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1 Chapter 2 Daily Focus Skills Transparency 2 3

2 Ancient Egypt Chapter 2 Section 3

3 After this lesson, I can Recognize the impact of individuals on world history Identify the location of early civilizations on a map Identify types of artifacts by pictorial representation Identify significant individuals and events in Egyptian civilization

4

5 Focusing on the Main Ideas The Middle Kingdom was a golden age of peace, prosperity, and advances in the arts and architecture. During the New Kingdom, Egypt acquired new territory and reached the height of its power. Akhenaton tried to change Egypt s religion, while Tutankhamen is famous for the treasures found in his tomb. Under Ramses II, Egypt regained territory and built great temples, but the empire fell by 1150 B.C.

6 Meeting People Tutankhamen (TOO tang KAH muhn) Ramses II (RAM SEEZ) Building Your Vocabulary tribute (TRIH byoot) incense (IHN SEHNS) Locating Places Thebes (THEEBZ) Meeting People Ahmose (AHM OHS) Hatshepsut (hat SHEHP soot)

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9 The Middle Kingdom Pharaohs lost control of Egypt in about 2300 B.C. At that time, a new dynasty of pharaohs created a capital at Thebes. This began the Middle Kingdom, a time of stability, prosperity, and achievement. Egypt took control of other lands and forced conquered people to send tribute, or forced payments.

10 The Middle Kingdom (cont.) In this way, Egypt increased its riches. During the Middle Kingdom, the arts, literature, and architecture blossomed. The Middle Kingdom ended when the Hyksos attacked and conquered Egypt. The Hyksos ruled until around 1500 B.C., when the Egyptian prince Ahmose led a revolt to drive the Hykos out of Egypt.

11 The Middle Kingdom (cont.) This artwork with gold inlay from the Middle Kingdom period shows a funeral boat.

12 The New Kingdom During the New Kingdom period, Egypt grew richer and more powerful. Hatshepsut was one of the few women to rule Egypt. Trade grew during Hatsheput s reign. Traders exchanged beads, tools, and weapons for ivory, wood, leopard skins, and incense. Trade made Egypt wealthier.

13 The New Kingdom (cont.) Thutmose III became pharaoh after Hatshepsut s death. Thutmose conquered more lands, and Egypt grew richer from tributes. Slavery became common in Thutmose s reign. Slaves had some rights. They could own land, marry, and eventually obtain freedom.

14 How was Hatshepsut unlike other pharaohs? She focused on trade instead of military conquests.

15 The Legacies of Two Pharaohs Amenhotep IV came to power in 1370 B.C. B.C. Amenhotep felt priests were gaining too much power. He introduced a new religion with only one god. Priests who did not follow the new religion were removed from power.

16 The Legacies of Two Pharaohs (cont.) Most Egyptians refused to accept the new religion. Amenhotep became so devoted to his new religion that he neglected his other duties. He did not act when the Hittites attacked Egypt. As a result, Egypt s empire greatly diminished.

17 The Legacies of Two Pharaohs (cont.) Tutankhamen, now called King Tut, was a boy ruler who took power after Akhenaton died. He ruled for only nine years before his death. In A.D. 1922, a British archaeologist found King Tut s grave.

18 The End of the New Kingdom Ramses II was one of the most effective pharaohs of the New Kingdom. During Ramses s rule, many temples were built throughout Egypt. Temples were used for services. Most Egyptians prayed at home because they believed the temples were houses for the gods and goddesses.

19 The End of the New Kingdom (cont.) After Ramses s rule, Egyptian rule began to decline. Egypt was attacked by neighboring groups and eventually controlled only the Nile delta. Beginning in the 900s B.C., Egypt was ruled by the Libyans, then the people of Kush, and finally the Assyrians.

20 Kush Kingdom c. 250 B.C.

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