The Ancient Egyptians

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1 The Ancient Egyptians Geography of Ancient Egypt Religion In Ancient Egypt Ancient Egyptian Society

2 The Geography of Ancient Egypt Nile River Giver of Life Longest river in the 4200 miles Protected on 4 sides Sahara d. ( west) Mediterranean sea (north) Nubian d./red sea (east) 7 cataracts (South)

3 Ancient Egyptian Religion Polytheistic Gods controlled Nature Gods had the power of life Death The dead live West of the Nile Pyramids Sarcophagus Mummification for upper class Cremation for lower class

4 4 Egyptian gods to Know Amon - Re = Chief god and god of the Sun Osiris = son of Amon, god of the Nile, judge of the dead Set = second son of Amon, god of the afterlife Isis = wife to Osiris, goddess of fertility Amon-Re

5 Kingdoms of Egypt o 3000 B.C.E. King Menes unites upper/lower Nile kingdoms o Old Kingdom = 2700B.C.E B.C.E o Middle Kingdom = 2050 B.C.E B.C.E o New Kingdom = 1570 B.C.E.-1090B.C.E.

6 OLD Kingdom BCE This is the development stage for the Egyptians Pharaoh The Great House Priest/King His Power is absolute Establishment of Dynasties or ruling Families

7 Middle Kingdom BCE The Dynasty of the Middle Kingdom were more interested in the common people. They undertook several infrastructural projects, Draining the Nile swamplands Digging a canal to connect Nile to the red sea. They built the Temples of Luxor and Karnak as well as the new capital city of Thebes on the East Side of the Nile Expanded the borders and economic trade

8 New Kingdom BCE The age of Empire

9 Empire Building During the New Kingdom, Egyptian power reached its peak. Because of the increased wealth and political expansion, this period is also called The Empire Age.

10 First Woman Ruler Queen Hatshepsut ( BCE) Ruled for 22 years Administered an efficient Government Sent a trading expedition south into Somalia that was so successful it is recorded on her Temple near Thebes It is also believed that she is the Daughter of Pharaoh that saved Moses

11 Amenhotep II Pharaoh of the EXODUS! ( BCE)

12 The Boy Pharaoh Tutankhamon ( ) Was eight years old when he inherits the throne Died at the age of 19.

13 The Last Great Ruler of the New Kingdom Ramses II( BCE) Was the Greatest Pharaoh of Egypt. He was an original thinker and a strong, practical ruler. Ramses II succeeded for nearly 67 years in ruling Egypt. He was responsible for much of the construction at Laxer's funeral temple at Thebes.. After campaigns against the Hittites, Ramses II made a treaty with the Hittites, and married a Hittite princess. They had a son together named Merneptha. When Ramses II died, there was a problem during the mummification process. They did not remove his brain!

14 Decline of Egyptian Power After Ramese II died Egyptian power slowly declined. By 1090 BCE civil war left Egypt to weak to defeat a stream of invaders. First the Sea Peoples maybe from the Islands of the Aegean Sea. Then the Assyrians and the Persians. In 331 BCE Alexander the Great occupied Egypt. In 30 BCE The Romans would make Egypt a province of their empire.

15 The Written Language of the Egyptians Hieroglyphics= A standardized form of Picto-grams The Rosetta Stone = a red colored stone discovered in 1799 that unlocked the hieroglyphic language Papyrus = a type of paper made from the reeds of the Nile delta

16 Social Classes The Pharaoh living in Great splendor at the top. Under the Pharaoh, is the Ruling Class, made up of Priest then Nobles. The Middle Class, merchants, physicians, teachers, skilled workers Peasants and Slaves

17 Women and Education Women in Egypt Women enjoyed a relatively high status. They could buy and sell property and testify in court Property descended through the female line The roles of Wife and Mother were greatly esteemed. They were considered the property of their Husband Education Schools were first introduced to train Priest. As the civilization became more complex, the temple schools provided general education for sons of the wealthy. Sometimes, even girls were educated! Generally they were taught the skills they would need to be good wives and mothers at home not at the temple.

18 Scientific Accomplishments Advanced Mathematics Method of land Surveying Astronomy 365 day, 12 month calendar Engineering techniques for large projects Set bones and performed Brain surgery

19 THE END! Until NEXT TIME!!

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