Mediterranean Sea Persian Gulf Red Sea Tigris River Euphrates River Sumer Fertile Crescent

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1 GEOGRAPHY MESOPOTAMIA MAP Mediterranean Sea Persian Gulf Red Sea Tigris River Euphrates River Sumer Fertile Crescent ACHIEVEMENT INTELLECT RELIGION POLITICS SOCIETY ECONOMY

2 N Fertile Crescent - lots of silt "land between the rivers" Tigris & Euphrates Rivers - unpredictable floods few natural barriers few natural resources Sumer How did geography influence religion, economy, architecture? FIRST writing system - cuneiform number system (based on 60) Epic of Gilgamesh FIRST civilization Hammurabi - FIRST code of law inventions, etc. - irrigation, wheel, sail, plow, FIRST to use bronze city-states ruled by priests, then by dynasties Sargon - created FIRST empire polytheism ziggurats angry gods & gloomy afterlife priests appealed to gods on farmers' behalf bartering traded grain, cloth, tools to get stone, metal, wood specialization of labor Women - jobs & property, but NO schooling Class-based kings & priests merchants ordinary people slaves

3 GEOGRAPHY ACHIEVEMENT EGYPT MAP Mediterranean Sea Red Sea Nile River Lower Egypt (Nile delta) Upper Egypt Eastern Desert Western Desert Nubia INTELLECT RELIGION POLITICS SOCIETY ECONOMY

4 N Nile River predictable floods river flows north, winds blow south cataract Nile delta fertile black soil natural barriers - desert How did geography influence religion, economy, architecture? writing system hieroglyphics number system, geometry 365-day calendar papyrus FIRST to use stone columns in building medical knowledge make-up pharaohs theocracy Menes (united Egypt) dynasties polytheism pyramids nice gods, pleasant afterlife mummification bartering traded to get gold, ivory, cattle, granite Class-based Social movement possible Women own property, divorce pharaoh & family priests, gov t & military leaders merchants, artisans peasants & laborers slaves

5 GEOGRAPHY ACHIEVEMENT INDUS VALLEY MAP Arabian Sea Indian Ocean Bay of Bengal Indus River Ganges River Hindu Kush Mountains Himalaya Mountains Karakorum Mountains Thar Desert INTELLECT RELIGION POLITICS SOCIETY ECONOMY

6 N subcontinent Indus River unpredictable floods seasonal monsoons natural barriers mountains, desert cities Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro How did geography influence this civilization? plumbing and sewage systems writing system not deciphered planned cities using grid system public baths strong central government evidenced by uniform city planning & construction walled citadels invaded by Aryans polytheism links to modern Hindu religion images of Shiva and other gods believed in afterlife traded long distance with Sumer marked goods with stamps and seals social equality similar housing prosperous time to make toys stable and peaceful few weapons

7 GEOGRAPHY ACHIEVEMENT ANCIENT CHINA MAP Bay of Bengal Pacific Ocean Yellow Sea East China Sea Huang He (Yellow) River Yangtze River Gobi Desert Himalaya Mountains Taklimakan Desert INTELLECT RELIGION POLITICS SOCIETY ECONOMY

8 N Huang He River - loess unpredictable floods natural barriers mountains, deserts, ocean cities Anyang How did geography influence this civilization? writing system (Shang dynasty) not linked to spoken language oracle bones blast furnace cast iron chariot gunpowder porcelain silk paper compass New Dynasty claims Mandate of Heaven Powerful leader assumes rule Period of Prosperity family linked to religion--ancestor spirits brought good or bad fortune consulted gods using oracle bones Period of Decline Dynastic Cycle & Mandate of Heaven feudalism Shang and Zhou Dynasties natural barriers limited trade settlers provided most of their own goods group more important than individual 2 classes nobles and peasants family important arranged marriages, women inferior

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