 98 Ubhugar 99 Wad Alneal 00 Abu Kshma 0 Abu Sharaba 0 Almatna 0 Kagai 0 Leiya 0 Hugerat 0 Rabak 0 Ummsigan 08 Wad En Na em 09 Wd Alkali 0 Basunda Elfaw Elhawata G.enahal Gadamblyia Mafaza W.eshaair Elhory 8 Elmetna 9 Gadamblyia South 0 Samsam Um Blail Um Leiyon Debre Tabor Hydrometric stations There are hydrometric stations in the sub-basin; in and the remaining seven in. The station just downstream of border, the Diem station, has a record of over 00 years and, therefore, one of the most important. However, is due to the recent heightening of the Roseries Dam in, the station at times get inundated by the back-water of the dam. Most stations in were established in the early 90 s. Erosion and sediment transport are also key processes in the sub-basin but not adequately monitored. The sub-basin offers one of the greatest opportunities for hydropower development in the Nile Basin. In addition, Sobat Et Tamada 0 South Pibor No Urgessa near Gembe Temsa near Agaro Didessa near Dembi Dabana near Bunobedele Didessa near Arjo Wama near Nekemte Melke near Guder 8 Sifa near Nekemte 9 Bello near Guder 0 Fatto near Guder Indris at Guder Guder at Guder Huluka near Ambo Debis nearguder Dabana near Abasina Tato near Gutie Indris near Sire 8 Adiya near Nekemte 9 Gerbi near Sululta 0 Roba near Chancho Deneba near Chancho Mugher near Chancho Uke near Nekemte Aleltu near Chancho Gorfo near Gorfo Angar near Nekemte Dilla near Nedjo 8 Tinshu Duber near Duber 9 Tilku Duber near Duber K. Abu Tabub K. et Taroba K. El Garia W. Abu Qanafid 8 Dinder 9 K. Kenana Baro-Akobo-Sobat K. Abu Sana ElRahad 0 Aleltu at Nedjo Little Ang at Angar Gutin Chacha at Chacha Komis near Gori Koriche near Kiltu Kara Hujur near Nedjo Robi Jida near Muka Ture Aleltu near Muka Ture 8 Beressa near Debre Berhan 9 Sechi nearmendi 0 Mutsa near Bambasi Neshi near Shambo Robigumero near Lemi Dabus near Asosa Jemma near Lemi Haffa near Assosa Gambella near Asossa Jemma at Abay Confluence 8 Abay at Kessi Bridge 9 Wenchit near Alem Ketema 0 Hoha near Asossa Muga near Dejen Wizer near Mehal Meda Yeda near Amber Bogena at Lumame Shy near Mehal Meda Chemoga near Debremarkos Abahim at Debremarcos 8 Jedeb near Ama Nuel 9 Teme near Mota 0 Suha near Bichena Gebregura. near Degolo Shelkole near Komosha L. Fettam at Galibed Temcha near Dembecha Gudla at Dembecha Jogola at Wereilu Abbay near Bure 8 Chereka at Yechereka 9 Birr near Jiga 0 Leza near Jiga Abay at Shergole Cableway RGS Lah near Finote Selam Mechela near Kabe Boreda near Mekaneselam Selgi near Kabe Lege Cora near Mekaneselam Talia near Jiga 8 Fettam at Tilile 9 Tigdar neargunde Woin providing over 0 percent of the average annual flow of the Nile, the is the major source of water for the Nile. Key focus in strengthening of hydrometric monitoring system shall be on real-time data collection and transmission system, sediment monitoring and monitoring of river morphological changes downstream as a result of anticipated flow regimes in the sub-basin. Lake Tana K. El Aqahin Akobo Rahad Dabus Dindir Dila K. Mugdu Mitisi Tekeze Atbara Dinder Rahad Gelege Baro Debena Ground water level monitoring station Shinfa Didesa Jira Beles Hanger Tekeze Atbara Guder Anonu Eritrea Cheye 80 Dondor near Metekel 8 Missini at Kossober 8 Ardy near Metekel 8 Ayo near Kossober 8 Azuari near Mota 8 Abay at Mekane Selam-Gundewein Br. 8 Abay at Yarenga Bridge 8 Dura near Metekel 88 Buchiksi near Kidamaja 89 Sedie near Mota 90 Abbay near Kessie 9 Gerado near Dessie 9 Abay at El Delm 9 Gilgel Be. near Mandura 9 Tul near Adet 9 Quashini near Addis Kidame 9 Abbay at Border 9 Eldeim 98 Main Beles at Bridge 99 Shina near Adiet 00 Amen at Dangila 0 Main Bele at Bridge DS of Bagusta 0 Gelgel Abbay near Marawi 0 Koga at Merawi 0 Bered at Merewi Dula Hydrometeorological station Muger Beshilo Jema 0 Ezana near Bahirdar 0 Mendel near Tis Abbay 0 Andassa near Bahir Dar 08 Lake Tana at Bahir Dar 09 Abbay at Bahir Dar 0 Abbay near Pedagogi Chena near Istay Wenka near Istay Fegoda near Arb Gebeya Gelda near Ambessame Roseries Ribb near Gasai Gumara near Bahir Dar 8 Zufil near Debre Tabor 9 Lake Tana at Kunzila 0 Ribb near Addis Zemen Upper Ribb On DebreTabor Road Lake Tana at Gorgora Garno near Infranz Gemero near Maksegnit Megech near Azezo Angareb near Gonder Wad Eleis 8 Gewesi 9 Hawata 0 Madani Khartoum Yebu at Yebu Nile Basin Water Resources Atlas / 8 Jita Weleka Zita Gerado Wenchit Chacha photo: Nile-SEC

10 The The contributes about 0 9 m to the measured just upstream of the White confluence in Khartoum. It receives water from rivers that drain the Equatorial Lakes region of the Nile Basin and which pass through a series of natural lakes and swamps. As a result, the provides a relatively more uniform seasonal flow compared to the and Tekeze-Atbara rivers. The provides long navigable reaches due to its flat slope and stable flow. Meteorological monitoring network There are meteorological stations in the sub-basin, with 0 of them in, four in and two in South. The distribution of the stations is shown in the map below. 8 stations (five in and three in ) are reported to measure the full range of meteorological parameters and the remaining measure daily rainfall totals only. Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP ) photo: Nile-SEC Automatic weather station Hydrometric stations The only station that is operational is at Malakal. The station is close to of Malakal town just downstream of the Sobat confluence. Historically, there were four additional stations but they were not operational at the time of the survey conducted in 0. The is an important source of water, especially during the dry season (November May/June), when the Blue Nile and other tributaries from the n highlands are at their lowest levels. Therefore, rehabilitating the non-functioning stations in the sub-basin is urgently required. The Nile Basin regional Hydromet system has included the station at Malakal (Renk) and the station d/s of Jebel Awlia dam as regional stations. Omdurman K. Barok Khartoum Omdurman K. Barok Khartoum 8 Bara Abu Zabad Dalang K. Sungala K.Safarir K. Sikaran 90 K. Malabak Al Manaqil Tandalti 8 9 Umm Ruwabah W. Zaid K. Umm Balila K. tandik W. El Luqud K. Ifaetis Khor Abo Habil K. Et Talha K. Aradaib K. Abu Dirs Dinder Al Hawata Rahad Abu Zabad Bara El Obied Dalang K. Sikaran K. Sungala K.Safarir K. Malabak W. Zaid Er Rahad K. Umm Balila K. tandik Umm Ruwabah W. El Luqud K. Ifaetis Khor Abo Habil Tandalti K. Aradaib Al Qutaynah Ad Duwaym Kosti Al Manaqil K. Abu Dirs Wad Medani Hydrometeorological station Al Hawata Dinder Rahad Kadugli K. Tira K. Kuterira K. Al Arda K. Bibban K. Mariok Kadugli K. Tira K. Kuterira K. Al Arda K. Bibban K. Mariok Bahr El Gazal Talawdi K. Omol K. Abu Tuleih Khor Adar K. Wehfet K. Qarad K. Es Samaa K. El Ghareib K. Ahmar Bahr El Gazal Talawdi K. Omol K. Abu Tuleih Khor Adar K. Wehfet K. Es Samaa K. El Ghareib K. Ahmar Jur Tanj Subbasin Bahr el Ghazal Bahr El Jebel Bahr el Zeraf South K. Nymwai Malakal K. Umako K. manyang Sobat K. Adar Baro-Akobo-Sobat K. Jur K. Daga Baro K. Yabus Deke 9 Tanj Jur Bahr el Ghazal South Bahr El Jebel Bahr el Zeraf K. Nymwai Malakal K. Umako Sobat K. manyang K. Adar Baro-Akobo-Sobat K. Qarad K. Jur K. Daga Baro K. Yabus Deke No Name Of Begi Kurmuk Famesetre Malakal Renk Ed Dueim Kosti 8 El Obeid 9 Rashad 0 Elobeid Rabak Aldali J.mazmoum J.sagdi Abu Gubeiha Um Kouka Jabal Biut 8 Jabal Moui 9 Um Hani 0 Aba Abger Abu Harira Dubasi El Neima Elakaf El-Kawa Elsheikh Essaddig 8 Es Sufi 9 Esh Shageig 0 Fashashoya Fatisa Fawar Geteina Goda Goz Khadra Hashaba Helba 8 Hellat Abbas 9 Idd El`Ud 0 Istarahna Istarahna J Megeneis Jebelein Kerikera Rahama Shabasha Showal 8 Toba 9 Tuweimat 0 Ub Guta Umm Dueina Umm Suneint Umm udam Ureik Wad Alzaki Wad Bashkar Wad El Burr 8 Wad El Umarbi 9 Wad Ezzein 0 Wad Figad Wad Hilal Wad Nimir Wad Nu man Wakara Zubeir Zuleit () Algalah 8 Almashtal 9 Elban Gadid 0 Elsemaih Gabrat Elshaikh Khur Taget Muzdalifa Namlah Obeid Albusta Rifee Um Rawaba Shekan 8 Shirkela 9 Shirkela Um Aush 80 Tareg Almashea 8 Ubo Grain 8 Um Dam Haj Ahmed 8 Um Garfa 8 Um Ramad 8 Um Saigaoon 8 Ummsiyala 8 Wd Ashana 88 Abu Habel 89 Alaen 90 Alrahed 9 Um Kadada 9 Assosa No Name Khor Adar Melut 8 / Nile Basin Water Resources Atlas

11 The Baro-Akobo-Sobat Nile The Baro-Akobo-Sobat sub-basin is shared by and South. Its major rivers are the Baro, Akobo and Pibor. The Baro, after joined by Akobo and Pibor makes the Sobat that flows to the northwest to join the Bahr el Jebel and eventually form the. The annual water yield of the Sobat is approximately m. The reach of the Baro and Sobat downstream of Gambella town (in ) is navigable. A key feature of the hydrology of the sub-basin is that its rivers (especially in the lower reaches) flow over flat surface with meandering patterns creating complex interactions with surrounding floodplains. The spill from the Baro river into the Machar marshes (in the ) is one of naturally occurring transfer of water into a neighboring catchment. Meteorological monitoring network There are 8 meteorological stations in the sub-basin all in. The distribution of the stations is shown in the map below. stations are reported to measure K. Ding Malakal K. Kwanjor K. Fullis K. Fullus R. Sobat R. Pibor K. Nanaam R. Agawi South k. Abara Koji Akobo the full range of meteorological parameters. Most stations are in the highlands with very few of the stations located in the lower plains of the sub-basin in Baro Alwero 0 Ubela Gilo Birbir Usen Godare Golo Dima 8 Beko Duchi 9 8 Geba 0 8 Hydrometric stations there are 8 stations in the sub-basin ( in and in South ). More than half of the stations in were established in 980 s and, therefore, have short records. Breaks in records often pose additional challenges in using such short records. The hydrometric network of this sub-basin is far from adequate. The sub-basin, Malakal especially in its lower reaches exhibit highly complex hydrology in which the rivers at time bifurcate and join back the main stem and floodplains and swamps interact with the river flows. The Hydrometric network in this sub-basin requires strengthening with additional data collection through remote sensing to adequately understand the hydrology of the sub-basin. 8 Koji Alwero 8 0 Gilo 8 Baro Akobo Dima K. Kwanjor K. Fullis K. Fullus R. Sobat R. Agawi k. Abara Ubela Birbir Godare Golo Duchi Geba K. Ding K. Nanaam Usen Beko R. Pibor South Juba Torit No Name of Abobo Alge Bure Fugnido Gambela Hurumu Jikawo (Lare) 8 Masha 9 Tepi 0 Aman Jeba Ayira Dembidolo Gimbi Shebel Gore Abol 8 Aliyadora 9 Baro Bonga Kitgum 0 Becho Bitta Genet Darimu (Dopa) Eliadora Fugo Leka Gnignang Gobe Gog 8 Itang 9 Kidame Gebaya 0 Meko Metu Hospital Nopa Puchala Soretefasese Supe Tinishu Miti Uka 8 Yadota 9 Yayo (Dorani) 0 Guraferda (Biftu) Koy Mizan Teferi Alemteferi Dengoro Gidame Guliso Lalo Kelle 8 Mechara 9 Mugi 0 Nolekaba Qaqi Seko Humbi Yubdo Bechi Bilambilo Bontu Chora 8 Dega 9 Didu Gordomo 0 Dippa Fide Gecha Gubete Kura Menko Lencho Sibo Wetete (TP) 8 Yeki 9 Yembo 0 Ermichi Shewa Gimira Yina Chanka Enango Figakobra Kebe Rob Gebeya (Kel) 8 Lare Juba No Name U. Akobo Nr. Dima Berhan Nr. Bebeka Farm Gacheb Nr. Mizan Tefri Begwuha Nr. Tepi Bitinwuha Nr. Tepi Beko(Shoha Nr. Tepi Gengi Nr.Gecha Torit Kitgum 8 Gilo Nr. Pignudo 9 Awero at Dam/Dumbong Village 0 Upper Baro Nr. Masha Gumero Nr.Gore Bonga Nr. Bonga Uka Itang Bonga Gambella Sore Nr. Metu 8 Agami Nr. Ashi 9 Geba Nr. Suppi 0 Eilika Nr. Supe Meti Nr. Dembidolo Keto Nr. Chanka Hydrometeorological station Cherecha Nr. Chanka Merdefa Nr. Alem Teferi Kuni Nr. Chanka Birbir Nr. Yubdo Ouwa Nr. Guliso 8 Hillet Dolieb Nile Basin Water Resources Atlas / 8

