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1 BEAR WISE A?Are Are you BEAR WISE? Click anywhere to begin

2 BEAR WISE Are You BEAR WISE? Queen s Printer for Ontario, 2005 An ebook publication of the Government of Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources 300 Water Street, P.O. Box 7000 Peterborough, Ontario, Canada K9J 8M5 National Library of Canada Cataloguing in Publication ISBN (Internet) Are you Bear Wise? Click anywhere to continue 1

3 BEAR WISE Using this ebook Click here to continue TURNING PAGES go to ebook page: first / previous / next / last TURNING PAGES: JUMP TO ANY PAGE FROM ANYWHERE Click on the Table of Contents or on any bookmark to jump to any page on the list UPDATE LINKS This ebook requires QuickTime and Acrobat Reader v.6 or higher to run embedded movies and sound clips help TURNING PAGES go to ebook page: first / previous / next / last enlarge / reduce page size TURNING PAGES use green arrows to return to pages you most recently visited move the MORE cursor over INFO bear button for more information TURNING PAGES use scroll bar (at right) use arrows (lower right) click arrows (below): previous page Table of contents click arrow button to jump to a link next page last page 2 Adobe product screen shot reprinted with permission from Adobe Systems Incorporated.

4 BEAR WISE Table of Contents 1 ABOUT BEARS Are you BEAR WISE? What is a bear? Black bear facts What about black bear cubs? Where do black bears live? What do black bears do? What do black bears eat? ALL 4 PARTS ARE AVAILABLE AT THE ONTARIO MNR WEBSITE [CLICK HERE] 2 HUMAN BEAR CONFLICTS When does a bear become a problem? What can I do? Does your garbage attract bears? Does your compost attract bears? Does your birdfeeder attract bears? Does your barbeque attract bears? What you can do helpful tips What should I do if I see a bear? 3 BEAR FUN & PUZZLES Question & Answer Quiz Crossword Puzzle Word Search Word Scramble Bear Math Quiz Story Time Checklist: what attracts a bear? 4 THE BEAR DEN Fact sheets Black bear links Bear books Acknowledgements BEAR WISE fridge magnet Appendix: Parent/teacher resources Click on PAGE TITLE above to jump to page OR click on BOOKMARKS (left of screen) OR use these ARROWS 3

5 BEAR WISE THE BEAR DEN 43

6 BEAR WISE Communities can play a vital role in preventing Ontario s black bears from becoming problem bears, simply by applying some basic steps in the way garbage is collected and stored and how landfill sites are managed. Here are some examples of how your community can get started. In an immediate emergency call your local police or 911. To report bear problems call: ( BEAR) TTY For more information, visit our website: bears.mnr.gov.on.ca BEAR WISE Be Bear Wise: Involve your community. Help keep bears in the wild. Ministry of Natural Resources What your community can do: Your community can play a vital role in preventing human-bear conflicts. Get involved in the Bear Wise program Conduct a bear hazard assessment to identify potential problem areas Develop a plan to reduce human-bear conflicts Review future development plans relative to greenspace Provide a regular garbage collection schedule Properly manage landfill sites Install electric fencing around landfill sites Provide bear-proof containers for community parks and streets Implement policies and procedures to ensure residents and businesses are not attracting bears to the community Turning pages To return to this page after visiting the links listed here, please use bookmarks (left) or green arrows (below). BEAR WISE: The fact sheets Fact Sheets published by OMNR: Be Bear Wise: Admire them. Respect them. But please, don t feed them. What you can do What your community can do What campers can do What cottagers can do What farmers can do What your food business can do Bears in your schoolyard: elementary schools Bears in your schoolyard: secondary schools 44

7 BEAR WISE Black bear links Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources BEAR WISE Homepage bears.mnr.gov.on.ca/ If your computer is already connected to the web, click on the links (above right) and connect right away. Bear Aware British Columbia Wildlife Research Institute North American Bear Centre Jennifer Jones Whistler Bear Society British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection wlapwww.gov.bc.ca/wld/bearsmart/bearsmintro.html The American Bear Association 45

