Egyptian Civilization. World History Maria E. Ortiz Castillo

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1 Egyptian Civilization World History Maria E. Ortiz Castillo

2 Egypt 5000 B.C. Villages with its own rituals, gods and chieftain 3200 B.C. Two Kingdoms Lower Egypt Upper Egypt 3000 B.C. Unification of Egypt in one Kingdom

3 Theocracy: religious authority Egypt God Kings Center of religious authority Army Promoted truth and justice The believed that their Kings ruled forever, even after death Their tombs were more important than the palaces Mesopotamia Considered representative of the gods

4 Religion 2,000 gods and goddesses Re: sun god Anubis: underworld Osiris: god of dead Isis: ideal mother and wife Huge Temples Believed in an afterlife, a life that continued Mummification: embalming and drying the corpse to prevent it from decaying

5 Development of civilization Historians divide the ancient history of Egypt in three phases or periods of prolonged stability. Strong monarchical authority competent bureaucracy Non invasions Cultural, artistic and architectural activity With intermediate periods in between Weak political structures Rivalries for leadership Invasions Less cultural, artistic and intellectual activity Social restoration

6 Old Kingdom BC Economy strength Great Organization and Leadership: The Pharaoh was seen as a divine instrument that kept order and cosmic harmony. When subordinates obey him, they help maintain order; otherwise an offense to divinity affected the universal structure Numerous areas governed by tribal chiefs managed to be unified by Name (Menes) in a government established in Memphis as the capital. Egypt was divided into different Nomes (provinces) and often the family of Pharaoh carried out administrative duties. Engineering Achievement- Pyramids: resting place

7 First Intermediate Period ( BC) Reasons why the empire collapsed Nomarchs increased their power by converting the position hereditary More independent nomes The central authority weakened Times of drought and economic collapse Rival dynasties were established

8 Middle Kingdom ( B.C.) The king of Thebes Mentuhotep II defeated his rivals uniting again to Egypt. Period stability with strong Pharaohs that Restored law and order Improved of trade and transportation the structure of the nomes Reorganized more precise boundaries clarity on the obligations to the state nomarchs swear loyalty to the pharaoh Pharaoh governs with his son Pharaoh is seen as the shepherd of the people Great architectural activity Period of expansion

9 Second Intermediate Period ( B.C) The Hyksos invade Egypt From the Arabian Peninsula They dominated much of the empire They introduced the technology of the Bronze Age, taught the Egyptians to obtain and process it for making tools and weapons They taught the Egyptians new war strategies Introduced the composite bow and the horse-drawn chariot. Ahmoses I used the technological advances that the Hyksos taught them to get rid of these and form a new empire.

10 New Kingdom ( B.C.) The military became a central priority for the pharaohs seeking to expand Egypt's borders and attempting to gain mastery of the Near East. (Syria & Palestine) The empire reached its time of splendor with the pharaoh Amenhotep III ( B.C.) Construction of magnificent temples and buildings He faced the threat of the Hittites Amenhotep IV: It was not very clever for fear of the Hittites, ceded to them the land of Palestine and Syria. His biggest concern was his religious revolution proclaimed a new god Aten, god of the solar disk changed his name to Akhenaten (which is fine with Aten) closed temple gods was a failure Tutankhamen: managed to restore the empire Ramases II ( B.C.) Palestine regains control The New Empire disappeared with the twentieth dynasty in 1085 B.C.

11 Late period The Egyptians suffered domination by the Libyans, Nubians, Persians, Macedonians and Romans. Even then, they continued exerting a strong influence because of its great cultural heritage.

12 Society King, Queen, Royal Family Wealthy landowner, government officials, priests, army commanders Middle class: Merchants and artisans Peasants, farmers and laborers Salves (in later periods)

13 Achievements Calendar: 356 days, 12 months of 30 days Adding and subtracting Geometry Engineers and architects Canals from Nile to the Red Sea Dikes

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