12 K. El Lodiei K. El Lodiei The Bahr el Jebel The Bahr el Jebel sub-basin has one of most complex hydrology in the Nile Basin. The Sudd system of wetlands, the second largest freshwater wetland in the World, is a key feature of the sub-basin. The main river, Bahr el Jebel, has river flow records since the beginning of the 0th century. However, due to conflicts in South, river gauging was interrupted for more than 0 years. photo: Nile-SEC Wind vane Water level reader photo: Vivian Nabyonga Meteorological monitoring network South. Only three full met stations Hydrometric stations in the past. However, there is a gap in the There are six meteorological stations in are available in the entire sub-basin. There are stations in the sub-basin ( in understanding of the interaction between the sub-basin; five in and one in South and in ). The sta- the river system and the system of wet- tions in South are Bahr el Jebel at lands in the sub-basin. Severe flooding has Mongala and Bor while the single station in is at Laropi. Three stations are caused huge damages in recent years but the monitoring infrastructure is nowhere near not sufficient for this sub-basin. adequate. The sub-basin requires a system of monitoring that employs ground-based K. Hagaral The hydrology of the Bahr el Jebel sub-basin has been the subject of many investigation as well as remote sensing supported data collection and transmission. K. Dyang R. Agaid Bahr El Jebel Bahar Ez Zaraf Malakal Hydrometeorological station K. Hagaral K. Dyang R. Agaid Bahr el Ghazal K. Ding K. Kir Bahr El Jebel Bahar El Zeref Malakal K. Gumgum South Rumbek K. Amwoin Baro-Akobo-Sobat K. Ding R. Pibor Bahr el Ghazal K. Kir Bahr el Jebel K. Gumgum Rumbek South K. Amwoin Baro-Akobo-Sobat Juba R. Pibor Torit Bahr el Jebel D R Congo Albert Nile Adidi Ayugi Unyama Nyimur Kitgum Ajan Okura Pager Chapedi Juba No Name of Juba Torit Subbasin Arua Lake Albert Yei Bor Gulu met station Gulu Victoria Nile Aswa Awuch Awero Agago Kitgum Centre Vt DR Congo Arua Lake Albert Albert Nile Adidi Ayugi Unyama Gulu Nyimur Aswa Torit Kitgum Ajan Aringa Pager Awuch Agago Chapedi Awero Victoria Nile No Name of Staion R. Albert Nile at Laropi Juba Mongalla 8 / Nile Basin Water Resources Atlas

13 R. Biri The Bahr el Ghazal The Bahr el Ghazal drains is shared by South and. It has an area comparable to the but with very small outflow. The main river, Bahr el Ghazal, flows and joins the Bahr el Jebel downstream of Lake No. photo: Arsenie Coseac/Flickr Meteorological monitoring network There are meteorological stations in the sub-basin; two in South and in. Nine stations are full met stations. 8 Kutum Nyala W. El Ku Mellit Al Fashir W. El ku Dry river bed in South 0 0 Sodari Abu Zabad El Obied Hydrometric stations There is only one station in the sub-basin on a tributary of the river at Wau in South. The map below shows the location of the station. The table adjacent to the map provides the list of hydrometric stations that were available but not operational and those newly proposed as part of strengthening the monitoring system in South. Mellit Kutum The Bahr el Ghazal is the least monitored sub-basin in the Nile Basin. As a result, the hydrology of the sub-basin is not well understood although indications are that the sub-basin has considerable water resources potential. A combination of ground and remote sensing based observations of hydro-meteorological parameters are needed for the long-term sustainable management of the water resources of the sub-basin. Sodari W. Ibra 89 W. Abu gernaan 0 Bahr El Arab W. El Khadaior Buneikat Bahr el Ghazal Muglad Wadi Al Ghalla Talawdi Bahr el Jebel Nyala Al Fashir W. El Ku Abu Zabad El Obied No Name of YAMBIO RUMBEK Wau KUAJOK Raga AWEIL BENTIU 8 Alradoom 9 RADOM 0 BURAM R. Raga K. Gama R. Boro ABU MATARIG UMM SIKEINAT Kadugli tulus ABUGABRA Babanusa ABU HEMEID 8 EL-DEAIN 9 Gazala gawazat 0 EID EL-GANAM MUHAGRIA K. Bibi R. Sopo R. Biri K. Kuru R. Kuru or Chel R. Ji DR Congo R. Ji or Pongo R. Makedik R. Busseri ET TOMAI Neyala Nyala DANKOG Elodaiah EL-TEWAISHA 8 KAS 9 Giraih Elsarha 0 En Nahud KALOKITING KUNGAR Aweil R. Pongo R. Wau R. Numatinna K. Yakumi K. Vorulumu Tambura South Ba R. Biki R. Mbungu Sue K. Yubo Jur Sue or Jur K. Iya R. Lol K.Moa K.Ngomi K. Ngoia R. Lingusi Simbi R. Ibba R. Sue K. Yabo K. Ibba WAFA A TORA TONGA MALEMM Wd Bunda SUNI 8 Elmazroob 9 Alkhowi 0 Eial Bakhit El Fasher El Fasher K. Meze R. llu Yambio K. Teih R. lbba R. Tuju K. Igi K. Lesi K. Rubu K. Zumbi Bahr El Ghazal Tanj R. Gel Rumbek K. Gulnam K. Wohke K. Maridi K. Gulnum K. M,Boloko R. Naam Mekki K. Fadyit W. El Khadaior Buneikat W. Ibra W. Abu gernaan Hydrometeorological station Bahr El Arab K. Gama R. Boro R. Raga K. Bibi R. Sopo K. Kuru R. Kuru or Chel D R Congo Bahr el Ghazal R. Ji or Pongo R. Makedik R. Busseri R. Wau R. Pongo K. Yakumi Aweil R. Numatinna K. Vorulumu Muglad Kar Mayen R. Lol South Ba Tambura R. Mbungu R. Biki Sue or Jur Sue K. Yubo K. Iya Wadi Al Ghalla Jur K.Ngomi Simbi K.Moa K. Ngoia R. Lingusi R. Ibba R. Sue K. Yabo K. Ibba R. llu K. Meze Yambio K. Teih R. Tuju R. lbba K. Igi K. Lesi K. Rubu K. Zumbi Tanj R. Gel K. Gulnam Bahr El Ghazal K. Wohke K. Maridi Rumbek K. M,Boloko R. Naam Bahr el Jebel K. Gulnum Mekki K. Fadyit Talawdi Note: All Hydrometric stations in Bahr el Ghazal are not operational Rumbek Gel Nile Basin Water Resources Atlas / 8