8 BEAR WISE Learn more about black bears! BOOKS The Great American Bear. By Jeff Fair, NorthWord Press, Inc A thorough natural history account of the life of the American black bear with superb photographs. Bears: Monarchs of the Northern Wilderness. By Wayne Lynch, Greystone Books, A comprehensive and authoritative account of the annual cycle of the polar bear, brown bear, American black bear and Asiatic black bear with award-winning photographs. Bears: Majestic Creatures of the Wild. Edited by Ian Stirling, Rodale Press, Inc Edited by one of the top polar bear researchers in the world and with contributed chapters by other top researchers this is an exhaustive review of all aspects of the biology of bears. Superb photographs. Wild Furbearer Management and Conservation in North America (book), 1999 (CD). Edited by Milan Novak, James A. Baker, Martyn E. Obbard, Bruce Malloch. One of the definitive works on the subject: detailed descriptions about animal biology and behaviours, with extensive bibliographies of scientific studies. 46

9 BEAR WISE Contact your local Ministry of Natural Resources office for more information. Ask for a BEAR WISE magnet while supplies last! BEAR WISE Don t Feed the Bears In an immediate emergency call your local police or 911 To report bear problems call: ( BEAR) bears.mnr.gov.on.ca the BEAR WISE magnet artwork 47

10 BEAR WISE Acknowledgements For more information about the BEAR WISE Program, please contact your local Ministry of Natural Resources office or visit our web site at: bears.mnr.gov.on.ca 48 The following individuals developed the BEAR WISE ebook for the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources: Christopher Lemieux Communications Specialist, OMNR Martyn Obbard Research Scientist, OMNR Brian Dench ebook design & assembly JD Taylor Photographer Shayna LaBelle-Beadman Artist Valuable input and comments were provided by the following individuals: Helen Ambrose, Communications Services Branch, OMNR Craig Greenwood, Sr. Project Manager BEAR WISE, OMNR Michael H. Gatt, A/Large Carnivore Biologist, OMNR Heather Bickle, Web Developer, OMNR Kathy McPherson, Natural Heritage Education Coordinator, Ontario Parks The Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources wishes to recognize the contribution to the ebook by: The Lake Superior First Nations Development Trust, Thunder Bay, ON

11 BEAR WISE 4? Are you BEAR WISE? bears.mnr.gov.on.ca

12 BEAR WISE Appendix PARENT / TEACHER RESOURCES

13 BEAR WISE Parent/Teacher Resources FACT SHEETS What you can do What your community can do What campers can do What cottagers can do What farmers can do What your food business can do Bears in your schoolyard: elementary schools Bears in your schoolyard: secondary schools PUZZLE ANSWERS Quiz Q&A Crossword Word Search Word Scramble Bear Math A CERTIFICATE To acknowledge participation TECHNICAL NOTE A thorough briefing on black bears on Ontario, prepared by Northeast Science & Technology, Science Development & Transfer Branch, Science & Information Resources Division, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources

14 B E A R W I S E Be Bear Wise: Admire them. Respect them. But please, don t feed them. You may not even know you're doing it. Simply by leaving pet food out at night, leaving food residue on your barbecue grill, or especially if your household garbage is stored in easy to open bags or in poorly sealed containers, you could be inviting bears to forage for leftovers. In an immediate emergency call your local police or 911. To report bear problems call: ( BEAR) TTY For more information, visit our website: bears.mnr.gov.on.ca What you can do: Put garbage out on the morning of garbage day, and not the night before Do not leave pet food outdoors Thoroughly clean outdoor barbeque grills after use Fill bird feeders only through the winter months Do not put meat, fish or sweet food (including fruit) in your composter Keep meat scraps in the freezer until garbage day Pick all ripe fruit off trees, and remove vegetables and fallen fruit from the ground Use electric fencing to protect valuable trees, orchards, vegetable and berry patches Ministry of Natural Resources

