1 An Overview of Environmental Ethics With a focus on Ecotourism and an introduction to Florida SEE Kathy Hill Florida Society for Ethical Ecotourism
2 Outline: What are environmental ethics? Defining ethical ecotourism Who is the ecotraveler? About Florida Society for Ethical Ecotourism (FL SEE) FL SEE Certification Program Photo Credit: IRLNEP
3 Environmental Ethics: Distinguishes between a thing s instrumental value to man and its intrinsic value. We can all agree perhaps that to pollute the environment is morally wrong. But, is it wrong because a sustainable environment is essential to the well being of present and future humans? Or, is it wrong because the natural environment, with all of its living and non-living components, has value in its own right, independent of its value to humans? Cleveland s Cuyahoga River on fire in 1969, EPA Photo Morning smog in New York City, 1970
4 Environmental Ethics: Traditional western ethics are strictly human-centered: All aspects of nature exist solely to serve human needs. Nature has made all things specifically for the sake of man Aristotle, in Politics "If a man shoots his dog because the animal is no longer capable of service, he does not fail in his duty to the dog... but his act is inhuman and damages in himself that humanity which it is his duty to show towards mankind for he who is cruel to animals becomes hard also in his dealing with men. Immanuel Kant, in Lectures on Ethics
5 Environmental Ethics: Environmental ethics considers the moral relationship between humans and the environment. It assumes that human beings have a responsibility to other living things and the natural world. That land is a community is the basic concept of ecology, but that land is to be loved and respected is an extension of ethics. Aldo Leopold: A Sand County Almanac, 1949
6 Environmental Ethics: Environmental ethics considers the moral relationship between humans and the environment. It assumes that human beings have a responsibility to other living things and the natural world. The control of nature is a phrase conceived in arrogance, born of the Neanderthal age of biology and the convenience of man Rachel Carson, The Silent Spring (1962)
7 Environmental Ethics: Environmental ethics considers the moral relationship between humans and the environment. It assumes that human beings have a responsibility to other living things and the natural world. Every component of the Earth Community has three rights: The Right To Be, The Right to Habitat, The Right to fulfill its role in the everrenewing processes of the earth community. Thomas Berry, Evening Thoughts: Reflecting on Earth as Sacred Community (2006)
8 Environmental Ethics: Though rooted in 19 th century Europe, environmental ethics became widely popular and accepted in the U.S. beginning with the First Earth Day in University of Wisconsin Smithsonian Archives
9 Environmental Ethics: Ecology flag symbol is an E and an O for Ecology and Organism first created in Look magazine used the Greek Theta symbol in their April 1970 issue to signify death caused by human threats to the environment.
10 Environmental Ethics: Since then, a movement has begun to grant legal standing to species, water, and other elements of the environment Global Exchange, the Council of Canadians and Fundacion Pachamama
11 So What Does This Have To Do With Ecotourism? The conservation movement, cultural shift toward sustainability, and wider respect for nature has had an effect on the way that people travel and led to the popularization of ecotourism. But, pinning down exactly what ecotourism is has been surprisingly difficult: Sustainable Tourism Ecotourism can be all of these things
12 Defining Ecotourism: At its most basic, ecotourism meets three basic criteria: Provides for environmental conservation Includes meaningful community participation Is profitable and self-sustaining PLANET PEOPLE PROFIT
13 So What Does This Have To Do With Ecotourism? Ecotourism At the intersection of people, profit and planet is sustainability and the space where ecotourism is properly placed
14 Defining Ecotourism: There is no single, agreed upon, definition of ecotourism ; however, the one that has gained the most acceptance is from The International Ecotourism Society (TIES): Ecotourism is: Responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the welfare of local people.
15 Principles of Ecotourism: Ecotourism is about uniting conservation, communities, and sustainable travel. This means that those who implement and participate in ecotourism activities should follow several basic principles: Minimizing impact. Building environmental and cultural awareness and respect. Providing positive, authentic experiences for both visitors and hosts. Providing direct financial benefits for conservation. Providing financial benefits and empowerment for local people. Raising sensitivity to a region's political, environmental, and social climate.
16 Principles of Ecotourism Done well, ecotourism helps protect natural areas and cultural heritage by providing economic incentives for sustainable development Ecotourism returns as much as 95% of revenues to the local economy, compared to only about 20% for standard allinclusive package tours And, it enriches personal experiences and environmental awareness, imparting a greater understanding of nature and local cultures. The Center for Responsible Travel (CREST); Trends and Statistics Fact Sheet
17 Ecotourism Benefits: Conservation provides the moral authority for ecotourism efforts and the basis for longterm economic stability. [WRI] World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C. Ecotourism can provide salvation for some of the world's most endangered ecosystems and opportunities to develop sustainable economic strategies instead of pursuing environmentally damaging patterns of resource use. Ecotourism: the Promise and Perils of Environmentally- Oriented Travel by Heather Lindsay
18 Ecotourism Benefits: Prioritizing conservation over short-term profit is at the heart of ecotourism and sustainable development efforts. But, it can be difficult to prioritize conservation issues ahead of the needs of people that must subsist in a short-term, unstable economy.
19 A Case in Point: Shark Tourism in Palau Palau is one of the wealthier Micronesian states, with annual incomes of about $9,000 due primarily to tourism. It contains a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is one of the Pacific s biodiversity hotspots. Palau has contracts with Japanese and Taiwanese long-line commercial fishers, among others. Local fishermen augment their incomes by shark finning.