14 Ruhai Ruhai The Lake Albert The Lake Albert is shared by DR Congo and. The sub-basin has three main lakes, Edward, Albert and George. Victoria Nile is regulated in part by the outflow from the lake. The sub-basin is an area of oil exploration and, hence, water quality and quantity monitoring is very important for sustainable management of the water resources. ADCP being lowered into the the stream Meteorological monitoring network There are 9 meteorological stations in the sub-basin; all in. stations Lake George 9 0 Lubero Lake Edward Mbarara Kikagati Rutshuru Kabale 8 0 Rwanda Ruhengeri Byumba Rucharu No Name Bukombo Isale Vuhovi Rumangabo Ugongo BUNGWE-PNILP SHINGIRO Fort Portal 8 Koboko St. Charles L 9 Abi Estate 0 Olovu Lokiragodo Manibe Omuazire Ovujo Arua Central Govt Prison Wandi BAT Ltd Yumbe Hospital (Aringa) Ladonga VFM 8 Moyo Boma 9 Terego Dispensary 0 Obongi Dispensary Upupe Dispensary - Arua Otrevu Utumbari - Arua Ivu Mount Kei Forest Adjumani Prisons Farm Bileafe Tobacco 8 Kuluva 9 Payidha 0 Warr Dispensary Nyapea St.Aloysius Usi Forest - Nebbi Lendu Forest Nyara TWGCS Ruchuru Democratic Republic of the Congo Semuliki Muceru Ramugura Dawuma Levih Ntungu 8 Buliisa Gomborora Hqs Okollo Dispensary Pakwach Dispensary 8 Rhino Camp Dispensary 9 Goli African.Inland. 0 Nebbi UTC Anaka Kabalega Falls Wangkwar Camp Wairingo Camp Erusi Forest Pokwero Group Farm Wadelai WDD 8 Rwebisengo 9 Kyangwali 0 Mugalike WFM Kasonga HM Dwoli Estate Busingiro Forest Nyamageta Estate Kinyala Estate Kizirafumbi Kabwoya 8 Kiryanga Gombolola 9 Nyabyeya 0 Kigorobya Biseruka Bugoma CFR Bugambe Tea Estate Rwabikondo Estate Nyamolobyo Estate Siba Kihonda Estate 8 Wampanga Forest 9 Kinyala Sugar Scheme B 0 Kisindi Group Farm Kigumba Farm Muntme Fatima Parish Dyna Dira Bunia Daymu Sunim Mahoma Chambura Geti Dura Wasa Mpanga Oruyubu Nyabisheki Mpondwe Customs Post Nyabirongo Nyamugasani Bwera Bundibujo 8 Butiti 9 Kahangi Estate 80 Kilchooney Estate 8 Nyakasura 8 Bugoye 8 Kagadi Gombololo 8 Kisomoro 8 Nkoma 8 Bigodi 8 Matiri 88 Nyaruru 89 Kyembogo Farm 90 Virika 9 Kyenjojo 9 Kijura Tea Factory 9 Yeriya Estate 9 Mugusu Estate 9 Chakatimba Estate 9 Muhokya Toro Limeco Ltd 9 Isunga Estate 98 Kilembe Mines 99 Sebutole 00 Kyehara II 0 Bulemba 0 Kikumiro V 0 Mobuku HEP 0 Itwara C.F.R. 0 Ruimi Prison Farm 0 Kiburara 0 Mubuku\Sebwe Irr Scheme 08 Kahangi Estate 09 Bihanga prison Farm 0 Rwebitaba Tea Res are full met stations. The distribution of the stations is shown in the map below Arua Lake Albert Masindi 8 9 Hoima Kahombu Rutungu Kaija Nyagak Kakob Muzizi 8 Nkusi Anyau Nyarwodo AcaLinya 8 United Republic of Tanzania Ora Albert Nile Ome Kochi Tangi Waisoke Nyawa Kanyawara Bundibugyo Cocoa Devt Kyenjojo st Order Mubuku Giant prison Farm Kinyamasika TTC Kakumiro Variety TC Buyanja (Buyaga) 8 Kyegegwa 9 Nyakibale 0 Katwe Kanungu Rukungiri Dispensary Bugangari Dispensary Myeya Burema Rulind Swamp Inlet Kihihi Tractor Hire 8 Kitahulira Forest 9 Institute of Ecology - Kasese 0 Kaniabizo Ishasha Camp Rwashamaire Bunyaruguru WFM Bushenyi Kitabi Seminary Nyabusozi Saza Hqs Kicheche 8 Kalinzu Forest 9 Kanoni Gombolola Hqs 0 Mitoma Ibanda Tufmac Kasenyi Ankole Tea Company Kazo Sub County Bushenyi Agromet Zoka Waiga Aswa South Lake Victoria Gulu Lake Kyoga Entebbe Rubirizi Saza Hqs Kisoro Police 8 Mutolere Sen Sec 9 Karengere Pyrethrum Plant 0 Kisizi Health Centre Bufundi Dispensary Bwama Island Bukimbiri Rubaya Dispensary Chananke Kashambya Nyarushanje Agric Centre 8 Rushanga Forest 9 Ruhiza Forest 0 Sabinio Forest Echuya Forest Muko Forest Kitanga Mparo Dispensary Rwomuhororo - Mbarara Pachwa Hydromet Kinyara Sugar - Masindi 8 Kashwa Primary - Mbararara 9 Rhino Camp Ginnery - Arua 0 Nyamugasani - Kabarole Kamuli High - Kamuli Bogoro Taking ADCP readings Hydrometric stations There are 8 hydrometric stations in the sub-basin. The map below shows the location of the stations. The table adjacent to the map provides the list of hydrometric stations that were active at the time of the survey in 0. Improved monitoring of Lake Albert and Lubero Rucharu No Name R. Mitano at Kanungu - Rwensama R. Chambura at Kichwamba L. Edward at Katwe R. Nyamugasani at Katwe - Zaire L. George at Kasenyi Nyamugasani Ruchuru Democratic Republic of the Congo Semuliki Muceru Ramugura Rutshuru Dawuma Lake Edward Ruhezaminda 9 Ntungu Ruhengeri Dira Hydrometeorological station Levih Sunim Dyna Daymu Fort Portal Lake George Kazinga Channel Nyakibale Kabale Byumba Mahoma Nyanjakufa Dura Geti Bunia Rwanda Wasa Mpanga Oruyubu Rwemamba R. Mpanga at Fort Portal - Ibanda Road 8 R. Mpanga at Kampala - Fort Portal Road 9 Muzizi 0 R. Nkussi at Kyenjojo - Hoima R R. Waki II at Biiso - Hoima Road L. Albert at Butiaba R. Kyoga Nile at Paraa 8 Nyabisheki Edward outflows would enhance understanding of the interaction between Victoria Nile and the Lake outflow. Water quality monitoring in upper parts of the sub-basin requires emphasis in order to monitor and potentially avert pollution risks from oil exploration efforts there. Kahombu Rutungu Mbarara Kikagati Nyagak Kaija Arua Kakob 9 Lake Albert Muzizi Nkusi 8 Ora Anyau Aca Linya Nyarwodo 0 Kochi Albert Nile Ome Waisoke Hoima Nyawa Zoka Waiga Masindi Aswa United Republic of Tanzania South Lake Victoria R. Nyagak at Nyapea Albert Nile at Pakwach R. Albert Nile at Panyango. R. Ora at Inde - Pakwach Road 8 R. Anyau at Arua - Moyo Road 9 R. Oru at Arua - Yumbe Road Gulu Lake Kyoga Entebbe photo: Vivian Nabyonga 88 / Nile Basin Water Resources Atlas