15 B E A R W I S E Be Bear Wise: Involve your community. Help keep bears in the wild. Communities can play a vital role in preventing Ontario s black bears from becoming problem bears, simply by applying some basic steps in the way garbage is collected and stored and how landfill sites are managed. Here are some examples of how your community can get started. In an immediate emergency call your local police or 911. To report bear problems call: ( BEAR) TTY For more information, visit our website: bears.mnr.gov.on.ca What your community can do: Your community can play a vital role in preventing human-bear conflicts. Get involved in the Bear Wise program Conduct a bear hazard assessment to identify potential problem areas Develop a plan to reduce human-bear conflicts Review future development plans relative to greenspace Provide a regular garbage collection schedule Properly manage landfill sites Install electric fencing around landfill sites Provide bear-proof containers for community parks and streets Implement policies and procedures to ensure residents and businesses are not attracting bears to the community Ministry of Natural Resources

16 B E A R W I S E Be Bear Wise: Prepare and be aware at your campsite. When enjoying Ontario s campsites, lakes, forests and hiking trails, it s wise to remember that you re in the natural habitat of black bears. Bears have a keen sense of smell, and are attracted by the odour of human food and garbage. To avoid conflicts with bears, prepare and be aware. In an immediate emergency call your local police or 911. To report bear problems call: ( BEAR) TTY For more information, visit our website: bears.mnr.gov.on.ca What campers can do: Reduce or eliminate odours from yourself, your camp, your clothes and your vehicle Cook and store your food well away from your tent site Clean fish and store food remains away from your campsite Burn food scraps and fat drippings thoroughly in a fire Never cook, eat or store food in your tent this includes snacks Store food so that bears cannot reach it in the trunk of your car or hanging at least 4 metres (13 feet) above the ground Sleep in clothes other than those you have cooked in Properly store and pack all garbage Handle and store pet food with as much care as you do your own Ministry of Natural Resources

17 B E A R W I S E Be Bear Wise: Don t invite bears to the cottage. Most problems between bears and humans occur when black bears are attracted by the smell of food or garbage. When their keen noses pick up the scent, bears will venture onto cottage properties to forage for an easy meal. Here are tips to help avoid these unwanted visitors. In an immediate emergency call your local police or 911. To report bear problems call: ( BEAR) TTY For more information, visit our website: bears.mnr.gov.on.ca What cottagers can do: If you have garbage collection, put garbage out on the morning of garbage day, and not the night before Do not leave pet food outdoors Thoroughly clean outdoor barbeque grills after use Fill bird feeders only through the winter months Do not put meat, fish or sweet food (including fruit) in your composter Keep meat scraps in the freezer until garbage day Pick all ripe fruit off trees, and remove vegetables and fallen fruit from the ground Use electric fencing to protect valuable trees, orchards, vegetable and berry patches Ministry of Natural Resources

18 B E A R W I S E Black Bears: Keep them off the farm. As an experienced farmer, you are more likely than most Ontarians to be aware of bears and their behaviour. You know that black bears often approach farm properties to find food, especially when their natural food sources are scarce. There are several things you can do to keep bears away from your farm so the use of firearms becomes a last resort. In an immediate emergency call your local police or 911. If you have shot a bear, contact your local MNR office by the next business day. To report general bear problems, call: ( BEAR) TTY For more information, visit our website: bears.mnr.gov.on.ca Reduce bear attractants: Pick all ripe fruit off trees and remove vegetables and fallen fruit from the ground Use electric fencing around orchards, beehives and vegetables and berry patches, or between grain crops and adjacent forest areas Install electric fences before bears become a problem. Electric fencing only works if it is operating before bears become food conditioned Keep your livestock away from forests and bear travel routes Ensure that your calving area is located in an open space away from forest cover Develop a network with your neighbors to help keep each other informed about bears in your area Ministry of Natural Resources

