Bazaruto Archipelago National Park-Mozambique. Mozambique. Workshop on MPAs- Is MPAs a useful tool In Fisheries management?

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1 Bazaruto Archipelago National Park-Mozambique Workshop on MPAs- Is MPAs a useful tool In Fisheries management? Norway ; October 2006 By Paula Santana Afonso Institute for Fisheries Research Mozambique

2 Topics Geographic Localization Historical Background - BANP Natural Resources Socio-economic Issues Fisheries in the BANP BANP vs Fisheries Indicators of Success Challengers in the Process Perspectives

3 Geographic localization Inhambane Province Between The towns of Vilankulo and Inhassoro latitudes of 21 30'-22 10'S 22 10'S and longitudes of 35 22'-35 30'E 35 30'E 5 islands: Bazaruto,, Santa Carolina, Benguerua, Magaruque and Bangue Total area: 1500 km2 (land and Sea)

4 Historical Background < 1970: some scientific research, showing that the area was important for some threatened species ( (Dugong dugon and sea turtles) 1971: Islands of Benguerua,Magaruque and Bangue + 5km West an 100 km East were Proclaimed Bazaruto National Park (BNP) Bazaruto and Santa Carolina Were Proclaimed as Surveillance Zone

5 In November 2001 the council of ministers of Mozambique declared all 5 islands the Bazaruto archipelago national park (BANP). With the extension of the boundaries of the national park, its area increased from 600 km2 to about 1,500 km2. Together with the Inhaca and Portuguese Islands (10 km2) and Quirimbas national park (1,500 km2), these islands constitute Mozambique's total marine protected area of slightly less than 3000 km2.

6 SOURCE: Viera and Louro, 2004

7 1989: the first warden was appointed. 1990: A master plan for the Bazaruto archipelago was developed "assist the government of Mozambique in deriving maximum benefits from this unique coastal area through sustainable development and long-term environmental strategies" Since 1990 several community projects have been initiated, including the appointment of community guards (guardas( or mugonsizes) ) = more educators than enforces. 1997: the first park administrator 2000: The parks authorities changed to the Ministry of Tourism and a second master plan was development. In this master plan new areas are mentioned to be protected like coral reefs and some sea grasses banks. Fisheries sector has a plan to promote the fisheries in the area, boats are given based in credit to explore new fishing areas

8 Natural Resources Habitats Land Freshwater lakes Marsh forest Sand dunes Savana grassland Swamp forest Coastal Ticket Marine Mangrove Seagrass beds Corals reefs Extensive tidal flats Rocky beach

9 Natural Resources - Wildlife Land mammals: 6 species including monkey (Ceropichetus mitis) ) + red duiker ( (Cephalophus natalensis) Birds: More than 180 species, important area for migratory species Land Reptiles: More than 45 species are reported inclunding crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus )

10 Marine mammals: Combinations of oceanic and shallow waters marine mammals Dugon dugon Cetaceans such as Spinner, Bottlenose, Common and Humpback dolphins, and Right and Minke whales occur

11 Sea turtle: 5 species occurs in the area (Leatherback, Loggerhead, Green, Hawksbill and Ridley ), four are confirmed breading in the area Fish: More than species Endemic species: 6 endemics species of gastropods and 2 endemics species of Lizards

12 Socio-economic Characterists More than people (580 families) Artisanal fishing is the main activity=70% local population Man usually using beach seine and line. Occasionally diving. Small cannons with sail and paddles Women and Children: collecting bivalves (main species is Oyster)- Spring tides Agriculture: bad soils and is a alternative activity (cassava, beans, watermelon and pumpkins) Cattle farm: provides an alternative and financial reserve (bank): Heritage to be conserved from generation to generation. Tourism: 5 star, over 90% of the hired staff comes from mainland

13 Fisheries in the NAPB 59 fishing camps The annual catch is estimated in ton/year (excluded oyster) Beach seine: The main resources are small pelagics (H. quadrimaculates +D. russeli +C. dorab *) Seagrasses associated species like : L. vaigiensis +L. variegatus +G. oyena + Família Mulidae +S. sutor) Squids Collectors/Divers: Sand oyster Pelagics crabs Lobsters

14 Line fish (handling) Groupers Snappers Emperors Parrot fish The area is a important fishing ground for fishers of Inhassoro and Vilanculos and some semi- industrial fleets that have based in Maputo. The target species is demersal fish and lobster. Sport and recreational fisheries is also important in BANP, the target resources is marlin, sailfish and big pelagic species. Gamefish competition (4/3- \year)

15 Fish Market and Processing Fish: Mainly drying and salt main market is Mainland Massing and Manica Small fish don t open Big fish opened Oyster: Boiling and drying Lobsters and crabs: fresh to the hotels Squid: fresh to Maputo and Beira

16 BANP vs Fisheries Total protection zone: Coral reefs Limited protection zone: only local community can used (islanders) : seine and collectors Multiple zone: Area where local communities and communities from mainly land can use. Rationally : Provide food security _ local community: use sustainable of natural resources Protected some sensible habitats like coral reefs

17 PNAB: The Process PNB (1971): Created to protect Dugon dugon and sea turtle BANP(2000): To protect also biodiversity, Including fisheries resource The first master plan (1989) was development with less contribution of local communities The second master plan (2002) was development with some contribution of local communities but excluded the mainland fishers Actually empowerment of the communities is central to achieved the objective of BNAP: co-management No historical data for fisheries activity, in 2004 two different monitoring programs are implemented separately (Fisheries and Park) ( 8.80)

18 Institutions involved in BNAP Ministry of Tourism responsible to manage BANP NGOs and others institutions like WWF, EWT helps in Science and manage Fisheries is also present in the area : Collecting information + developing the artisanal fisheries

19 Indicators of Success Dugong population More people are involved in the process (actually) : gradually and more transparent (with co- management) Fishing effort more controlled Benefits from local communities (tourist taxes) More research in the area More protection to endangered species: turtles and sensitive habitats

20 Challenges in the Process Exclusion of the local communities (mainly from mainland) in all the process; Restriction, but fisheries resources are depleted Duplication of activities (two monitoring systems in the area) Lack coordination between Tourism (responsibly to MPAs) ) and fisheries sectors (responsibly to fisheries management)

21 Perspectives New master plan must be development, in the realistic way (included all stakeholders): What we want to protected? Why? And how? must be defined between all stakeholders. Restriction could be defined but alternatives must be found

22 THANK YOU!..

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