15 The Victoria Nile The largest part of the Victoria Nile sub-basin lies in with a small part in and is the drained by the Victoria Nile once it leaves the Lake Victoria. The sub-basin has substantial hydropower potential. The average annual flow of Victoria Nile at Jinja station in is approximately 0 9 m. This is a sub-basin with relatively good monitoring infrastructure in the Nile Basin. Meteorological monitoring network There are 8 meteorological stations in the sub-basin; distributed in () at Kafu and (). stations are full met stations. The distribution of the stations is shown in the map below. photo: Vivian Nabyonga Lake Kyoga at Bugondo during wet season photo: Vivian Nabyonga photo: Vivian Nabyonga Lake Kyoga at Bugondo during dry season Lake Albert Hoima Mpongo Kiizi Kafu Lake Victoria Masindi No Name Kimama Primary Sirisia Chief s Camp Lukolis Dispensary,Kakamega Kolonya Boy s Sec. Angorai Chief s Centre Machakusi Nursery Amagoro D.o s Office 8 Alupe Cotton Research 9 Mbale Mayanja Ayago Towa Kisingu 9 Gulu Titi Victoria Nile Lugogo Minakulu Tochi Katansule Mayanja Kato Luyam Okole Aroca Mukote Lwajali Bahr el Jebel 0 Lira Victoria Nile Sezibwa Kitgum Lake Kyoga Kiko 0 Lira Nakasongola Namayingo Health Centre Busitema University Tororo Met Kwapa Sub County H/Q Butaleja District H/Q Budumba Health Centre 8 Manafwa Water Works 9 Kafu (Masindi) 0 Jinja Baro-Akobo-Sobat Mpologoma Lumbuye Lake Victoria Naigombwa Soroti Kirik Angoleto Mbale Kakamega Lumboka Kaputh Orio Dopeth Longiro Lokorimoru Okere Manafwa Siroko Komirya Malaba Nabalachar Lochoman Kotipe Oditaileng Ukulat Nator Omanimani Lochidimukat Kelim 0 Enget (Lira) Namulonge Res Jinja Met. Tororo Met.station Soroti Met Lira Ngetta Agromet. Nabiswera Alupe Kari Hydrometric stations there are hydrometric stations in the sub-basin; in and in. The map below shows the location of the station. The table adjacent to the map provides the list of hydrometric stations that were active at the time of the survey in 0. Lake Albert Hoima Mpongo Lake Victoria Masindi Kiizi Kafu Mayanja L. Victoria at Jinja Pier Alupe Alupe R. Malaba at Jinja - Tororo Road Malakisi Malakisi Malaba 8 R. Mayanja at Kapeeka - Kakunga 9 R. Kigwe at Semuto - Wobulenzi 0 Yala R. Mpologoma at Budumba R. Victoria Nile at Mbulamuti Malakisi Gulu Kisingu Ayago Titi Towa Hydrometeorological station Lugogo 8 Tochi Victoria Nile Katansule Mayanja Kato Luyam Okole Aroca Mukote 9 Bahr el Jebel Wamboli at Nabiswera - Gulu Rd R. Manafwa at Mbale - Tororo Ro R. Mpologoma at Tirinyi-Mbale road R. Namatala at Mbale - Soroti R 8 R. Sironko at Mbale - Moroto Road 9 R. Simu at Mbale - Moroto Road 0 R. Sipi at Mbale - Moroto Road R. Abuket at Kumi - Serere Road R. Agu at Kumi - Serere Road R. Kafu at Kampala - Gulu Road R. Kelim (Greek) at Mbale - Moroto Road L. Kyoga at Bugondo Pier R. Kapiri at Kumi - Soroti Road Victoria Nile Lwajali Sezibwa Kitgum Lira Lake Kyoga Enhancing reservoir operation of a cascade of hydropower dams (existing and planned ones) is one of the priority areas in the sub-basin. This requires enhanced real-time data collection and transmission system linked with appropriately built reservoir management system. Nabigaga Kiko Soroti Jinja Mpologoma Lumbuye Lake Victoria Naigombwa Kirik Angoleto Lumboka Orio Malaba Kaputh Dopeth Longiro Lokorimoru Okere Kotipe Namatala Lochoman Oditaileng Siroko Mbale Komirya Nabalachar Ukulat Lochidimukat Tororo Nator Omanimani 0 Kelim Bungoma R. Kyoga Nile at Masindi Port 8 R. Namalu at Mbale - Moroto Rd 9 R. Omunyal Upper at Tiririri - 0 R. Akokorio at Soroti - Katakwi L. Kwania at Kachung R. Enget at Bata - Dokolo Road R. Tochi II at Gulu - Atura Roa R. Kyoga Nile at Kamdini Tochi R. Sezibwa at Falls Kakamega Nile Basin Water Resources Atlas / 89

16 Mazinga Mazinga Mwisa Mwisa The Lake Victoria The Lake Victoria sub-basin makes the headwater of the. The Lake, with an area of about 8,000 km offers a major regulation to the flow of Victoria Nile. Major tributaries of the Lake include the Kagera (draining parts of Burundi, Rwanda and Tanzania), Mara (originating in ), Nzoiya () and Yala (). The lake, which is a source of water for users in three countries is also used widely for navigation. Meteorological monitoring network There are meteorological stations in the sub-basin; distributed in Burundi (), (), Rwanda (), Tanzania () and (). The distribution of the stations is shown in the map below. Lubero Lake Edward DR Congo Rutshuru Kabale 8 0 Bukoba Muleba 0 0 Rwanda Gitarama Biharamulo Mbirurume Kanyaru Migina Burundi Nyabarongo No Name Muyinga Karuzi Gitega (Aero) Ruyigi Gisozi Muriza Ruvyironza 8 Rwegura 9 Nyamuswaga 0 Bugarama (B.aeronaut) Giheta Mugera (Paroisse) Musongati Gitega (Zege) Teza (Nyabigondo) Bukwavu Burenza 8 Butora 9 Buziracanda 0 Fota Gikwiye Kiganda (Paroisse) Mugege Mugera (Cankuzo) Mungwa Muramba Mwaro 8 Mweya 9 Ngozi (Kagoma) 0 Rutegama Rutonganik Butezi Ijenda (Mission) Ijenda (The Villag) Kibumbu Mugera (Lycee) Mulehe 8 Munanira 9 Murehe (Mission) 0 Murongwe Ngozi (Ocibu) Nyakararo Rusaka Rutovu Mashitsi Burasira (Seminaire) Busiga 8 Rugari (E.F.I.) 9 Bitezi (Gasibe) 0 Bugarama (Commune) Bugenyuzi (Paroisse) Buhiga Buhinyuza Bukeye (E.F.I.) Bwagiriza Gisanze Gishubi 8 Gitega (Agri) 9 Gitega (Ndebe) 0 Gitongo Kabuyenge Kanyinya (E.F.I.) Kayongozi Kaziba Kibimba Kiganda (E.F.I.) Kinazi 8 Matongo(Com) 9 Muramvya Ruizi Rufuha Cyizinga Lake Albert Lake George Kabatoro Nyakibale Fort Portal Mbarara 8 Kikagati Ruvubu Kishanda Katonga Kagera Kaku Rwakakuru Omukagasha Musema Musenyi (E.F.I.) Mutumba (Nyabikere) Ngozi (Caprin) Ngozi (College) Remera Rugari (Paroisse) Rusengo (E.F.I.) 8 Ruyigi (Agri) 9 Ruyigi (Mission) 80 Musenyi (Paroisse) 8 Rweza (Nyangwa) 8 Siaya Atc 8 Masinde Muliro University 8 Chwele 8 Migori 8 Bomet 8 Kitale Met 88 Eldoret Airport 89 Eldoret Kapsoya Met 90 Suba Met, Rusinga Island Kaswanga Hdr. Stn 9 Kakamega Met 9 Nganyi Community Ranet 9 Kakamega Met New Site 9 Kakamega Airport 9 Mumias Sugar Factory 9 Kaimosi Farmers Training Centre 9 Lugari Forest 98 Kapsara Tea Factory 99 Uholo Chief s Office 00 Chorlim Adc 0 Kapenguria Wrma Office 0 Cheptongei Chief s Office 0 Kipkabus Forest 0 Nabkoi Forest 0 Bunyala Ranet Fm 0 Mukuyuni Dc s Office 0 Bungoma Water Yard 08 Kadenge Yala Swamp 09 Nangina Girls H. 0 Nambale Agric. Office Kwangamor Primary Bunyala Irrigation Scheme. Wakhungu Nursery-Samia Kaliwa Primary Matayos Youth Polytechnic Madende Secondary Erusui Secondary 8 Lugari Water Yard 9 Kapsokwony Water Yard 0 Timboroa Forest Chebara Dam Eldoret Water Yard Kitale Water Yard Kakamega Forest Ebusiratsi Health Kakinga Kasongenye Nabakazi Kibaale Rubare Kigaba Ngono Nabajuzi Kibimba 8 Entebbe8 8 Centre. Kaptagat Forest Eldoret,Institute Of Agriculture 8 Kimilili Agric. Department. 