19 B E A R W I S E Be Bear Wise: Bears love fast food and leftovers. Food service operations such as restaurants, fast-food establishments and highway snack bars often have substantial amounts of garbage behind their buildings, or stored nearby. Black bears are attracted to the smell of human food and garbage, and often come around, foraging for an easy meal. It s wise to take steps to help prevent this from happening. In an immediate emergency call your local police or 911. To report bear problems call: ( BEAR) TTY For more information, visit our website: bears.mnr.gov.on.ca What your food business can do: Empty garbage containers frequently Use bear-proof containers wherever possible Lock dumpster lids every night During early spring and late fall, keep garbage behind closed doors in a garage, basement or storage area Put garbage out on the morning of collection day, not the night before Avoid stockpiling garbage. This is a sure way to attract bears If your business takes its own garbage to the dump, make sure that it is stored behind securely closed doors and take it to the dump frequently Clean your garbage containers frequently and thoroughly. Use disinfectant to eliminate odours Ministry of Natural Resources

20 B E A R W I S E Bears in your schoolyard. What you can do. 1 3 If you see a bear on or around school property: GO INSIDE the school right away TELL the first adult you see If the bear MOVES TOWARD you: SLOWLY BACK AWAY toward the school while MAKING NOISE YELL at the bear to GO AWAY! DO NOT play dead DO NOT turn and run GET INSIDE the school as soon as you can, without running TELL the first adult you see 2 If the bear sees YOU: 4 Help keep bears away: DON T APPROACH the bear SLOWLY BACK AWAY toward the school REMOVE and drop your backpack if it contains food TELL the first adult you see Keep your lunch inside the school Do not leave food, wrappings or lunch bags in the schoolyard. Take them inside the school to throw away Tell your teacher if you see food or garbage left in open bins or in the schoolyard To report bear problems call: ( BEAR) Ministry of Natural Resources

21 B E A R W I S E Bear Basics Black bears are large, powerful animals. Adult males can weigh between kilograms (kg) ( lbs). Adult females can weigh between kg ( lbs). Most black bears in Ontario have black fur, but a few can be dark brown to light brown. In Ontario, black bears live in forests from Lake Ontario in the south to Hudson Bay in the north. Black bears are omnivores. They eat both plants and animals; anything that is easy to get at. In Ontario, black bears feed from the middle of April until late fall. In the fall, black bears eat for up to 20 hours a day! They like raspberries, blueberries, acorns and the nuts of the beech tree. Artist: Shayna LaBelle-Beadman OMNR If black bears cannot find natural foods, they will travel up to 100 kilometers (km) to find other food, including our garbage! They can double their body weight getting ready for winter. By early November, most black bears move into their dens for the winter. Black bears are not usually dangerous animals. Admire them. Respect them. But please, don t feed them. Artist: Shayna LaBelle-Beadman OMNR Illustrations by Shayna LaBelle-Beadman from Nuisance black bears and what to do with them, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Northeast Sciences & Technology. TN-017, 2000 Queen s Printer for Ontario. Ministry of Natural Resources

22 B E A R W I S E Bears in your schoolyard. What you can do. 1 3 If you see a bear on or around school property: GO INSIDE the school right away TELL the first adult you see If the bear MOVES TOWARD you: SLOWLY BACK AWAY toward the school while MAKING NOISE YELL at the bear to GO AWAY! DO NOT play dead DO NOT turn and run GET INSIDE the school as soon as you can, without running TELL the first adult you see 2 If the bear sees YOU: 4 Help keep bears away: DON T APPROACH the bear SLOWLY BACK AWAY toward the school REMOVE and drop your backpack if it contains food TELL the first adult you see Keep your lunch inside the school Do not leave food, wrappings or lunch bags in the schoolyard. Take them inside the school to throw away Tell your teacher if you see food or garbage left in open bins or in the schoolyard To report bear problems call: ( BEAR) Ministry of Natural Resources