20 A Case Study: Shark Tourism in Palau Shark fins are one of the words most valuable foods bringing over $700 per Kg. Fishermen receive approximately $100 for the dorsal and pectoral fins from an individual shark a very lucrative payout. Worldwide, as many as 73 million sharks are killed for their fins each year. In some areas, the shark population has decreased more than 90%, with devastating effects to reefs.
21 A Case Study: Shark Tourism in Palau Beginning around 2001, the first conservation organizations in Palau recognized the damage being done to shark populations and biodiversity in the islands and set about raising awareness, lobbying to end shark finning and for the creation of a marine sanctuary in Palau.
22 A live shark is worth MUCH more than a dead one. Palau s tourism study calculated that an individual reef shark had an estimated lifetime value of $1.9 Million to the local tourism industry, compared to just $108 market value as shark fins when it is caught and killed. (In the Bahamas, shark tourism is now valued at $78 Million annually.) Photographer Jay Castellano, Tiger Beach, Bahamas
23 The Economic Case for Shark Conservation: Pew Charitable Trusts Shark-related tourism attracts approximately 590,000 tourists to 29 countries that support shark tourism, creating about 10,000 jobs. Shark tourism benefits shark populations, local communities, countries, and the tourists who view the animals in their natural habitat.
24 A Case Study: Shark Tourism in Palau
25 Ecotourism Pitfalls: Not all operations claiming to be green actually are. In many areas, ecotour operations are owned by foreign corporations, so there may be little benefit to local people, despite environmental and cultural impacts from additional tourism visits. When new conservation efforts do get implemented (i.e., fishing limits, habitat protections, etc.), local people may resent them because they view policies as benefitting others but not themselves. Natural areas may not be optimally managed, receive too many visitors, and may still be degraded by tourism operations
26 Who is the Ecotourist? Ecotravelers seek out authentic experiences in nature that lead to a deeper understanding, appreciation and enjoyment of the environments and cultures they visit. Eco-travelers understand the connection between conservation and tourism. They have tremendous impact on the tourism industry by choosing to travel responsibly. Ecotourists tend to be better informed and have greater expectations. Sustainability is mainstream for most ecotourists.
27 Some Statistics: 62% say its important they learn about cultures they visit 52% seek destinations with a wide variety of activities and events 30% would choose a destination because it is considered eco-friendly 93% say travel companies should be responsible in protecting the environments they operate in 75% say hotel s environmental policies are important to their stay 47% of Conde Nast Traveler readers were interested in voluntourism vacations
28 Florida Ecotourism: Outdoor recreation in the U.S. contributes $730 Billion in economic benefits to local economies and supports 6.5 million jobs. In 2010, Florida s 12 national parks attracted over 9 million visitors and provided over $552 Billion in economic benefits. In 2011, Florida s 160 state parks attracted over 20 million visitors and provided over $967 Million in economic benefits.
29 Florida Society for Ethical Ecotourism: Is a non-profit educational organization dedicated to maintaining a professional code of ecotourism ethics in order to encourage an awareness and stewardship of Florida's natural and cultural heritage by: 1. Endorsing compliance with federal, state, and local laws regarding the protection of natural resources and customer safety. 2. Providing environmental education and awareness which encourage behaviors that contribute to the sustainability of Florida's natural ecosystems and resources. 3. Promoting professionalism and integrity within the ecotourism industry by providing and maintaining a certification/recognition program for ecotour providers.
30 Florida SEE Educational Programs:
31 Florida SEE Certification Program: Certification programs are a point of reference to help distinguish genuinely responsible companies, products, or services from those that are merely using "eco-" or "sustainable" as a marketing tool to attract consumers. Certification sets standards and helps distinguish genuine ecotourism operations from others making empty claims, helping to protect the integrity of the ecotour industry. Certification helps businesses improve their operations, weigh their offerings against industry peers, and focus attention on changes needed to make companies operate ethically and efficiently to attract more clients.
32 Florida SEE Certification Program: For tourists, certification provides environmentally and socially responsible options consumers know which businesses are in alignment with their sustainable lifestyles and ideals Certification increases public awareness of responsible and sustainable business practices Certification can help alert tourists to social and environmental issues in the areas they are visiting Certified businesses tend to offer better quality of service
33 Florida SEE Certification Program: Certify ethical and responsible ecotour providers who contribute to the environmental, social and economic sustainability of Florida. Certified members are recognized as preferred service providers who provide quality ecotour experiences AND are committed to best practices for ecological sustainability and natural areas management.
34 Florida SEE Certification Program: Utilizes a checklist tool that is completed by the Ecotour Provider and Florida SEE. Designed as an objective measurement tool of applicable laws and industry best practices. Applicants complete a self assessment of 122 core requirements and 114 bonus criteria.
35 Florida SEE Certification Program: Ecotour providers meeting all applicable core requirements are visited anonymously by a FL SEE trained assessor to review at least 30% of their tours
36 Florida SEE Certification Program: The Florida SEE Certified logo insures that ecotravelers have chosen a Certified Ecotour Provider who supports and implements best practices and principles of ecotourism.
37 Florida SEE Certification Program: 4 levels of certification are available: Bronze : Provider meets all applicable core criteria Silver: Provider meets all applicable core criteria plus 50% - 74% of bonus criteria Gold: Provider meets all applicable core criteria plus 75% - 89% of bonus criteria Platinum: Provider meets all applicable core criteria plus 90% - 100% of bonus criteria
38 Get involved with SEE: Florida SEE invites anyone with an interest in ethical ecotourism to join our organization. Educational workshops Assessor Training Annual Meeting Photo Credit: IRLNEP SAVE THE DATE: Annual meeting will take place June in Charlotte County, just north of Fort Myers, on the west coast.
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