9 Chief s Centre Kongoni 0 Yala Tn Bondo Water Supply Chorlim A.d.c. A.d.c. Namandala Farm Nakami Farm No. Leissa Farm,Kitale Kitale Gloucester Vale Estate Khwisero Met 8 Mwihila Secondary,Yala 9 Kigama Primary 0 Sega Primary Oholo Chief s Camp. Malava Agiric.. Kaimosi Tea Estate Ltd. Shikusa Borstal Institution. Kakamega Agromet Bukembe Eregi, St. Augustine s T.t.c. 8 Esalwa Secondary 9 Mundoli 0 Malava Forest Guard Post. Sabatia Chief s Office Kabujoi Forest Namuichula Nursery Lugulu Primary Barding Harambee Secondary Sch. Bukura Institute Of Agriculture Nzoia Sugar Factory Bungoma 8 Shiakungu Sec. 9 Nandi Hills, Savani Estate 0 Eldoret Coop. Creameries Siret Tea Co. Ltd.,Nandi Nandi Hills,Kibweri Tea Estate Kapsaret Forest,Eldoret Kimwani A.d.c. Farm Kapkeben Chemoni Estate Miwani Sugar Section III Oyugis Agricultural 8 Bondo Water Supply 9 Kibos Cotton Experimental Sta. 0 Homabay Farmers Training Centre Lambwe Forest Wanjare Chief s Camp Mwanza 9 Sengerema Kahama on Kagera at Masangano Lake Victoria Wingi Isanga Mamwe Nhuyugu Jinja 0 99 Mbale Tororo Kisii Musoma 9 8 Bariadi 9 Ndiru Chief s Camp Kebabe Primary Madiany Chief s Office Masaka Apundo s Farm Nyabola Girl s Secondary 8 South Nyanza Sugar Factory 9 Kaminjeiwet Secondary 80 Koru Homa Lime Co Ltd 8 Londian, Keresoi Forest 8 Kericho Tea Research Foundation 8 Maragat Forest 8 Tenderet Tea Estate 8 Bomet Water Supply 8 Hail Research Kericho 8 Chemase Cane Grow 88 Mombwo Sugar Belt Co. 89 Awasi 90 Aroket Tea Estate Sotik 9 Ndoinet Forest 9 Saino Forest 9 Tendeno Forest 9 Nyangores Forest 9 Narotia Forest 9 Achego Primary 9 God Abuoro Primary 98 Ogen Primary 99 Naluwa Farm Endebess 00 Nangina Catholic Mission 0 Burnt Forest Agric. 0 Akala Dispensary 0 Koru, Coffee Board Sub- 0 Cheptenye Secondary 0 Makindu Pri., Muhoroni 0 Kilgoris Divissional 0 Kigali Aero 08 Ntaruka 09 Bakokwe 0 Butare Aero Gihinga Gikomero Kaduha Kanombe Mayange Ndego Ngarama 8 Nyabimata 9 Rulindo 0 Rutongo Busogo-Isae Cyanika Gikongoro Met Sio Rubana Simiyu Sandai Tanzania Thigithe Kuja Tirina Migori Mara Duma Sare Grumeti Mbalageti 0 Kipsonoi Engare Nyabogati Talek Amala Longaianiet Ngara Nanyuki Itare Pololeti Olemuguru Sand Karama Kilimbi Muramba Paroisse Nyagahanga Efa Nyamata 8 Nyamiyaga 9 Nyarubuye 0 Runyombyi Kigali Aero Bunda/ Bitaraguru Met. Kidinda Met. Magu Met. Maswa Met. Randa Met. Ukerewe Met. 8 Buhemba Met. 9 Kuruya Met. 0 Mugumu Met. Nyabusara Met. Rulenge Met. Ngudu Met. Bukoba Musoma Mwanza Biharamulo 8 Kayanga Met. 9 Kishanda Met. 0 Kyakakera Met. Ngara Bitaraguru P/ Bukoba Maji (Yard) Busulwangili P/ Busweta P/ Bwai P/ Chanongu P/ 8 Izigo 9 Kayenze P/ 0 Kikubiji P/ Kikuku Kisesa P/ Kuruya P/ Lukuba Island Mugumu P/ Mwabagole P/ Mwadubi P/ 8 Mwanangwa P/ 9 Mwanza Maji (Yard) 0 Nshambya Nyakanyasi Sumve High Tallaga P/ Tallo Secondary Utegi P/ Walla P/ Kharumwa P/ 8 Nyehunge P/ 9 Sagata P/ 80 Zunzuli P/ 8 Lolui 8 Kome 8 Molo Sub County H/Q 8 Mbarara Met 8 Mpanga Forest Statio 8 Entebbe Intl Airport 8 Kabake Met 88 Lwemiyaga 89 Kakuto 90 Cankuzo (Projet) photo: Vivian Nabyonga Entebbe station Hydrometric stations There are 8 hydrometric stations in the sub-basin; in Burundi (in Kagera catchment), 8 in, in Rwanda (Kagera catchment), seven in Tanzania and four in. The map below shows the location of the stations. The table adjacent to the map provides the list of hydrometric 8 9 No Name Nyakijanda (Buhoro K0) Ruvyironza (Muyange) Nyabaha (Mubuga) Ruvubu (Gitega) Ruvyironza (Kibaya) Kayongozi (Nyankanda) Ndurumu (Shombo) 8 Mubarazi (Murongwe) 9 Ruvubu (Muyinga) 0 Nyamuswaga (Gisha) Kayave (Mparamirundi Rte Butare/Ngozi (Akanyaru) Kibeho (Akanyaru) Simiyu at Lumeji Ruvuvu/Mumwendo Ferry Simiyu at M/Bridge Duma at Sayaka 8 Mwanza South Port 9 Cohoha (Kigozi) 0 Kazingiri (Nyagatare) Rweru (Nyagisozi) Mudasomwa (Rukarara) Rusumo (Akagera) Nyabisindu (Mwogo) Gakindo (Lac Rweru) Shell (Lac Cyohoha S) Gihinga (Akanyaru) 8 Mbuye (Akagera) 9 Nduruma (Cyunuzi) 0 Rubago (Lac Sake) Gashora (Lac Mirayi) Mfune (Nyabarongo) Gashora (Lac Rumira) Rukoma (Lac Sake) Mbalageti Shyembe (Lac Bilira) Ururumanza (Ururumanza) 8 Gihuma (Gihuma) 9 Rwinzoka (Akagera) 0 Kavumu (Rugeramigozi) Grumet at M/Bridge Mwaka (Nyabarongo) Kanzenze (Nyabarongo) Ruliba (Nyabarongo) Nemba (Nyabugogo) Yanze (Yanze) Suguti 8 Ihema (Ihema Lake) 9 Gaseke (Nyamabuye) 0 Rusumo (Mwange) Kinoni (Base) Mara at Nyansurura Ngono/Muhutwe Kogatende Ranger Post Nyakinama (Mukungwa) Mara at Mara Mine Mara at Kirumi Ferry 8 Nyagahanga (Warufu) 9 Musoma Port 0 Ngono/Kalebe Bridge Ntaruka (Lac Bulera) Ngoma (Ngoma) Kamiranzovu (Kamiranzovu) Rusumo (Rugezi) West Ngono at Kyakakera Bukoba Port R. Nyakizumba at Maziba 8 Mori at Utegi 9 Kagera/Kyaka Ferry 0 Ngono/Kyaka Rd Bridge Mara Kagera/Nyakanyasi Migori Kagitumba (Muvumba) Gucha Migori R. Kagera at Masangano R. Bukora at Katera 8 Sare 9 Amala 80 Nyangweta 8 R. Bukora at Mutukula - Kyotera 8 Gucha 8 Nyangores 8 Kipsonoi 8 Nyakobisara 8 R. Kisoma at Mutukula - Kyotera 8 mware 88 R. Lwanda at Kyotera - Rakai Ro 89 R. Kisoma Upper Stream at Kyote 90 R. Kisoma Upper at Kyotera - Ra 9 Mogusii 9 R. Ruizi at New Waterworks 9 R. Ruizi at Mbarara Water Works 9 Kipsonoi Kapsimbiri 9 Isanda 9 Kiptiget 9 Kipsonoi 98 Eaka Kioge 99 Awach Ober 00 New Itare 0 Yurith 0 Awach Tende 0 Awach 0 Awach Kabondo 0 Mapamujugu 0 Songon 0 Awach Kabuon 08 Lower Songon 09 Ainapkoi 0 Sondu Katonga at Kampala Katonga Road Miriu Sondu Tugenon Nyando