23 B E A R W I S E The Bear Essentials: Black Bear Biology Description Black bears are large, powerful animals. Adult males can weigh between kilograms (kg) ( lbs). Adult females are smaller but they can weigh between kg ( lbs). Most black bears in Ontario have a black coat, although a small proportion has dark brown to light brown coats. Distribution and habitat Black bears primarily live in forested areas throughout most of Ontario, from close to Lake Ontario in the south to the Hudson Bay coast in the north. Home ranges of adult female bears average 15 to 25 square kilometres (km). An adult male s home range can be 10 times the size of the female s. Diet Black bears are omnivores (they eat both plants and animals), but most of their diet is plant material. They actively feed from mid-april to late fall in most parts of the province. They feed on berry crops such as raspberries and blueberries in the summer, as well as mountain ash, acorns and beech nuts in the fall. In late summer and early fall, when food is abundant, bears actively feed for 20 hours a day and can double their weight by fall. If natural foods are not readily available, black bears will travel up to 100 km to find other food, including our garbage. Life history Artist: Shayna LaBelle-Beadman OMNR Black bears typically mate during the months of June and July. Female black bears in Ontario may produce their first litter at six years of age. A litter usually contains either two or three cubs. Female black bears are more aggressive when they have cubs. In northern Ontario, most black bears move into their winter dens by mid-october. In central Ontario, bears usually enter their dens by early November. Black bears are not normally dangerous animals. Admire them. Respect them. But please, don t feed them. Illustration by Shayna LaBelle-Beadman from Nuisance black bears and what to do with them, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Northeast Sciences & Technology. TN-017, 2000 Queen s Printer for Ontario. Ministry of Natural Resources

24 Nuisance Black Bears and What to do With Them NEST Technical Note TN-017, December 2000 by L.J. Landriault, M.E. Obbard and W.J. Rettie Black bears are common in parts of Ontario and this invariably leads to interaction with humans, particularly when the animals grow accustomed to finding food in populated areas, around cottages and homes. This technical note provides valuable information for provincial and local police forces, bear control agents, and municipalities in planning for and dealing with black bears that have become a nuisance to the public. We begin by providing background information on bear ecology and behaviour, and then discuss the methods currently available for solving nuisance bear problems. The note concludes with a discussion of the role of the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (MNR) and the legislation and policies that apply to nuisance bear management in Ontario. A laminated insert is included as a quick reference for some of the key information. Black Bear Ecology Description Black bears are large, heavily boned mammals. Adult males weigh from 120 kg to 300 kg (250 to 650 lbs.), and are 130 to 190 cm (4 to 6 feet) in length from the tip of the nose to the tip of the tail. Adult females are smaller, weighing from 45 to 180 kg (100 to 400 lbs.) and measuring 110 to 170 cm (31/2 to 51/2 feet) in length. Adult females reach maximum height and length at about five years of age. Adult males reach their maximum height and length when they are seven or eight years old.

25 BEAR WISE BEAR WISE FUN & PUZZLES Bear Word Search 2 1 Bear Word Scramble Quiz Bear Math Quiz Bear Crossword Puzzle Bear Story Challenge 32

26 1 BEAR WISE Q While preparing for hibernation, bears may spend up to how many hours per day searching for food? a) 2 hours? b) 6 hours? c) 12 hours? d) 20 hours? 2 Q& A Q Bears will travel up to how many kilometers to find food? a) 20 kilometers b) 40 kilometers c) 100 kilometers d) 600 kilometers Question & Answer Quiz 1 2 Q Q 3 What should you avoid placing in a 4 compost pile to prevent the bears from being attracted: a) meat, b) dairy products, c) fish, or d) all of the above Common yard items that might attract bears are: a) garbage cans, b) barbeques, c) compost piles, d) birdfeeders, or e) all of the above Ad) 20 HOURS Because bears need to gain weight before the winter, they spend most of their day eating during the fall months. A c) 100 A d) ALL OF THE A KILOMETERS ABOVE e) ALL OF THE ABOVE Bears are Bears have a strong desire to find food and will travel great distances. Keeping your compost pile free of meat, fish, and diary products will make it less attractive as a food source. attracted to many things around our homes, including garbage, compost, barbeques, and birdfeeders. 33