Namuting Nyando Masaita 8 Nyando (Ahero Bridge) 9 Masaita Dam stations that were active at the time of the survey in 0. Monitoring of water quality and lake water levels are two priority areas for strengthening the hydrometric monitoring system in the Lake Victoria. In the Kagera, sediment monitoring is a priority. Lake Albert Lake Kyoga Mbale Fort Portal 8 Tororo 0 9 Eldoret 8 Jinja Entebbe 0 9 Lake George Lubero Kabatoro 8 Lake Edward Molo Nyakibale Mbarara Kikagati Lake Victoria 80 Rutshuru Kabale Musoma 9 Byumba Muleba Butare Mwanza Biharamulo Hydrometeorological 0 station 9 DR Congo Rwanda Mbirurume Burundi Kanyaru Ruvyironza Ruvubu Ruizi Rufuha Cyizinga Kayongozi Katonga Kishanda Kagera Kaku Rwakakuru Omukagasha Kakinga Kasongenye Nabakazi Kibaale Rubare Kigaba Ngono Nabajuzi Tanzania Wingi Isanga Kahama Mamwe Nhuyugu Sio Rubana Bariadi Sandai Thigithe Yala Tirina Simiyu Kuja Mara Duma Nzoia Migori Sare Grumeti Mbalageti Koitobos Kipkaren Kimondi Engare Nyabogati Talek Longaianiet Ngara Nanyuki Amala Pololeti Olemuguru 0 Nyando Awach Seme Lake Victoria at Kisumu Kibos Kibos Mbogo Awach R. Katonga at Kampala - Masaka 8 Ainamatua 9 Ainopsiwa 0 Great Oruba Tributary of Kibos Kibos Yala Kadenge Yala Zaaba L. Victoria at Entebbe Pier Edzawa 8 Garagoli 9 R. Kakinga Index Catchment 0 Nzoia Ruambwa Uludhi Wuroya Wuroya Nzoia Gaula R. Kibimba at Kinoni - Mubende Firatsi 8 Placemark 9 R. Sio at Luhalali Near Bunadet 0 Isiukhu Ikhamala L. Wamala at Lubajja Áisasala Lairi Sio Endoroto Ellegirini 8 Chevaywa 9 Khalaba 0 Luandeti Kipkarren Chwele Murgusi Bokoli Kuywa Sosiani Segoit 8 Large Nzoia 9 Rongai 0 Kamakoiwa Kamukoywa Kimilili Springs Kimilili Moiben Kuywa Little Nzoia Tongaren 8 Nzoia 9 Ruvyironza (Nyabiraba) Sisei Sand photo: Nile-SEC 90 / Nile Basin Water Resources Atlas

17 Nile Basin Regional Hydromet Challenges and Opportunities basin monitoring is essential for knowledge-based water resources planning, efficient water resources management, socio-economic development, and environmental sustainability. The current system of Nile Basin monitoring is inadequate where many significant hydrologic portions of the Nile Basin are either un-gauged or very sparselyt gauged even with respect to basic hydrological parameters. To address these critical gaps and improve transboundary water resource collaboration, the NBI worked with the NBI riparian countries to develop design specifications and an implementation plan for the Nile Basin Regional Hydro-meteorological Monitoring System. Proposed meteorological network for the Nile Basin Egypt Proposed meteorological stations Lake Subbasin Based on the individual country inclusive assessments, it was clear that each of the riparian countries had the requisite institutions established for monitoring, but that the level of professional depth and breadth of training and staffing varied, as did the hardware and software available for collecting and managing the data and actual parameters being measured. The most important gaps identified and addressed in the development of the Nile Basin Regional Monitoring Network are: significant number of stations that are outdated and out of service, inadequate equipment calibration, limited or non-existent telemetry systems, lack of adequate or modern data acquisition and management systems, and weak national water quality, groundwater and sediment monitoring programs. Recent developments Recognizing the importance of a functional Nile Basin Monitoring System, NBI developed the design of a regional hydromet system that addresses the severe gaps, responds to the strategic water resource management issues that had direct bearing on the socio-economic developments within the basin, builds on existing networks including those of IGAD-HYCOS Program is based on international guidelines and best practices, and considers national needs and limitations. Meteorological Network Design The meteorological network design was driven by the spatial distribution necessary to capture the meteorological variability within the basin. A total of meteorological stations are proposed for the regional network of the Nile Basin. This includes stations to measure a full suite of meteorological parameters and 9 to monitor rainfall only. The full meteorological (Full Met) stations include instruments to measure precipitation, wind, air temperature, humidity, barometric pressure and solar radiation which allows for the calculation of evaporation. Dankog Tora Tonga Tulus Nyala Radom El Fasher Raga Gazala Gawazat El-tewaisha Bahr el Ghazal Aweil Tumbura Tendelti Wd Alkali Khashm Elgirba Ub Guta Badme Gerehu Srnay Fatisa Tekeze-Atbara Halelo Sodari Kogmer Ummsiyala El Neima Wad Medani Elfaw Shiraro Um Bader Elshwak Adigrat Axum Air Port Humera Adigoshu Nebelet Ed Dueim Wad Figad El Gadaref Shire Endasilasse Baeker Atsebi Hamrat Alsheikh Um Dam Haj Ahmed Gadamblyia Adiremets Guroro Muzdalifa Sennar Doka May Tsebri Eial Bakhit El Hawata Adi Arkay Chenek Tekeze Mekele Air Port Elobeid Kosti Samsam Debark Jabal Moui Umm Benin Finarawa Basunda Sanja Metema Maichew En Nahud Tsitsika Shirkela Um Aush Abu Naama Gondar A.P. Jebelein Wad Alneal Elban Gadid Shinfa Zata Aykel Guhala Amde Work Quara Kunzila Lalibela Shahura Debre Tabor Rashad Ed Damazine Nefasemewecha J Megeneis Renk Dangila Bahir Dar New Wegel Tena Simada Babanusa Mankush Pawe Amba Mariam Adet Koreb Kadugli Motta Chagni Combolcha Finoteselam Mekane Selam Bullen Kurmuk Sher. Gizen Kodok Ayehu Debre Work Wereilu Aldali Kamashe Debre Markos Gunde Meskel Pachua Tonga Eneware Assosa Fiche Mendi Gidayana Debre Berhan Malakal Nedjo Kachise Siadebr Begi Gimbi Anger Sululta Bentiu Nasir Gidame Nekemte Shola Gebeya Ambo Agriculture Gogreial Arjo Kone Meshraerreq Alge Bedele Placemark Dembidolo Faddoi Jikawo Gore Abobo Limu Genet Gatira Wau Masha Tonj Pibor Shambe Aman Rumbek Pibor Post South Democratic Republic of Congo Yambio Na'andi Maridi Dongola Yei Lui Wadi Halfa Bor Juba Karima No. Abu Hamra Khartoum Mongalla Yumbe Karenga Moyo Kitgum Loyoro Obongi Dispensary Arua Victoria Nile Wadelai Wdd Gulu Adilang Lendu Wangkwar Nyakwai Moroto Lira Buliisa Jaber Enget Nariam Butiaba Hm Masindi Bugondo Soroti Kafu Hoima Labori Greek Bunia Nakasongola Ngoma Mbale Nalweyo Chorlim Adc Kapsara Tea Factory Kakoge Kagada Kiboga Namwenda Bundibugyo Chwele Cheptongei Kasese Namulonge Mubende Alupe Kari Eldoret Kapsoya Angorai Kampala Sewerage Works Kampala Ikulwe Mumias Eldoret Airport Namayingo Kasese Madu Mpanga Kipkabus Butembo Lwemiyaga Bunyala Ranet Fm Nkozi Exp Farm Nabkoi Siaya Atc Kaimosi Rwomuhororo Kome Mbarara Entebbe Intl Airport Lolui Kisumu Airport Rwenshama Masaka Koru, Oyugis Elburgon, Bushenyi Homabay Ishasha Lwamagwa Bukasa Ndoinet Mbarara God Bura Suba Met, Kebabe Bomet Bushenyi Kakuto South Nyanza Kilgoris Rushanga Kabake Kyakakera Randa Sotik, Goma Bukoba Musoma Busweta Nyagatare Ntaruka Kayanga Nyabusara Byumba Met Naikara Kuruya Kishanda Narok, Kigali Aero Kawangire Buhemba Mugumu Ukerewe Byimana Ndego Bunda Mayange Kahunda Lake Victoria Bwai Ngara Nyabimata Butare Aero Mwanza Mugumu Rulenge Magu Rwegura Muyinga Biharamulo Ngudu Kidinda Karuzi Maswa Gitega Kharumwa Kikubiji Muriza Gisozi Shinyanga Ruvyironza Rwanda Burundi Lake Albert Bahr el Jebel Torit Abu Hammad Shendi Nagi Shot Atbara Sidon Placemark Kapoeta United Republic of Tanzania Goz Ragab Jeba New Halfa Barbar Hamsh Koreab Hadalia Baro-Akob-Sobat Kassala Togan Eritrea Nile Basin Water Resources Atlas / 9

18 per sub-basin Area (KM ) Regional design Lake Victoria - Kagera 9,8 0 Lake Victoria - /Mara 9, Lake Victoria - Tanzania/Mara,0 Lake Victoria -,0 Victoria Nile 8, 8 Lake Albert,89 8 Bahr el Jebel 8, Bahr el Ghazal 0, Baro-Akobo-Sobat 0,88 8,80 - Upper, - Lower, Tekeze-Atbara, 9, 0 Total Summary of proposed meteorological network by country Country Active Inactive* New Total # of s w/ Full Met Rain Only Burundi 9 0 DR Congo Rwanda South Tanzania Total % of Total % % % 00% 0% 0% *Inactive s also include unknown or blank status entries originally received Hydrological Network Design The primary purpose of the existing hydrometric stations for the regional design would be for measuring streamflow at rivers and water level at lakes. In addition, the hydrometric design also includes locations by water quality and sediment monitoring, which typically aligns with streamflow gauging locations. The regional design proposes monitoring of both basic and advanced water quality parameters. The Nile Basin hydrometric design focuses on achieving the monitoring of transboundary water management issues. A total of 9 hydrometric stations are proposed for the regional network of the Nile Basin. Proposed hydrometric network map Summary of Proposed Regional Hydrometric Network by Country Country Active Inactive* New Total # of s w/ WQ Sediment Burundi 0 0 DR Congo Rwanda 0 South 0 9 Tanzania Total 8 9 % of Total 8% 0% % 00% % % *Inactive s also include unknown or blank status entries originally received Proposed hydro met stations Egypt Lake Dongola Tamanyat Khartoum Madani Gewesi Atbara Kilo Hassanab Hawata Eritrea Tekeze-Atbara Hamdait Abdi Rafi Embamadre Al Asira Meandering river in South photo: Amy the Nurse/ Bahr el Ghazal Malakal Nyamlell Maya Doleib Doleib Hill Wau Tonj Roseries Bahir Dar Renk Eldeim Pedagogi Mongalla Nasir Itang Akobo Akobo Baro-Akobo-Sobat South Bahr el Jebel Kessi Bridge Assua D. R. Congo Laropi Panyango. Paraa Butiaba Masindi Port Bugondo Pier Bweramule Victoria Nile Mbulamuti Lake Albert Jinja Pier Bunadet Masaka Nzoia Ruambwa Ishango Katwe Yala Kadenge Ahero Bridge Sondu Lake Victoria Kyotera Gucha Migori Masangano Mara Kyaka Ferry Kogatende Mara Mine Nyabarongo Grumet river Akanyaru Rusumo mbalageti new station Sayaka Lumeji Gitega Mumwendo Ferry Rwanda Burundi Tanzania Meandering river in South photo: Amy the Nurse/ 9 / Nile Basin Water Resources Atlas

19 Conclusion Photo: istock The critical gap in data in the Nile Basin has been recognized early during the preparation of the first set of cooperative projects under NBI. As a result, NBI developed the Nile Basin Monitoring Strategy to guide its activities for enhancing the monitoring system in the Nile Basin. The strategy was endorsed by the NBI governance and remains the guiding document for the design of the regional monitoring network. Gaps in spatial coverage and time series in key catchments result in an incomplete understanding and knowledge of bio-physical conditions, setbacks in strategic assessment and water resources planning, suboptimal water management decisions, and delays in planning and execution of investment projects. Some issues were first identified by NBI Member States; these included: improved water resource planning and management; flood management; rain-fed agricultural management, irrigated agricultural management; drought management; soil erosion and sediment transport; surface water quality; groundwater management; hydropower; navigation; fisheries; watershed management; wetlands management; and climate change. These regional issues played a key role in the methodology of station selection for the regional network. Information collected by the system will be accessible to all NBI Member States through the NBI Regional Data Management system; guided by the effective data sharing protocol among the NBI countries. NBI will compile all the data collected within the riparian countries and provide synthesized information, trends, patterns, and facts that will inform both national and regional water resources planning and management. Nile Basin Water Resources Atlas / 9