27 BEAR WISE Q& A 1 2 Question & Answer Quiz Q 5 Ontario s black bears are large and powerful animals that can weigh up to a) 10 kg (22 lb) b) 100 kg (220 lb) c) 200 kg (440 lb) d) 280 kg (617 lb) Q 6 If you see a bear, you should: a) remain calm b) drop any food you are carrying c) slowly back away d) make loud noises e) tell your neighbours f) all of the above Q 7 To reduce bear encounters near your home, hang birdfeeders only during: a) summer months b) autumn months c) winter months d) spring months 8 Q Bears that learn to associate food with people are called: a) hungry bears b) food-conditioned bears c) lazy bears d) humanconditioned bears A A A A d) 280 kg (617 lb) Male black bears f) ALL OF THE ABOVE is c) WINTER If you see a bear, it is MONTHS 34 typically weigh between 120 and 280 kg (264 and 617 lb). important to remain calm. Drop any food you have. Slowly back away do not run. Tell your neighbours there is a bear in the area. Call to report the bear problem. During winter months, bears are not attracted to birdfeeders because they are in their dens. b) Foodconditioned bears Problems are created when bears become foodconditioned and begin to think food is available from people.

28 BEAR WISE BEAR WISE Crossword: Answers C O M E A T B A R B E Q U E M G T P O W E R F U L O S T 8 G R B P L A N T S 5 R R 3 S M L L ACROSS 2 Compost bins should not contain MEAT products. 6 Left uncleaned, this will attract bears it is where you cook meat outdoors: BARBEQUE 7 Since bears are strong-muscled, they are POWERFUL. 8 Bears are omnivores and are attracted to both meat and _PLANTS_ for food. DOWN 1 This is the most common cause of human bear conflicts: GARBAGE 3 Bears find food using this sense: SMELL 4 Be sure that this has no dairy products in it as it can attract bears: COMPOST 5 If bears find food, they remember to _RETURN_ to the same food source again.

29 BEAR WISE BEAR WISE Word Crossword: Search: Answers 36 D B F K O F J I E K X K T A L P J F B A O S W N B H J A V F K S E P M A E E G H L P E R E B Y J D S T R O N G C A H C I G O H S X D J O P T G B H Y D R I U Z B Q W J U I O E D C N S E T L W D B A X C R E H J Y S D M L F A Q S I O S P C S D Y R D F O B A Y D O W E S U I C U V G J A F G H M D R F O R P E D T G R U A W F H U C X N S G K D E S W G N S O P F R E R L V X I S I E B S N J H I S X J U I P E S G T V D T R T T N J D F B L A C K G G S D B O N N U K D S A D H K M C Y F E N M N R R D A H U W E E R O P O D E H K E K I P E D L T N E D C S G M O J U N L V D F V G N P U S L X D G P L R E D O U A M K L D S E W R L B H O I O O P U G V C P O U L F D C H I N S S F G T S D F G S T G B D A B F D N T Q W E R A T Y U I O P A S D F R G H G J K L Z X N C V N M S D F G H J W G D P O U T R E R E W Q W L J H G F D J A E Z X C V B H E A V Y J P O G B H S S C H V G N H J L B P G B C X S E V G B N H Y W S I U O F I A X L T P O T R A M S C B H Y I O P S H X C P O Find these words that describe Ontario s black bears. Words might spell out vertically, horizontally, or diagonally, in either direction: OMNIVORE BLACK LARGE COMPOST FOREST DWELLING SCAVENGER CUBS HIBERNATOR DEN STRONG SMART HEAVY POWERFUL URSIDAE (the bear family) BEAR WISE PLANTIGRADE

30 37 BEAR WISE BEAR WISE Word Scramble: Answers HABITAT forested areas where bears live DANDELIONS A bear food more nutritious than spinach CUBS Baby bears HIBERNATE Bears go into dens in winter JANUARY The time of year when cubs are usually born in Ontario ANTS Bears get protein from eating these insects OMNIVORES they eat plant material and also eat meat RANGE Black bears prefer home, home on the range BROWN a small number of Ontario black bears are this colour GRUBS Bears dig for this living protein often found in or under logs CLOVER A plant that bears like to eat for the protein and the sweet flowers CLAWS On a bear, these are sharp and curved, and don t retract CLIMB TREES Cubs can do this very well at up to 10 feet per second! (2 words) HONEY A sweet food that bears like and they find protein in the same place FUR A bear s hair isn t hair BLUEBERRIES A patch of these offers a main meal in mid-late summer LARVAE A live food that bears really enjoy a good protein source SMELL This keen sense helps bears find food up to 2.4 kilometres (1.5 miles) away! HEARING This sense helps bears know when to run for cover NUTS a black bear s fall food favourite VERY HUNGRY You d be this, if you didn t eat for 7 or 8 months a year (2 words)

31 BEAR WISE BEAR WISE Math Answers Total weight is: 280 kg 616 lb 160 kg 352 lb 97 kg 214 lb 537 kg 1182 lb If your weight is X and if you weigh less than the bear, then subtract your weight from the bear s weight. The bear weighs kg - X =? (or 250 lb - X =?) more than you. 2 A 1 A Average weight is that total divided by the number of bears (3): 537 = 179 kg 1181 = 394 lb 3 3 Your weight as a fraction of that bear s weight is X divided by kg (or by 250 lb). For the percentage, multiply that fraction x A Calculate 1/4 of the average male weight: 179 / 4 = 44 3 /4 kg (or 394 / 4 = 98 1 /2 lb) Subtract that answer from the average male weight: /4 = /4 kg (or /2 = /2 lb) 38

32 BEAR WISE BEAR WISE Math Answers A Multiply the average daily weight gain by the number of days: A bear can gain 2.3 kg x 7=16.1 kg (5 x 7 = 35 lb) per week. If you had gained the same amount, add 16.1 kg (35 lb) to your weight. For your total after 3 weeks, add 16.1 x 3 = 48.3 kg (35 x 3 = 105 lb) to your original weight. 4 On an average day, the bear travelled the total 5 A number of km (mi) travelled, divided by the number of days: 220 / 9 = 24.4 km per day (135 /9 = 15 mi). In a week, it would travel the daily average times 7 (7 days in a week) = 24.4 x 7 = km (15 x 7 = 105 mi) In 2 weeks, the daily average times 14 = km (210 mi) The total weight gained in September (30 days) would be the daily average x 30: 2.2 x 30 = 66 kg (4.8 x 30 = 144 lb). Add that gain to the bear s original weight: = 156 kg ( = 342 lb.) Weight at the end weight at the start To calculate the percentages, multiply the fractions x 100: 172 % (approximately). 39

33 BEAR WISE BEAR WISE Math Answers To calculate the loss of onethird of the body weight: divide the weight by 3: 120 / 3 = 40 kg. (264 / 3 = 88 lb.) in the fall. A 7 November to April (the number of months) in the den is 6 months. A The percentage of the year is the bear in the den without food and water is six months out of 12 in a year: 6 x 100 = 50%. 12 To find the weight at the end of the winter, subtract that loss from the original weight: = 80 kg ( = 176 lb). A 8 To calculate 1/300th of 60 kg divide 60 by 300: 60/300 =.2 kg for 132 lb: 132/300 =.44 lb. To compare, divide your mother s weight by 300, and compare that to what you actually weighed. 6 40

34 BEAR WISE Certificate This is to certify that has satisfactorily completed the BEAR WISE ebook and is hereby awarded this BEAR WISE Certificate. Teacher / Parent Or Guardian